Participle I, the gerund and the verbal noun
The grammatical and semantic characteristics of participle I, the gerund and the verbal noun. The comparative analysis of participle I, the gerund and the verbal noun in the novel "Black Beauty. The Autobiography of a Horse" written by Ann Sewell.
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participle gerund verbal noun
1. The grammatical and semantic characteristics of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun
1.1 The usage and functions of Participle I
1.2 The usage and functions of the Gerund and the Verbal Noun
2. The comparative analysis of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in the novel “Black Beauty. The Autobiography of a Horse” by Ann Sewell
List of literature
One of the most striking features of modern English is the system of the non-finite forms of the verb. Their dual grammatical nature, both verbal and nominal (or adverbial-adjectival), and their wide use have been described in great detail by authors of scientific grammars. The reason of raising this problem is quite obvious and the ground is rather sound, since the outer structure of both is absolutely identical: they are outwardly the same when viewed in isolation.
The objective of our investigation is to study the usage of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in English language, to explain the difference and similarity between them.
For the achievement of the objective the following tasks have been put:
· to investigate the notion of the grammatical and syntactical categories of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun;
· to analyze different ways of their usage;
· to find the difference between them;
· to find the similarity between them;
· to analyze the usage of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in the practical part of our course-paper.
The object of our investigation is the process of the use of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in English language.
The subject of the research is the establishment of grammatical and semantic characteristics of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in the novel “Black Beauty. The Autobiography of a Horse” by Ann Sewell.
The material for the given investigation is the novel "Black Beauty. The Autobiography of a Horse” by Ann Sewell.
The methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison.
The theoretical significance of the course paper lies in revealing syntactical and grammatical peculiarities of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun. It gives deeper understanding of the grammatical functions of these parts of speech and provides skills of the application of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in literary English.
The practical significance consists in the fact that it helps the English language learner to overcome difficulties relating to the practical use of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun.
Our research work has the following structure.
Introduction grounds the actuality of the problem, the objective and tasks of the investigation, discovers its object and subject, the materials and methods used to achieve the objective and explains the structure of the research work.
Chapter I states theoretical preconditions of the investigation: it gives the general outlook of the use of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun; gives an analysis of the functions and usage of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun. In the theoretical part we analyzed the viewpoints of Ukrainian, Russian, English and American grammarians.
Chapter II contains the analysis of the usage of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in literary English done upon the basis of the novel "Black Beauty. The Autobiography of a Horse” by Ann Sewell.
Conclusions generalize the results of the investigation.
List of literature used in the research work.
1. The grammatical and semantic characteristics of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun
1.1 The usage and functions of Participle I
According to I.O. Alekseeva Participle I is a non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective and the verb. It denotes a quality resulting from an action. The form of Participle I ends in the suffix -ing and distinguishing the same grammatical categories of relative tense and voice. The term “present Participle” is used sometimes with the reference to Participle I, though the attribute “present” is forced by tradition. Participle I is characterized by what has been defined as relative tense, i.e. the form of the Participle I is determined by posteriority, simultaneity or anteriority of actions expressed by the finite verbs and Participle I in the sentence [1, p.135].
The Participle, true to its name, participates in the nature of an adjective and a verb. After a noun a Participle often forms with the words near it an attributive clause, in which the preceding noun serves as subject and the Participle as predicate. Here the Participle is not in a formal sense a predicate adjective after a finite copula or auxiliary, but predicates of itself, just like a finite verb.
e.g. It (the circus) was all one family - parents and children - performing in the open air [3, p.90].
A.J. Thomson defines the usage of the present Participle.
1. To form the continuous tenses:
e.g. He is working.
e.g. You have been dreaming.
e.g. She was playing in the garden yesterday.
2. As adjectives:
e.g. running water
e.g. floating wreckage
e.g. leaking pipes
3. After have + object:
e.g. He had me swimming in a week.
e.g. We have people standing on our steps all day.
4. A present Participle can sometimes replace a relative pronoun + verb:
e.g. a map that marks political boundaries = a map marking political boundaries
e.g. people who wish to visit caves = people wishing to visit caves
5. Present participle/ participle phrases such as adding/ pointing out/ reminding/ warning can introduce statements in indirect speech:
e.g. He told me to start early, reminding me that the roads would be crowded.
6. After the basic verbs of sensation see, hear, feel, smell, and the verbs listen (to), notice and watch:
e.g. I see him passing my house every day.
e.g. Did not you hear the clock striking?
e.g. She smelt something burning and saw smoke rising.
7. After catch/ find/ leave + object:
e.g. I caught them stealing my apples.
e.g. I left him talking to Bob.
The action expressed by the participle is always one which displeases the subject. But with find there is no feeling of displeasure:
e.g. I found him standing at the door.
8. After go, come, spend, waste, be busy:
e.g. They are going riding.
e.g. Come dancing.
e.g. He spends two hours travelling.
e.g. We wasted a whole day afternoon trying to repair the car.
e.g. She is busy packing.
9. When two actions by the same object occur simultaneously it is usually possible to express one of them by Participle I. The Participle can be before or after the finite verb:
e.g. He rode away. He whistled as he went. = He rode away whistling.
10. When one action is immediately followed by another by the same subject the first action can often be expressed by a Participle I. The Participle must be replaced first:
e.g. He opened the drawer and took out a revolver. = Opening the drawer he took out a revolver.
11. When the second action forms part of the first, or is a result of it, we can express the second action by a present Participle:
e.g. She went out, slamming the door [23, p.272-276].
The Participle I has the category of perfect and of voice. According to K.N. Kachalova the category of perfect in Participle I finds its expression in the contrast of the non-perfect and perfect forms.
The non-perfect form suggests that the action denoted by Participle I is simultaneous with that of the finite verb. Thus, the time-reference of the action expressed by Participle I can be understood only from the contex, that is it is not absolute, but relative.
e.g. Learning foreign languages you know your native tongue better.
Non-perfect Participle I regularly expresses immediate priority and denotes an instantaneous action if it is formed from terminative verbs, such as verbs of motion (to come, to enter, to arrive, to turn), of sense perception (to see, to hear, to find) and verbs of certain specific actions associated with motion (to put, to put on, to take off, to seize, to open).
e.g. Arriving at the station, he found his train gone.
e.g. Hearing a noise in the garden, I looked out of the window.
e.g. Taking off our shoes, we tiptoed into the nursery.
Non-perfect participle I may denote a posterior action, immediately following the first action, forming its part or being its result, as in:
e.g. John felt, hurting his knee.
The perfect form of Participle I indicates that the action denoted by the Participle is prior to that denoted by the finite verb.
e.g. Having learnt the elements of English I shall start upon French.
In both cases Participle I corresponds to the Ukrainian perfective adverbial participle “приїхавши”, “побачивши”, “знявши”, “написавши” [10, p.140-141].
The verbal character of Participle I is manifested morphologically in the category of voice, which is realized in the contrast of active and passive forms.
Participle I active denotes an action directed from the doer of the action while participle I passive denotes an action directed towards it.
e.g. Do you know the students translating the text? (active)
e.g. Have you read the text being translated by the students? (passive) [5, p.142].
Participle I performs the syntactical characteristic of the adjective and the adverb, and can therefore be used as attribute, predicative, or as adverbial modifier. It can be used also in the function of independent element.
When a participle is used as attribute it follows the modified noun. Its verbal character is evident from its verbal combinability and sometimes from the passive form itself. A participle phrase may be non-detached or detached.
e.g. We went along the street leading to the seashore.
e.g. Once a month Tommy, arriving separately, came in for a brief drink.
Participle I can function as adverbial modifier of different semantic types:
e.g. Returning to London, Arthur had thrown himself into the work. (of time)
e.g. Hoping to catch the rain, we took a taxi. (of reason)
e.g. Deb was silent, fidgeting with the spoon in her saucer. (of attendant circumstances)
e.g. He came in carrying a big parcel. (of manner)
e.g. As if obeying him, I turned and stared into his face. (of comparison)
e.g. Somebody was waiting: a man who, though moving irregularly, was making quite a speed in my direction. (of concession)
Participle I as predicative may be used with other link verbs, in which case it may keep its verbal character, as in:
e.g. Isadora remained standing.
The present Participle as parenthesis forms the headword of a participial phrase, the meaning of which is a comment upon the contents of the whole sentence or sometimes part of it.
e.g. Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed.
e.g. Strictly speaking, this is illegal [5, p.143-148; 2, p.234-236].
1.2 The usage and functions of the Gerund and the Verbal Noun
The Gerund was originally a verbal noun in -ing (until about 1250 also with the form -ung). Thus it differed from the present Participle in meaning, which was originally an adjective and until about the fourteenth century had a different ending, namely, -ende (or -inde, -ynde, -ande), so that the two suffixes were farther apart in form and meaning than they are today. The have both in course of time acquired more verbal force, but the Gerund is still a noun and the present Participle is still an adjective [8, p.91].
According to I.O. Alekseeva the Gerund is the most specific non-finite form of the verb in the English language. The formal sign of the Gerund is wholly homonymous with that of Participle I: it is the suffix -ing added to its grammatically leading element. The Gerund combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun. Similar to the Infinitive the Gerund serves as the verbal name of the process, but its substantival quality is more strongly pronounced than that of the Infinitive. Namely, as different from the Infinitive, and similar to the noun, the Gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or its pronominal equivalents (expressing the subject of the verbal process), and it can be used with prepositions [1, p.132-133].
The grammatical of the Gerund is that of a process. Thus to some extent it completes with nouns of verbal origin.
e.g. translating - translation describing - description
arriving - arrival helping - help
Nouns, however, tend to convey the fact or the result of an action, which in certain circumstances may be something material, whereas Gerunds convey the idea of an action or process itself. If the meaning of the Gerund is nearly the same as that of the noun, the former emphasizes the process, and the latter - the fact:
e.g. Thank you for helping me. - Thank you for your help [5, p.125].
According to K.N. Kachalova morphologically the verbal character of the Gerund is manifested in categories of voice and perfect and syntactically in its combinability.
The category of perfect finds its expression, as with other verb forms, in the contrast of non-perfect (indefinite) and perfect forms. The non-perfect Gerund denotes an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb. The perfect Gerund denotes an action prior to the action denoted by the finite verb.
e.g. He improved his pronunciation by listening to tape recordings. (non-perfect)
e.g. I regret having uttered these words. (perfect)
The Gerund of transitive verbs possesses voice distinctions. Like other verb forms, the active Gerund points out that the action is directed from the subject (whereas expressed or implied), whereas the passive Gerund indicates that the action is directed towards the subject.
e.g. I have interrupting people. (active)
e.g. I hate being interrupted. (passive)
The perfect passive Gerund is very rarely used. There are some verbs (to need, to want, to require, to deserve) and the adjective worth which are followed by an active Gerund with passive meaning.
e.g. Your hair needs cutting.
e.g. This house wants painting [5, p.128].
A.J. Thomson defines the usage of the Gerund.
1. When a verb is placed immediately after a preposition the gerund form must be used:
e.g. I have no objection to hearing your story again.
e.g. I'm not keen on gambling. I'm afraid of losing.
2. A number of verb + preposition/ adverb combinations take the gerund. The most common of these are be for/against, care for, give up, keen on, leave off, look forward to, put off, see about, take to:
e.g. I don't care for standing in queues.
e.g. Eventually the dogs left off barking.
e.g. I'm looking forward to meeting her.
3. After the verbs admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, finish, forgive, involve, keep (=continue), miss, postpone, practice, prevent, recollect, remember, resist, suggest, understand and some others:
e.g. He admitted taking the money.
e.g. You should avoid over-eating.
e.g. Would you consider selling the property?
e.g. Do you enjoy teaching?
e.g. He kept complaining.
4. After the verb mind is it is used chiefly in the interrogative and negative:
e.g. I don't mind walking.
5. After Would you mind? which is one of the most usual ways of expressing a request:
e.g. Would you mind not smoking?
6. The perfect Gerund is fairly used after deny:
He denied having been there [23, p.259-264].
The Gerund can perform any syntactical function typical of a noun, although in each case it has peculiarities of its own. It may function alone, without modifiers, or as the headword of a gerundial phrase, or as a part of a gerundial construction.
e.g. I like driving.
e.g. I like playing the piano.
e.g. I like John's paying the piano.
A gerundial phrase consists of a Gerund as headword and one or more words depending on it. A gerundial construction contains some nominal element denoting the doer of the action expressed by the Gerund and the Gerund itself with or without some other words depending on it. The nominal element can be a noun in the genitive case or a possessive pronoun (if it denotes a living being), or a noun in the common case (if it does not denote a living being).
e.g. I remember John's telling me that story once.
e.g. I remember the weather being extremely fine that summer [5, p.129].
Such authors as V.L. Kayshanskaya and K.N. Kachalova define the functions of the Gerund in the sentence.
1. As a rule the Gerund as subject stands in front position.
e.g. Talking mends no holes.
The Gerund used as a subject may follow the predicate; in these cases the sentence opens with the introductory it (which serves as an introductory subject) or with the construction there is.
e.g. It's no use talking like that to me.
e.g. There is no mistaking the expression on her face.
2. The Gerund can also be used as part of compound nominal predicate (predicative).
e.g. The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed.
3. The Gerund as part of a compound verbal predicate.
a) With verbs and verbal phrases denoting modality the Gerund forms the part of a compound verbal modal predicate:
e.g. Joseph could not help admiring the man.
b) With verbs denoting the beginning, the duration, or the end of an action, the Gerund forms the part of a compound verbal aspect predicate:
e.g. She began sobbing and weeping.
4. The Gerund may be used as a direct object and as a prepositional indirect object:
e.g. I simply love riding.
e.g. The times were good for building.
5. When used as an attribute, the Gerund modifies nouns, mainly abstract nouns. It is always preceded by a preposition, in the vast majority of cases by of.
e.g. Professor N spoke about new methods of teaching English to foreign students.
6. Owing to the variety of prepositions which may precede the Gerund in the function of an adverbial modifier, a Gerund may have different meanings.
a) As an adverbial modifier of time the Gerund is preceded by the preposition after, before, on (upon), in or at:
e.g. Upon walking I found myself much recovered.
b) As an adverbial modifier of manner the Gerund is used with the prepositions by or in:
e.g. She startled her father by bursting into tears.
c) As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the Gerund is preceded by the preposition without:
e.g. She was not active, but rather peaceful and statuesque without knowing it.
d) As an adverbial modifier of purpose, the Gerund in chiefly used with the preposition for:
e.g.... one side of the gallery was used for dancing.
e) As an adverbial modifier of condition the gerund is preceded by the preposition without:
e.g. He was no right to come bothering you and papa without being invited.
f) As an adverbial modifier of cause the Gerund is used with the prepositions for, for fear of, owing to:
e.g. I feel the better myself for having spent a good deal of my time abroad.
g) As an adverbial modifier of concession the Gerund is preceded by the preposition in spite of:
e.g. In spite of being busy, he did all he could do [9, p.130; 10, p.217-221].
In the English language besides the Gerund which is half-verb, half-noun, there is pure Verbal Noun ending in -ing. Although formed in the same way as the Gerund, the Verbal Noun is another part of speech and has no verbal features at all. L.M. Davydenko gives different functions of the Gerund and of the Verbal Noun.
1. Whereas the Gerund has no articles and no plural form, the Verbal Noun is used with articles and has plural form:
e.g. The settings of committee were over.
2. The Gerund is modified by an adverb:
e.g. Walking quickly is my habit.
The Verbal noun is modified by an adjective:
Her slow walking gets on my nerves.
3. The Gerund takes a direct object:
e.g. He avoided mentioning her name.
The Verbal Noun cannot take a direct object:
e.g. Even the mentioning of her name made him angry [6, p.108].
So, in this chapter we tried to give grammatical and semantic characteristics of the Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun. We managed to define their meaning, their functions and usage, to find the difference between them. Participle I, the Gerund and the verbal Noun have the same form, we compared and found the peculiar way of their usage.
2. The comparative analysis of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in the novel “Black Beauty. The Autobiography of a Horse” by Ann Sewell
In previous chapter we explored grammatical and syntactical characteristics of the Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in order to prove the actuality of the theoretical research in practice. We shall analyze the novel "Black Beauty. The Autobiography by a Horse" by Ann Sewell.
So, as the Participle I is a verbal with some adjectival characteristics it can be used as attribute in a sentence. We may state that Participle I is used as an adjective. Ann Sewell uses the Participle I in the function of attribute very often.
e.g. And at the bottom a running brook overhung by a steep bank [15, p.3].
e.g. My mother and an old riding horse of our master's were also standing near, and seemed to know all about it [15, p.6].
e.g. A large swinging window opened into the yard, which made it pleasant and airy [15, p.13].
e.g. Then as soon as we were out of the village, he would give me a few miles at a spanking trot [15, p.21].
e.g. She flung up her head with flashing eyes and distended nostrils, declaring that men were both brutes and blockheads [15, p.36].
e.g. Maybe a little scratching will teach you not to leap a pony over a gate that is too high for him [15, p.46].
e.g. She is a charming creature, but she is too nervous for a lady [15, p.84].
e.g. I have had to keep up as I could, and have got into this ugly shuffling pace [15, p.106].
In the novel we have found a great amount of Participles I which are used as adverbial modifiers of different types.
e.g. And to stand still while they are put on; then to have a cart or a chaise fixed behind, so that he cannot walk or trot without dragging it after him (of attendant circumstances) [15, p.9].
e.g. But except laying her ears back when I was led up to her, she behaved very well (of concession) [15, p.19].
e.g. I heard him fall heavily on the turf, and without looking behind me, I galloped off to the other end of the field (of attendant circumstances) [15, p.21].
e.g. There was a groan, and a crack, and a splitting sound, and tearing, crashing down among the other trees came an oak (of manner) [15, p.43].
e.g. Seeing who it was, we stood still under our lime-tree, and let them come up to us (of time) [15, p.97].
In the position of predicative only non-perfect Participle I active occur, its adjectival character being predominant. However, as predicative the present Participle is rarely used by the author.
e.g. If I keep kicking where should I be [15, p.32].
e.g. Yes, he is small, but he is quick and willing, and kind-hearted, too [15, p.60].
e.g. I was obliged to stand on the slope, which was very fatiguing [15, p.98].
In the theoretical part of our course-paper we have already mentioned that the Participle I is used to form the continuous tenses. We will see how often the author uses the Participle I in continuous tenses in the examples below.
e.g. Two fine horses were down, one was struggling in the stream, and the other was groaning on the grass [15, p.7].
e.g. They were carrying young Gordon to the churchyard to bury him [15, p.8].
e.g. I was feeding quietly near the pales which separated the meadow from the railway [, p.11].
e.g. They were shooting rabbits near the Highwood, and a gun went off close by [15, p.17].
e.g. Now, I am not complaining, for I know it must be so [15, p.20].
We have already know that Participle I is used with the object after the verbs have, catch, find, leave, go, come, spend, waste, be busy and can sometimes replace a relative pronoun, but these examples are not used in the novel.
Speaking about the use of Participle I after the basic verbs of sensation we should admit that Ann Sewell gives the advantage to this usage. We find a lot of examples during the whole novel.
e.g. Not many days after we heard the church-bell tolling for a long time, and looking over the gate we saw a long, strange black coach [15, p.8].
e.g. I never felt more like kicking, but of course I could not kick such a good master [15, p.11].
e.g. I saw James coming through the smoke leading Ginger with him [15, p.57].
We also can use Participle I when two actions by the same object occur simultaneously or when one action is immediately followed by another by the same object. We'll prove this statement by making the analysis of the novel written by Ann Sewell “Black Beauty”.
e.g. They came altogether at full speed, making straight for our meadow at the part where the high bank and hedge overhang the brook [15, p.6].
e.g. He then made the girths fast under my body, patting and talking to me all the time [15, p.10].
e.g. There I stood snorting with astonishment and fear [15, p.11].
e.g. We had very good fun in the free meadows, galloping up and down and chasing each other round and round the field [15, p.22].
e.g. He stood by, patting and stroking me while I was eating, and seeing the clots of blood on my side he seemed very vexed [15, p.25].
e.g. I have been so anxious, fancying all sorts of things [15, p.45].
In the previous part of our course-paper we have analyzed the usage of the Gerund. Ann Sewell uses the Gerund when a verb is placed immediately after a preposition. The Gerund used in the function of prepositional indirect object. In the given examples we can find this usage.
e.g. One day, when there was a good deal of kicking, my mother whinnied to me to come to her [15, p.4].
e.g. My master gave me some oats as usual, and after a good deal of coaxing he got the bit into my mouth [15, p.10].
e.g. Ginger has a bad habit of biting and snapping [15, p.15].
e.g. He was very particular in letting out and taking in the straps, to fit my head comfortably [15, p.16].
e.g. If it was not for bringing back the past, I should have named him Rob Roy, for I never saw two horses more alike [15, p.18].
e.g. The cows went on eating very quietly, and hardly raised their heads as the black frightful thing came puffing and grinding past [15, p.12].
e.g. One was Justice, a roan cob, used for riding or for the luggage cart [15, p.19].
e.g. He had his own ways of making me understand by the tone of his voice or the touch of the rein [15, p.21].
e.g. They are supposed to prevent horses from shying and starting, and getting so frightened as to cause accidents [15, p.37].
e.g. Though he has not had much experience in driving, he has a light firm hand and a quick eye [15, p.51].
We can state the fact that in the function of a subject the Gerund follows the predicate and a sentence sometimes begins with the introductory it or with the construction there is as we see in the examples below.
e.g. There was now riding off in all directions to the doctor's [15, p.8].
e.g. Every one may not know what breaking in is, therefore I will describe it [15, p.9].
e.g. Before I knew whence it came-with a rush and a clatter, and a puffing out of smoke-a long black train of something flew by, and was gone almost before I could draw my breath [15, p.11].
e.g. There is no knowing what further mischief she might have done [15, p.80].
e.g. There was no high breeding about her [15, p.105].
We know that the Gerund is used in the compound predicates of both types - verbal and nominal but in the novel the author uses it very rarely.
e.g. The next unpleasant business was putting on the iron shoes; that too was very hard at first [15, p.10].
As the Gerund can perform any syntactical function of a noun it can be used as a direct object. Here are some examples:
e.g. Besides this he has to learn to wear a collar, a crupper, and a breeching [15, p.9].
e.g. The next morning he took me into the yard and gave me a good grooming [15, p.16].
e.g. He sometimes did a little light carting on the estate, or carried one of the young ladies when they rode out with their father [15, p.19].
e.g. We were therefore just as good for riding as we were for driving [15, p.33].
We can find before the Gerund (as well as before the noun) a possessive pronoun or a noun in Possessive Case, signifying it. We can see it in the examples give above.
As we know the gerund should not be confused with the verbal noun, which has the same suffix -ing. We have already explored that the Verbal Noun is used with articles and has plural form. It is also modified by an adjective and cannot take a direct object. Looking through the novel we found a lot of examples of the Verbal Nouns.
e.g. I must not forget to mention one part of my training, which I have always considered a very great advantage [15, p.11].
e.g. And very soon I cared as little about the passing of a train as the cows and sheep did [15, p.12].
e.g. If I had had your bringing up I might have had as good a temper as you, but now I don't believe I ever shall [15, p.21].
e.g. His very voice did me good, and the bathing was very comfortable [15, p.25].
e.g. And if I had stopped there long I know it would have spoiled my breathing [15, p. 27].
e.g. They never think that a pony can get tired, or have any feelings [15, p.31].
e.g. He set the carriage wheels a little across the road, so as not to run back, and gave us a breathing [15, p.52].
e.g. Give me the handling of a horse for twenty minutes, and I'll tell you what sort of a groom he has had [15, p.53].
e.g. She gave her knitting and needlework when she was able to do it [15, p.60].
e.g. There was not one of the tender cuttings that was not nipped off [15, p.69].
e.g. That," said Max, "is what he said in my hearing, and you can judge for yourself [15, p.82].
e.g. As I found the puffing, rushing, whistling, and, more than all, the trembling of the horse-box in which I stood did me no real harm, I soon took it quietly [15, p.98].
e.g. At any rate, it was the end of my living with him, and I was not sorry [15, p.107].
e.g. My master always gave me a whipping, which of course made me start on, and did not make me less afraid [15, p.108].
e.g. He hired a stable a short distance from his lodgings, and engaged a man named Filcher as groom [15, p.109].
Having analyzed the usage of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in the novel "Black Beauty" written by Ann Sewell we may state that such parts of speech are often used. We can find an example of each in every page of the book. They are used in almost all functions. Participle I is very rarely used in the function of predicative as well as the Gerund. The Verbal Noun is also used very often.
Having studied the scientific literature on the questions raised in our course paper and after analyzing examples from the novel "Black Beauty. The Autobiography of a Horse” by Ann Sewell we have come to the following conclusions.
1. Participle I is a non-finite form of the verb with some adjectival and adverbial features, whereas the Gerund - with some noun features. The adjectival and adverbial features of Participle I are manifested in its syntactical function as an attribute and an adverbial modifier. Participle I is used as a pure verb form in the formation of the continuous aspect forms. Like a noun, the Gerund can function as subject, object or predicative. When it is an attribute or an adverbial modifier, a Gerund, like a noun is preceded by a preposition. The fact that the Gerund can associate with the preposition is a sure sign of a noun features.
2. There are cases, however, when the differentiation between the gerund and the participle presents some difficulty. When a Gerund of a Participle I is used as an attribute, the difference between them does not lie only in the absence, or presence of the preposition, but also in their relation to the modified noun. The noun serves as the subject of the action expressed by the Participle. The Gerund suggests the destination of the object or a person's occupation.
3. Participle I and the Gerund are alike in their verbal characteristics, both morphological (the categories of voice and perfect) and syntactical (verbal combinability).
4. The Participle I and the Gerund are interchangeable when used as adverbials of time characterizing the verb through simultaneous or prior events. But only the Gerund is possible when the starting or the final point of the action is meant.
5. The distinctive features of the gerund are its verbal categories in the sphere of morphology and its verbal combinability. The main points of difference between the gerund and the verbal noun are as follows. Like all the Verbals the gerund has a double character - nominal and verbal while the verbal noun has only a nominal character. The gerund is not used with an article whereas the verbal noun may be used with an article. The gerund has no plural form. - The verbal noun may be used in the plural. The gerund of a transitive verb takes a direct object while a verbal noun cannot take a direct object; it takes a prepositional object with the preposition of. The gerund may be modified by an adverb and the verbal noun may be modified by an adjective. Not having the verbal meanings, the verbal noun doesn't have the form of tenses and doesn't express any voice. After the verbal noun the direct object can't exist.
6. It is more difficult to discriminate between a gerund and a verbal noun in cases where the verbal characteristics of the gerund are not apparent. This happens mainly when an -ing form is used as a single word without any modifiers or with such modifiers as occur with both the gerund and the verbal noun. In such cases the meaning of the form should be taken into account. Thus a gerund suggests a process, an activity, whereas a verbal noun denotes kinds of occupation, an art form, a branch of knowledge.
7. In the second chapter we studied the usage of Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in the novel “Black Beauty. The Autobiography by a Horse” by Ann Sewell. We tried to show some specific features and peculiarities of the usage of the Participle I, the Gerund and the Verbal Noun in English Language. We may state that such parts of speech are often used. We can find an example of each in every page of the book. They are used in almost all functions.
List of literature
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2. Ганшина M.A. English Grammar/ М.А. Ганшина, Н.М. Василевская. М.: Искра революции, 1978. 472 с.
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4. Гордон Е.М. Грамматика современного английского языка: Учеб. для студ. ин-тов и фак. иностранных яз. / Е.М. Гордон, И.П. Крылова. 3-е изд., испр. и доп.. М.: Высшая школа, 1986. 430 с.
5. Грамматика английского языка: Морфология. Синтаксис / Н.А. Кобрина, Е.А. Корнеева, М.И. Оссовская, К.А. Гузеева. СПб.: Изд-во Союз; Лениздат, 2000. 496 с.
6. Давиденко Л.М. English Grammar/ Л.М. Давиденко. Тернопіль: AMBER, 1996. 192 с.
7. Дроздова Т.Ю. Englich Grammar: Reference and Practice: Three new Chapters. The Verbals: Учеб. пособие для старшекл. и студ. неяз. вузов с углубл. изуч. англ. яз. / Т.Ю. Дроздова, А.И. Берестова. СПб.: Химера, 2000. 104 с.
8. Иофик Л.Л. Хрестоматия по теоретической грамматике английского языка = L.L. Iofik, L.P. Chakhoyan, A.G. Pospeloya Readings in the Theory of English Grammar: Учеб. пособ. для студ./ Л.Л. Иофик, Л.П. Чахоян, А.Г. Поспелова. 3-е изд., перераб.. Л.: Просвещение, 1981. 223 с.
9. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л., Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Л.: Просвещение, 1973. 319 с.
10. Качалова К. Н. Практическая грамматика английского языка: учебник / К. Н. Качалова, Е. Е. Израилевич; науч. ред. Е. К. Захаренко. 10-е изд., новая ред. М.: Лист Нью, 2003.
11. Манси Е.А. English Grammar: Учебник. Грамматика англ. яз. для студентов фак. иностр. яз./ Е.А. Манси. К.: Саммит-книга, 2007. 496 с.
12. Мороховська Е.Я. Основи граматики англійської мови: теорія і практика: навч. Посібник. К.: Вища школа, 1993. 472 с.
13. Раєвська Н.М. Теоретична граматика сучасної англійської мови. К.: Вища школа, 1976. 304 с.
14. Сизова Н. Teaching grammar/ Н. Сизова// English language & culture. Шкільний світ, 2010. № 46. С. 12-13.
15. Сьюэлл Э. Приключения Черного красавчика: Учебное пособие - книга для чтения на англ. языке. СПб.: Антология, 2003. 192с.
16. Alexander L.G. Longman advanced grammar: Reference and Practice / L.G. Alexander. Malaysia, 1993. 304 p.
17. Azar B.S. Fundamentals of English Grammar/ B.S. Azar. 2 edit. Regents/Prentice Hall, 1992. 398 p.
18. Azar B.S. Understanding And Using English Grammar/ B.S. Azar. 3 edit. Pearson PTR Interactive, 2007. 475 p.
19. Celce - Murcia M., Laesen - Fremon D. The Grammar book (an ESL/EFL Teacher's course). Boston: Heine&Heine Publisher's, 1983. 532 p.
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