The morphological structure of words in modern English
The word formation linguistic disciplines and subject of it research. The concept of derivation and its main issues. General characteristics of word formation. The morphemic structure of English Language. Compound words in Modern English Language.
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Ministry of Education Science of Ukraine
Pavlo Tychyna State Pedagogical University
Chair of the Theory and Practice
Of Foreign Language
«The morphological structure of words in modern English»
Prepared by Inna Shlapak
Uman - 2014
TITLE I. The word formation linguistic disciplines and subject of it research
1.1 The concept of derivation and its main issues
1.2 General characteristics of word formation
TITLE II. The morphemic structure of English Language
2.3 Compound words in Modern English Language
2.4 Minor types of word formation
The object is to study the original word formation of words. Until recently derived words studied mainly from a formal point of view, that is in terms of expression and content remained unexplored. So should not have been, because the specificity of word formation in the diversity of its links and any unilateral Consider the derivation does not reflect fully the problems of word formation.
In this paper derivative is considered in the lexical-semantic system of English, as "the whole area of the semantic relations of lexical items, the uniqueness of types of interaction with one another and with elements of other aspects of language, terms and forms of linguistic expression results varying semantic verbal signs". linguistic english word morphemic
Although the synopsis is sufficiently processed and scientists, but in language there are always new words, so there is a need for their research and detailed examination of the means of education. This synopsis will be relevant as long as there will be a developed language.
Word formation plays an important role not only in the English grammar, but also in lexicology, phonetics and other linguistic sciences.
Summary consists of an introduction, main pats, which are divided into two sections and four subsections, conclusions and a list of references, which consists of eleven sources.
TITLE I. THE WORD FORMATION LINGUISTIC DISCIPLINES AND SUBJECT OF IT RESEARCH
1.1 The concept of derivation and its main issues
The term "word formation" has two basic meanings, which should be clearly distinguished. In the first sense it is used to express the constant process of creating new words in the language. It is in a constant state of development, which consists of individual language processes, including the process and the creation of new words. This process is called "word formation".
In the second sense, the term "derivation" means a branch of science that deals with the study of the process of creation of new lexical items.
The subject of research is the study of word formation process of creation of new lexical items and the means by which this process occurs (suffixes, prefixes, infix etc.).
Taken together, lexical words are the foundation of language. Words change in speech for grammatical laws. Definitions word as a unit of language, a lot depending on the criteria approach angles. In the lexical sense it is defined as a unit of naming, which is the lexical-semantic content and can be formulated to express the concept. In this respect, the word has a broad lexical and grammatical range: parts of speech can be changed by varying with the value of the word, and some forms of its value is stored, e.g. night - nightly.
The word is part of the phrase the closest grammatical units, through which it is realized in a sentence. Hence it has characteristics opposition bilateral character: morpheme word phrases (or phraseological unit).
Morpheme enters directly into the structure of the word.
1.2 General characteristics of word formation
Morpheme a combination of some meaning and phonetic form. However, morpheme, as opposed to the word, not an autonomous unit, although some words may consist of only one morpheme. Of course the English word there are two or three (sometimes - more) morpheme. For example, the word students have three morphemes - roots stud with a value of "learning" suffix-ent with the value of active action and end with -s plural grammatical meaning. Further segmentation of morphemes leads only to highlight certain sound systems that do not matter.
Free and dependent morphemes. Morpheme as part of speech is more dependent than free. This is understandable, because in this case the part should belong to the whole.
A free morpheme is regularly played by model language and can be used independently, without changing its value. The verb stand, stand noun are free morphemes that retain the appropriate lexical-semantic meaning. These morphemes can be called minimal free forms. However, the root of the stand can be a part of other words, e.g. withstand, standing. The morphological state changes so that the verb withstand actually consists of two free morphemes with a preposition and verb stand, a participle standing freestyle and dependent morphemes suffixes -ing alone is not used.
Vocabulary, concepts initially calls every day, usually consisting of a free morpheme, which forms a single word, e.g. cow, sheep, boy, top, go, run, etc. The history of these words suggests that their grammatical variation in some cases reflect the presence of two morphemes - man - men, but such cases in the language a bit.
Root with affixes (prefixes and suffixes) forms the basis of the word. Simple foundation - it often, the same root word that can be used separately, e.g. awe, change, note, seem. If the base strip affixes, and it will not homonymous any free word of the same root, then this will be dependent basis. Thus, the widely used word conduct and lexical-semantic set that surrounds it - conductor, deduct, deduce, seduce, seductive, and others. Prefix con- can be separated only formally. The root is left, borrowed from Latin ducted - "am" and does not form a single word. This framework and call dependent. This phenomenon is natural, because the foundation of borrowed words arose and took the path of historical development in other language, e.g. cour-age, facul-ty, hon-est, mat-ure, royal-ty, senti-ment, un-cert-ain .
The root is considered the main elements, which after removal of functional affixes derivational not subject to further analysis.
In English the root is often identical with the word. Phonetic phenomenon often occurs in monosyllabic words, e.g. aim, cat, get, hat, pig, set. Match the shape of the root word is the result of historical development patterns proper English words in the late medieval period, there was a disappearance endings. As a result of this process since English words do not have formal features (endings) that would indicate membership in a particular part of speech. Most of monosyllabic words a productive derivational roots by which the formation of new, derived words.
While the root to some extent independent of the word, affixes always dependent elements of the structure. And the suffix and prefix with semantic load, but they are not used as independent linguistic units.
Suffix derivative (derived) element at the end of words (between the root and the end) which is or has been a productive part of word formation. The suffix is lexical-semantic meaning, but is not used in isolation, thus no evidence of a particular part of speech. However, when the same word with different suffixes belong to the same part of speech, then the suffix different lexical-grammatical classes of words, eg suffixes -er and -est for top and superlatives: bigg-er - the bigg-est, sweet-er - the sweet-est. Purely semantic changes occur in the word by changing the suffix and allow the word to refer to the same part of speech: collect-able, collect-ible. Finally, various suffixes can form both simple and double opposition of various parts of speech, such as: cold -cold-ish (adjective) - cold-ly (adverb) - cold-ness (noun).
Because for each suffix stored lexical-semantic meaning, the use of the latter on certain groups of words leads to the corresponding parts of speech. This suffixes - an important type of word formation in English with types prevailing historically.
The prefix - a morpheme standing before the root word, and modifies its value. Prefixes in Modern English is always derivative. Prefix hardly helps to differentiate parts of speech except when it is present as part of a verb or word category status, eg a dress - to undress, dust - adust, float - afloat. Sometimes using a prefix can distinguish transient and intransitive verb: cry - outcry, play - outplay.
Also noteworthy is a fundamental difference between the end and the suffix, in English often expressed by one morpheme. In grammar, they are sometimes called inflectional suffixes. Keep in mind that the inflectional suffixes - exponents of grammatical meaning while derivational suffixes - are carriers of lexical meaning is the lexical morpheme. Grammatical form, thus form words with inflectional suffixes and lexical of the derivative. This different and relevant paradigm: the inflectional paradigm is illustrate - illustrates - illustrated, derivational - illustrate - illustrative - illustration.
Thus, as the theoretical part, in modern English there are a number of means of word formation, some of which are quite common and productive (suffixes, prefixes), while others use much less and are part of other means of word formation. There are in modern English as well as secondary word formation. More details of each of these species will be discussed in the following sections of this essay.
TITLE II. THE MORPHEMIC STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Prefixation as word formation, is the modification of the base, to which the prefix is attached. Prefixes are different in origin: they may come from their own language, or other language -be. Modifying the lexical meaning of the word, prefix often changes the grammatical nature of the word as a whole, so simple word and its prefix-derivative in most cases belong to the same part of speech, e.g. .: abuse - dis-abuse, approve -dis -approve, believe - dis-believe.
Lexical-semantic load prefix determined by the method of transmission based on hue value that reflects the mode of action, place, time, degree of completion and more.
Actually English prefixes derived from individual words. There are not many prefixes - a-, be-, fore-, mid-, un-. The prefix mis- - mixed type (Ger. Mis, Lat. Minus, fr -Me, -mess).
The prefix a-, which is derived from the Old English preposition an, used with a noun, adjective and verb and conveys meaning condition, situation, e.g. aback, afloat, agaze, alike, anew, apiece, arise, asleep, atrembie, awake.
Along with its own prefix a- in the English language has the prefix a-, borrowed from Greek that matters opposites, e.g. amorphous, anomalous. This prefix is used rarely, mostly consisting of borrowed words.
From preposition comes prefix be- (unstressed form of by-). The main value of the prefix (as a preposition) - "near", but in the shades of meaning related derivative instruments are divided into several subgroups.
That part of words where the prefix forms adverbs, small, and some adverbs are perceived as mere words, e.g. .: before, beyond. In cases where an ancient form by remaining emphasized formed derived words that are written through the line, e.g. .: by-gone, by-law.
In modern English prefix be- is used mainly to form verbs. Among them are:
1) Sub-transitive verbs, which adds a prefix meaning "everywhere, everywhere," e.g. belays, beset, bedeck.
2) Sub-transitive verbs followed by a value of finality or redundancy actions, e.g becall, betray.
3) subgroup, where prefix leads to the transformation of intransitive verbs transitive, e.g. bespeak, bethink.
4) subgroups, which are formed by prefix Transitive verb with the general meaning "to create, make", e.g. belate, belittle.
5) subgroup, where a prefix formed transitional words with general meaning "so called", formed from nouns, e.g. bedevil, befool.
6) Sub-transitive verb meaning "to surround; affect things; treat someone a certain way ", formed from nouns, e.g. .: becalm, befriend, becloud.
Using the prefix be- nouns are also formed from adjectives meaning neglect, e.g. beneaped. The value of the subgroup falls adjective beloved.
To a single group are words with the prefix be-, which historically constitute an indissoluble basis: beneath, between, beware, beyond. Generalized values to take in the historical development of the verb and become begin.
English belongs to its own prefix for-. The prefix was productive in Old English period of language development, but in recent times it can be seen in ten words, though the value assigned to it, reaching (prohibition of exclusivity, pass, fail, failure). Common words with the prefix: forget, forgive, forbid, forsake. Signs archaic observed in the subgroup that includes the words: forbye, forbear, forgo, forswear, fordo.
Uncertain nature of morphological forms fore- led to that opinion on it differed: American linguists consider it a combining form English - adverb and preposition freely used as a prefix verbs, participles, verbal nouns. Undeniably signs with prefix for-, form fore-, due to its phonetic structure, used much more widely than the prefix for-. The value that the prefix fore- Add as verbs and nouns, distributed as follows:
1) "in front of": a) foregoer, forerunner; b) fore-run, foreshow.
2) "beforehand, in advance": forebode, forego, foreknow, foresee.
3) "front": forecourt, forefinger, forefront (one of psevdoutvoren), foreground, foreman.
4) "Front part of": forearm, forehead, foreshore.
5) "of, near or towards the stem of a ship or connected with the foremast": forecabin, foresail, foretop.
6) "anticipating, precedent": forefather, foreplane, foretime.
The prefix mis-, which has counterparts in the old Germanic and Latin languages, is used with verbs, participles, gerunds and adjectives, giving them meanings reversible - "badly, unfavorably, wrongly". Compatibility with the verbal prefix vocabulary is much wider than that of borrowing.
1) Germanic mis-: misbecome, misbehave, miscall, misgive, mislay, mistake, mistrust, mistreat.
2) Latin mis - minus: mischance, mischief, misplace.
The prefix non- is a morphological variant of particle no, as used before adjectives value prefix indicates negation, e.g. non-operational, non-skid prefix and is used in the formation of nouns, e.g. non-priority, non-utility. Overall, this prefix can be used spontaneously almost every noun or adjective, indicating a lack of quality.
The prefix used with on- participle, herundiyem, verbal nouns and noun-agent (carrier effect), ending in the suffix -er. Feature prefix is its ability to be used in derivative nouns and verbs that get along with him idiomatic meaning. This come such pairs of words as to come on - oncoming, to flow on - onflow, goings-on - ongoings.
Actually the English prefix out- one of the most common language. Along with the prefix un- it is the most common English morphemes word formation; estimated and he and the other members of the nearly thousand words each.
The use of the prefix rather branched. The main ones are:
1) The prefix can be used with each verb, which is equivalent to the phrase, e.g.to outspeak - to speak out, to outspread - to spread out.
2) Often the verb form with prefix participle, gerund and the verbal noun, thus gaining more importance, e.g. outclearing (costs of laundry), outfighting (Locomotive wheelslip a distance the length of the hand), outstanding (outstanding).
3) The formation of nouns from verbs, which can be used after the preposition out, from simple verbs and nouns derived values occur:
a) Process: outbreak, outcry, outrush.
b) The effects of: outcome, outcrop.
c) Passive depending on the action: outlay, outlook, output.
d) The place or time of action: outfall, outlet, outset.
4) In the formation of adjectives from nouns with descriptive qualities prefix attaches importance:
a) External features or characteristics: outback, outline, outside.
b) Separate features that are inherent in general: outhouse, outfield, outworker.
5) In the formation of adjectives from nouns prefix gives them value regardless of the object or subject of action: outdoor, outlaw.
6) The prefix may provide new meaning to the word excess. This group includes different parts of speech: outbrave, outmatch, outjump, outswim, outstay. Such use is observed even with their own nouns: to outnapoleon, to outzola.
The prefix over- is also one of the most common English structural word means. The prefix significant impact on meaning, joined; the emphasis in the words that have two syllables necessarily transferred to the prefix. In the process of tumor prefix it can acquire the characteristics of a particular part of speech. This property is observed in cases of derivation, when combined with the concurrence of the part of speech prefix over- serves as:
1) Adjective meaning "haughty, high": overhand, overtime.
2) A preposition that takes the value "over": overland, oversize, overhead.
3) Preposition that modifies the meaning of the verb, increasing the intensity of action: to overcome, to overpass; in some cases, the prefix determined by the degree of intensity: to overmaster.
4) Adverbs, indicating a surplus, the need for executable actions, attributes or quality of the subject: overbusy, to overbuy, to overhaste.
In the use of Transitive verb prefix can point to the negative consequences of the actions performed: to overdrink, to oversleep.
Un- - proper English prefix. The current prefix un- is used with virtually unlimited number of verbs, giving them return (negative) semantic features: unclose, unlay, unpack. By verb meanings are, and those that reflect the selection, move, stop, break, reducing others.
In combination with adjectives, verbal forms, specific nouns prefix or a simple value "not", or gives them a return characteristics: unfair, ungraceful, unhappy.
The prefix is under- opposition prefix over-. Its main compatibility associated with the verb to which it provides extra service "under, below": undercut, underplay. In the sense of "not enough" prefix of verbal forms and some adjectives: underdone, undersized. Nouns that are used with this prefix few: underground, underflow.
A small number of entities have with the prefix n- (a negative value), to-, with-: never, any; together; withdraw. Some appeared as a result of the formation of a combination of its own language and words of Latin and Greek prefixes, but such things - not the exception in borrowings.
Prefixes Roma origins were taken at different times of the language and different ways - directly from the classical languages, and through the French. In this regard, there is varying forms of the same prefixes.
The prefix ad- has several options that reflect the assimilation of the consonant d at the beginning of words and is the result of borrowing from different languages: al- belongs to the Arabic language. Prefix оptions are as follows: ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-: acclimatize, affirm, allocate, arrest. All variants retain the ability to enhance the meaning of adding features that it gets created word.
The prefix bi-, bin- having options and bis- - Latin origin and means "double": binocular, bivalent.
The prefix co- means relational, which originate from the action or process and has options col-, com-, con-, cor-: concord, correct.
Several etymological meanings must prefix de-, including: depend, deduce, declare, deceive.
In the sense of "deny" prefix is the same as another prefix dis-. The latter has the power to reverse opposition to a value words: charge - discharge, close - disclose. However, the prefix dis- cannot compete with the prefix un-, which is used almost every verb.
The prefix en- comes from the Latin in-. Its use is associated with the provision of verbs multiple values, such as: "who cares, cover" - entrust; "To place one object to another" - enjewel; "To bring to a certain state" - enslave; "Grant subject to heavy signs" - encourage.
Double origin and prefix eh-. Latin eh- on this form is used before consonants h, c, p, q, s (the latter is often skipped), t; f option is used to ef-; before other consonants - E. Formed with the words take additional values: "on, then" - exit; "Up, up" - extol; "Thoroughly" - excruciate; "Dismiss" - expatriate. Adjectives with prefixes eh-, E have negative signs. The prefix occasionally used with nouns, giving them meaning "former": ex-chancellor, ex-President.
Eh- The prefix of Greek origin used less frequently: exodus; before consonants it has the shape es-: ecclesia.
Fairly common variation is the prefix in-. Final assimilated into l n before a consonant l, in m before labial b, m, p and r before a consonant r. Formed prefixed adjectives have to "or-, non-" nouns - "lack of something": illiberal, immortal, irregular, inaction.
In modern English prefix in- often alternates with the prefix un-, preferred in words borrowed from Latin: uncertain. Certain words are used with both prefixes: instable - unstable, unless the prefix in- cannot be used because of sonority: unindicted.
Alternating prefix does not apply when shape hardly used without prefix: unbeknown.
A large group of morphemes that are used as prefixes, are borrowing later period - ante, extra, hyper, intra, meta, para, tetra. This phenomenon is associated with the development of technology and the involvement of these formative elements continues today. Some classical languages were used as independent words in the English language but these elements have no independent value, not used alone but are a word-formation element.
Summarizing all the above, it should be emphasized that prefixation gained wide usage in the English language due to lack of endings. Alignment of case endings and verb inflections disappearance led to deep lexical distinctions caused by the use of prefixes.
How derivational elements function as suffixes affixed morphemes that lies between the root and finish and is part of the base. Not applications independently suffix -but has the semantic load that affects new writing. This has led to numerous classifications of suffixes as to their origin, formed by them to parts of speech, performance, inefficiency, frequency of use, common values and emotional coloring.
Some morphemes may carry a dual function - as a means of creating grammatical and lexical. Morphemes -ed, -er can express grammatical categories (-ed ending as verbal past tense and perfect; -er - as adjectival ending higher degree of comparison) and, on the other hand, form a lexical derivatives: colored, foreigner. Thus, the difference between the end and the extension is that the former takes the grammatical function, and the second is dominated by lexical meaning. Derivative suffix - a two morphemic word that is used as a whole and grammatically equivalent to simple words in all possible syntactic structures. Morphemes are bearing signs of grammatical categories of time, or case number, defined as the end because they do not form new words and word forms only.
Suffix word formation varies depending on:
1) From the suffix that comes with its own language: darkness. In these cases, the emphasis neoplasm does not change, even in the words of three syllables: commonness.
2) From the borrowed suffix that is attached to both the verbal and borrowed to the roots, without changing emphasis: movable, serviceable.
3) From the borrowed suffix that is used with other language roots, changing the emphasis and or vowel or consonant root: China - Chinese.
When the borrowed words formed by means of foreign suffix joins another, the verbal suffix, such a formation called correlated: president - presidency.
Suffixes as word formation is much wider than prefixation. The proportional part of the verbal suffixes also greater than that of prefixes. This means that the active borrowing of Latin, Greek and French suffixes are not replaced derivational elements of their own language, the performance of which may be updated from time to time. There is a reverse process: the actual English words twofold threefold superseded word formed using Roman suffix - (b) le: double.
Subgroups of different origin suffixes can form a certain class of languages. For such common features of different suffixes that form:
1) The names of specific names: -er (driver), or (sailor), -ing (darling), -ee (refugee), -ice (apprentice), -ician (politician), -ist (socialist), -ite (erudite), -ent (absolvent), -ant (emigrant). These nouns can be divided into two subgroups with superior features: a) one indicating an action, and b) one that applies to it.
2) What are abstract names: -age (bondage), -ance (alliance), -ancy (discrepancy), -ation (adoration), -ence (efficience), -dom (freedom), -hood (childhood), - ing (gazing), -ion (invention), -ism (behaviorism), -ment (betterment), -ness (happiness), -ship (friendship), -ty (naivety).
3) Some lexical and grammatical category, there are several suffixes, forming feminine nouns: -ess (stewardess), -ette (usherette), -ina (regina), -ine (heroine).
4) A large number of suffixes call on the emotional coloring.
5) First of all, the suffixes that reflect characteristics reducing: -en (maiden), -et (bullet), -kin (s) (Malkin), -let (ringlet), -ock (bullock).
More common vzhyvanist have extensions that alternate with each other: -in (-eu) -ie: Betty, Mickey, laddie. Suffixes are used effectively to appeal - both in their own names, and in general the type of doggie, granny, daddy. In everyday speech suffix can form colloquialism type nightie, bookie. Diminutive features gives its significance half-suffix -mini: minicab, mini-skirt.
Several extensions reflecting negative qualities and attributes of things. However, this feature is not unique to all form: -ard (drunkard, but standard), -ster (gangster, but the lobster).
Noteworthy synonyms suffixes. Semantic overlay values - a phenomenon quite common in the language and the preservation of a variant of the basic lexical-semantic center - exponent values of several tokens observed among words with the suffix -an, -ese, - er, -or, -ite. Subject to this phenomenon, mainly on the etymology of the suffix. Formation Family doctor - physician, except that they have a peculiar additional semantic features, differ in origin suffix. Both suffixes -or and -an indicate the profession. These nouns are associated with the term "doctor", but the significance of the first noun in terms much broader - it's a scientist and physician, and the second word means only those who practiced treatment with drugs and surgery.
In the use of adjectives with the suffix -is -isal and in some cases, the law of linguistic economy; terms such as botanical, historical, geographical might be used in a shortened version. However, the difference in the values stored: economic (based on profit) - economical (saving) person, tropic parallel.
2.3 Compound words in Modern English Language
Compound words - is a specific unit, defined special morphemic and derivational characteristics. The structure of the composite includes at least two bases, which, depending on their morphological characters, enter the special relationship. Fundamentals of composites are mostly denotative meaning, and their combination is combinative conditions for minimal environment that defines and provides a composite of its existence.
Compound words and semantically, and structural components that make up these words. Relationships between components are complex because the formation of a compound word, meaning they can change. In addition, they will influence each other and are subject to certain grammatical rules.
The most active means of formation of composites is the addition of two bases. Compound words are as follows:
1. In terms of belonging to different parts of speech. Most compound words - a sophisticated type of nouns and adjectives moonshine, white-faced. Compound verbs are usually formed from compound nouns by conversion: to bad-taste. Compound adverbs and conjunctions constitute a small fraction of the total number of composites and neologisms among them.
2. Compound words are allocated in accordance with the types of word formation (derivation and compounding).
A simple combination of two bases that already exist in the language, leading to the formation of compound words actually. Much of the existing composites a complex nouns and adjectives: egg-cup, absent-minded. Advanced verbs compared with a subgroup of compound nouns and adjectives, much less. Among the many pieces of verbs further derivation: to weekend, to self-love. Composites of secondary derivation are divided into two subgroups:
1. The words formed by conversion of the foundations compound nouns: to team-work, to safety-pin.
2. Verbs formed by back bases word formation of compound nouns: to dish-wash, to atom-smash.
Compound adverbs and conjunctions constitute a small part: within, outside, indoors. These cases can be attributed to this type of word formation as prefixation, since the first part of this composite prefix.
Derived words such as cold-hearted as different from each other and the nature of the composite samples, which they are formed. This compound adjectives, which in modern English a lot, especially the first type.
Compound adjectives type of love-sick, life-long formation of a base noun (sometimes adjectives, or verbs), which joins the adjective, giving the word of all the characteristic features of the adjective.
Type of compound adjectives i bare-footed, ill-fated, weak-minded - in modern English a lot. Some researchers believe this type of compound words most productive at this stage of language development. Most of these composites derived words. The first part of this composite - an independent word, and the second - the participle; both entering the compound word, grammatical losing independence. Fundamentals of words ill-fated and under., With the addition of the suffix -ed converted into a single word, the foundation does not exist outside of the composite. Derived Composites type right-handed are not divided into independent segments as adjectives handed type of language does not exist. -ed Suffix refers not only to the second component, but also to the whole compound word, defining quality of the object.
By derivative compound words include compound nouns and derivatives: a hold-up, a cast-away. Conversion in these cases turns gerunds phrases into words.
Compound words can be formed as a result of the semantic limitations of free phrases. Appearing in the lexical-semantic merging, compound words belonging to different parts of speech: go-ahead - a difficult word - imperative (imperative mood) and a go-ahead research, where the go-ahead - an adjective meaning "best", do -it-yourself, get-well. Quite active in recent years and the process of derivation of complex words: peace-lover, policy-maker, money-getter.
Sometimes there are compound words with complex components: a milk truck-driver.
According to some researchers, compounding the main direction of development of vocabulary language, because it is - the most productive type of word formation. The essence of the compound word is in terms of a single concept, but a combination of individual word-building elements involves unequal amount of lexical-semantic meaning.
2.4 Minor types of word formation
The most common types of word formation is a minor reduction (oral and written), and conversion.
Reduction - a part of a word that is used after the loss of its individual elements. The transmission of any part of the word comes from the phenomenon of generalization and factors relating to language economy. Most of the cuts that we use derived from the complete analogies and familiar speaker.
The reduction in speech - a truncation or omission of the morphemic structure of words. Reducing emerged at the beginning of a new English period, and acquired much of the twentieth century. In recent times emerged following abbreviations: ad - address, dad - daddy (father), stud - student, bus - autobus, phone - telephone.
The reduction in speech always co-exists along with the full form: doc - doctor, prof - professor. Distinguish them only stylistic and emotional, which increase in oral language.
Reduce to a certain extent - a reduction of words to one of its parts, and the full form may lose the beginning, middle or end. New education is able to be used as free forms.
In most cases, the short form is easily correlated with the corresponding full form. Lost part of the full form is easy to find; this is one of the prerequisites for reducing a linguistic phenomenon.
Oral reductions mainly mono symmetrical: com - commander, memo - memorandum, sem - semester. However, among the reductions observed as homonymy and synonymy: ball - balloon "ball balloon" coincides with the title shot, cop - corporal "Corporal" - the slang nickname policeman.
With the reduction of new forms of belonging, of course, to the same part of speech to which it belongs and the prototype. Most of the cuts - is the nouns and adjectives, and adjectives are much rarer. Among the adjectives shortcuts include: civy - civil, nogo - no good one, prep - preparatory "whose dress." Verbs shortcuts - either diachronic formation type to mend - to amend, to tend - to attend, or reduce origin: to phone, to taxi. Regarding the form of reduced distinguish three types of cuts: the final (Apocope), intermediate (syncope) and primary (apheresis). Include the following types Apocope prevails, especially in English, where the emphasis falls mainly on the first syllable: cap - captain, stip - stipend, gym - gymnasium, lad - laboratory.
When simplified start and end of the prototype, produced contraction of the middle part one: fridge - refrigerator.
In summary review of secondary species derivation, we can say that at this stage of language development rather productive means neoplasm is downsizing. This type of word formation covers large segments of language, as means of creating variety. Conversion is more characteristic conversational style, although it is used in other language styles.
This essay made it possible to achieve the goal of the question that was posed as follows: find out what the word formation that this word formation means that their views are in modern English, to determine the most important means of word formation and consider further use of newly created words.
The goal outlined in the introduction essay, can be achieved by processing of scientific papers and articles researchers linguists working with dictionaries and other aids grammar and lexicology of modern English.
This essay helped to conclude that the most common means of word formation in Modern English are suffixes, based on adding to the end of stemming suffix. Despite the fact that in addition to their own English suffixes, there are many suffixes borrowed from Latin, Greek, French and other languages, their own suffixes still prevail in the language. Using suffixes form nouns (both common and proper names, as abstract and specific names), adjectives, verbs and others.
The next most common means of word formation in Modern English prefixation is based on joining the early foundations of the word prefix. She came in a number of assets, because in English no end and it is prefixing helps differentiate parts of speech. Prefixes, unlike suffixes, do not change the grammatical nature of the word, and the newly formed words refer to the same parts of speech as their base.
The third tool is word formation compounding, which is based on the addition of two or more bases, with possible further amendments newly formed composite. Some scholars put compounding the first place, because they consider the most productive means of word formation in Modern English. The most active means of forming a new composite is adding two and sometimes more bases. Through word formation form compound nouns, adjectives, verbs, numerals and so on.
There are minor types of word formation, such as the reduction (oral and written), and conversion.
Thus, as seen in this essay, modern English has sufficiently strong and productive means of word formation to supplement vocabulary speech.
1. Арнольд І.В. Лексикология современного английского языка. - М., 1959;
2. Ахманова О.С. Словарь лингвистических терминов. - М., 1969;
3. Ботчук Е.Н. Словообразование в современном английском языке. - К., 1988;
4. Карощук П.М. Словообразование английского языка. - М., 1977;
5. Кубрякова Е.С. Что такое словообразование. - М., 1965;
6. Леонтьев А.А. Семантическая структура слова. - М., 1971;
7. Мешков О.Д. Словообразование современного английского языка. - М., 1976;
8. Мостовий М.І. Лексикологія англійської мови. - Х., 1993;
9. Collins Cobuild, English Grammar., 1994;
10. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English., 1999;
11. Rozina R.I. Course of English Lexicology. - М., 1995.
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