Dogs in British history and modern Britain
History of dogs. History of Bulldog. American Bulldog, Bull Terrier, French Bulldog. English Bulldogs in culture and art. The role of dogs in lives of people. Working dogs and dogs in World War One. Dogs and entertainment. Dogs that changed the world.
|Рубрика||Иностранные языки и языкознание|
|Размер файла||88,4 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
муниципальное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
средняя общеобразовательная школа №129
г. Нижнего Новгорода
Тема «Dogs in British history and modern Britain»
Научная работа по английскому языку
11 А Класса
г. Нижний Новгород 2014 г.
History of dogs
History of Bulldog
English Bulldogs in culture and art
The role of dogs in lives of people
Dogs in World War One
Dogs and human
Dogs and entertainment
Dogs that changed the world
Global problem with dogs in the world
World struggle with stray dogs
List of references
“I like pigs. Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals. ” Winston Churchill.
We live in a world in which people live with dogs. It is generally agreed today that dogs help people and this help is really useful. Since the days of BC dogs and humans lived together and helped each other. It continues to the present. Now, dog is a member of the family. The first thing that needs to be said is dogs are surrounded by love and care. People feed pet, also, when pets ill, people give pet in the hospital for his recovery. The live pets in home are carefree. But in fact, dogs are not only a pet. A number of key, issues arise from the statement. For instance, everyone knows about attacks on the London Underground, and it should be noted that help of sniffer dogs was huge. Also we should not forget about dogs, which help people with difference of medical conditions. What is more, dogs take an important role in art, music, painting, cinema and mass media.
On the other hand, we can observe that people all over the world forget that dog is the best friend people. To begin with, stray dogs are becoming more and more. It is a well-known fact that we can find homeless dog in every country. One should note here that number of stray dogs in different counters is different. Nevertheless, one should accept that the largest number of stray dogs is in Russia. Furthermore, one should not forget that a reason of stray dogs is a bad attitude of people to pet. People leave dog when they get tired of the pet or bored. Moreover, stray dogs are not the only problem in the world. Besides, it is poor maintenance of dogs in families. Sometimes dogs die due to exhaustion. One cannot possibly accept the fact that dogs live hungry in the family. So, the main aim of my work is to find out the role of dogs in human life. Moreover, I want to compeer dogs' life in British and dogs' life in Russia.
History of dogs
dog people lives
Dogs are a kind of wolf. They were the first animals that people fed on purpose, earlier than sheep or cows or chickens. People have been taking care of dogs since about 13, 000 BC, in the Stone Age, before the beginning of farming (and possibly much earlier; maybe as long as 100, 000 years ago, before people left Africa). Most likely, dogs themselves began this relationship by hanging around people's campsites (there weren't any villages yet), trying to snatch some of their garbage to eat. At first, people must have tried to scare the dogs away. But after a while, some of them realized that the dogs ate rats, and also helped to clean up food garbage that drew flies and other insects. So campsites with dogs were cleaner and healthier than campsites without dogs. Fewer people got dysentery and died.
The people who lived in these cleaner campsites grew up stronger than people who shooed away dogs, and there were more of them. Eventually, the dog-lovers pretty much took over, all over the world. And dogs evolved to be able to digest more and more people-garbage, especially grains.
Somewhere along this line, people probably began to see that the dogs could do other things too. Dogs could let you know if any big animals or human enemies were coming. Dogs could let you know if the baby was getting into trouble. So people began to encourage the dogs to hang around. At some point, people also began to teach dogs to obey them, and they also started to use the dogs to help them hunt other animals, and to pull sleds. This was the earliest domestication of any animal, and may have given people the idea of domesticating sheep and goats, which came next. The domestication of dogs doesn't seem to have happened once, in one place, but many times, all over Europe and Asia, especially in India.
Dogs continued to be useful to people, and to live with people, even when people started to farm and to live in villages. It turned out that dogs could also guard sheep, and help to herd the sheep when you were moving them from one pasture to another. Some people ate dogs, especially in China. You might think of those dogs as a great way to turn garbage into food. Even in places where people usually didn't eat dogs, like Europe, dogs provided an emergency source of food when there was a famine. If you were starving, you had to kill and eat the village's dogs before they decided to eat you (and then there would be a lot more rats than usual, without the dogs to eat them, and you would live on the rats for a while). 
History of Bulldogs
The term «Bulldog» was first mentioned in literature around 1500, the oldest spelling of the word being Bondogge and Bolddogge. The first reference to the word with the modern spelling is dated 1631 or 1632 in a letter by a man named Preswick Eaton where he writes: «procuer mee two good Bulldogs, and let them be sent by ye first shipp. « The name «bull» was applied because of the dog's use in the sport of bull baiting. This entailed the setting of dogs (after placing wagers on each dog) onto a tethered bull. The dog that grabbed the bull by the nose and pinned it to the ground would be the victor. It was common for a bull to maim or kill several dogs at such an event, either by goring, tossing, or trampling. Over the centuries, dogs used for bull-baiting developed the stocky bodies and massive heads and jaws that typify the breed as well as a ferocious and savage temperament. Bull-baiting, along with bear-baiting, reached the peak of its popularity in England in the early 1800s until they were both made illegal by the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835. This amended the existing legislation to protect animals from mistreatment and included (as «cattle») bulls, dogs, bears, and sheep, so that bull and bear-baiting as well as cockfighting became prohibited. Therefore, the Old English Bulldog had outlived its usefulness in England as a sporting animal and its active or «working» days were numbered. However, emigrants did have a use for such dogs in the New World. In mid-17th century New York, Bulldogs were used as a part of a citywide roundup effort led by Governor Richard Nicolls. Because cornering and leading wild bulls was dangerous, Bulldogs were trained to seize a bull by its nose long enough for a rope to be secured around its neck.  Bulldogs as pets were continually promoted by dog dealer Bill George. 
Despite slow maturation so that growing up is rarely achieved by two and a half years, bulldogs' lives are relatively short. At five to six years of age they are starting to show signs of aging.
In time, the original old English Bulldog was crossed with the pug. The outcome was a shorter, wider dog with a brachycephalic skull. Though today's Bulldog looks tough, he cannot perform the job he was originally created for as he cannot withstand the rigors of running and being thrown by a bull, and also cannot grip with such a short muzzle.
The oldest single breed specialty club is The Bulldog Club (England), which was formed in 1878. Members of this club met frequently at the Blue Post pub on Oxford Street in London. There they wrote the first standard of perfection for the breed. In 1894 the two top Bulldogs, King Orry and Dockleaf, competed in a contest to see which dog could walk 20 miles. King Orry was reminiscent of the original Bulldogs, lighter boned and very athletic. Dockleaf was smaller and heavier set, more like modern Bulldogs. King Orry was declared the winner that year, finishing the 20-mile walk while Dockleaf collapsed. 
At the turn of the 20th century, Ch. Rodney Stone became the first Bulldog to command a price of $5, 000 when he was bought by controversial Irish American political figure Richard Croker.
Appearance of The Bulldog is a breed with characteristically wide head and shoulders along with a pronounced mandibular prognathism. There are generally thick folds of skin on a Bulldog's brow; round, black, wide-set eyes; a short muzzle with characteristic folds called rope above the nose; hanging skin under the neck; drooping lips and pointed teeth, and occasionally an underbite. The coat is short, flat, and sleek, with colors of red, fawn, white, brindle, and piebald.
Example of four-year-old English Bulldog of champion bloodline, side view. Notice the «rope» over the nose, and pronounced underbite.
In the UK, the breed standards are 50 pounds for a male and 40 pounds for a female.  In the United States, a typical mature male weighs 45 to 55 pounds. Mature females weigh about 45 pounds.
Bulldogs are one of the few breeds whose tail is naturally short and either straight or screwed and thus is not cut or docked as with some other breeds. A straight tail is a more desirable tail according the breed standard set forth by the BCA if it is facing downward, not upwards.
According to the American Kennel Club (AKC), a Bulldog's disposition should be «equable and kind, resolute, and courageous (not vicious or aggressive), and demeanor should be pacific and dignified. These attributes should be countenanced by the expression and behavior. «
Breeders have worked to reduce/remove aggression from these dogs. Eventually, the Bulldog is known to be of good temperament. Most have a friendly, patient nature. Generally, Bulldogs are known for getting along well with children, other dogs, and pets.  They can become so attached to home and family that they will not venture out of the yard without a human companion. They are also more likely to sleep on someone's lap than chase a ball around the yard.
History in Spain and England.
Even the slight modifications the bulldog underwent in Spain and England up to the Industrial Revolution (before 1835), were absent in the working strains. Most settlers of the American South came from the West Midlands of England and emigrated as a result of the Civil War between Royalists and Parliamentarians, well before the Industrial Revolution).
History in the United States.
The original bulldog was preserved by working class immigrants who brought their working dogs with them to the American South. Small farmers and ranchers used this all-around working dog for many tasks including farm guardians, stock dogs and catch dog. These dogs were not an actual breed as considered by today's standards but were a generic bulldog type. There were no recorded pedigrees or records and breeding decisions were dependent on the best working farm dogs despite breed or background. Several separate strains of the «bulldog» type dogs were kept by ranchers as utilitarian working dogs.
Perhaps the most important role of the bulldog and the reason for its survival, and in fact why it thrived throughout the South, was because of the presence of feral pigs, introduced to the New World and without predators. The bulldogs were the settlers' only means of sufficiently dealing with the vermin. By World War II, the breed was near extinction until John D. Johnson and his father scoured the back roads of the South looking for the best specimens to revive the breed. During this time a young Alan Scott grew an interest in Mr. Johnson's dogs and began to work with him on the revitalization process. At some point, Alan Scott began infusing non-Johnson catch bulldogs from working Southern farms with John D. Johnson's line, creating the now Standard American Bulldog. At another point, Mr. Johnson began crossing his line with an atavistic English bulldog from the North that had maintained its genetic athletic vigor.
American bulldogs are now safe from extinction and are enjoying a healthy increase in popularity, either as a working/protector dog or as a family pet. All over the world, they are used variously as «hog dogs» (catching escaped pigs or hunting razorbacks), as cattle drovers and as working or sport K-9s. American Bulldogs also successfully compete in several dog sports such as dog obedience, Schutzhund, French Ring, Mondio Ring, Iron Dog competition and weight pulling. They are also exhibited in conformation shows in the UKC, NKC, ABA, ABRA and the SACBR (South Africa).
The American bulldog is a stocky, well built, strong-looking dog, with a large head and a muscular build. Its coat is short and generally smooth. The breed is a light to moderate shedder; however, they should be brushed on regular basis. Colors, while historically predominantly white with patches of red, black, or brindle, have grown in recent years to include many color patterns including black, red, brown, fawn, and all shades of brindle. The color conformation is quite varied, but solid black or any degree of merle is considered a cosmetic fault, and a blue color is a disqualification by the NKC Breed Standard. Black pigmentation on the nose and eye rims is preferred, with only some pink allowed. Eye color is usually brown, but heterochromia also occurs, although considered a cosmetic fault. American Bulldogs can be droolers; this varies and is more prevalent in the Bully type, which is generally a larger, heavier dog with a shorter muzzle. Standard or Performance types are generally more athletic with longer muzzles and a more square head. It is important to note that many modern American Bulldogs are a combination of the two types usually termed «hybrid. « In general, American Bulldogs weigh between 27 to 54 kg (60 to 120 lb) and are 52 to 70 cm (20 to 28 in) at the withers, but have been known to greatly exceed these dimensions, especially in the «out of standard, « nonworking stock.
American Bulldogs are typically confident, social, and active dogs that are at ease with their families. It is not uncommon for an American Bulldog to require a high level of attention due to their highly emotional personality. They bond strongly with their owners. They are capable of jumping in excess of seven feet vertical due to the dense muscle build of the breed. Young American Bulldogs may be slightly aloof with strangers, but as they mature the breed's normal confidence should assert itself. This breed tolerates children and can do very well with them, provided they are socialized early and understand their limits. The more exposure to good training practices, other dogs, and people, the more likely the success at being controlled both inside and outside of their environment. Early training and socialization both in the home and outside of the home is essential for this breed. One way to help accomplish this goal can be done in the simplest of ways: walking them regularly at local parks. While the goal of the breed was originally to produce a working farm utility dog that could catch and hold wild boar and cattle, kill vermin, and guard an owner's property, when properly trained, exercised and socialized, this breed can become a great family pet.
American Bulldogs in popular culture:
In the TLC show Superpooches Zorch' from Double R American Bulldogs had a starring role.
In the book Little House on the Prairie, the Ingalls' family dog, Jack, was a brindled bulldog.
Spike and Tyke from the Tom and Jerry franchise.
Chance from the feature film, Homeward Bound: The Incredible Journey. Suregrips Rattler (Chance) was only in the first Homeward Bound movie.
The Deftones' video «Bloody Cape» featured a model walking an American Bulldog down the street. The American Bulldog was actually played by two separate dogs from the Norcal's American Bulldog Kennel. The names of the dogs were Big Trouble and Tory Hesta.
In the 2001 film Kevin of the North one of Kevin Manley's sled dogs is an American Bulldog named Snowflake.
Cheaper by the Dozen
Nedd («Nasty Evil Dead Dog») in The Number 23
In «Return to Me» 2000 «Mel», David Duchovny's character's dog, was played by an American Bulldog named Peetey.
In «Tucker and Dale vs Evil» 2010, «Jangers», Tyler Labine's character's dog, starred an American Bulldog named Weezer.
Although the original Petey from Hal Roach's Our Gang was an American Pit Bull, in the 1994 film remake, The Little Rascals, Petey was played by an American Bulldog. 
Early in the mid-19th century the «Bull and Terrier» breeds were developed to satisfy the needs for vermin control and animal-based blood sports. The «Bull and Terriers» were based on the Old English Bulldog (now extinct) and one or more of Old English Terrier and «Black and tan terrier», now known as Manchester Terrier. This new breed combined the speed and dexterity of lightly built terriers with the dour tenacity of the Bulldog, which was a poor performer in most combat situations, having been bred almost exclusively for fighting bulls and bears tied to a post. Many breeders began to breed bulldogs with terriers, arguing that such a mixture enhances the quality of fighting. Despite the fact that a cross between a bulldog and a terrier was of high value, very little or nothing was done to preserve the breed in its original form. Due to the lack of breed standards-breeding was for performance, not appearance-the «Bull and Terrier» eventually divided into the ancestors of «Bull Terriers» and «Staffordshire Bull Terriers», both smaller and easier to handle than the progenitor.
About 1850, James Hinks started breeding «Bull and Terriers» with «English White Terriers» (now extinct), looking for a cleaner appearance with better legs and nicer head. In 1862, Hinks entered a bitch called «Puss» sired by his white Bulldog called «Madman» into the Bull Terrier Class at the dog show held at the Cremorne Gardens in Chelsea. Originally known as the «Hinks Breed» and «The White Cavalier», these dogs did not yet have the now-familiar «egg face», but kept the stop in the skull profile.
The dog was immediately popular and breeding continued, using Dalmatian, Greyhound, Spanish Pointer, Foxhound and Whippet to increase elegance and agility; and Borzoi and Collie to reduce the stop. Hinks wanted his dogs white, and bred specifically for this. Generally, however, breeding was aimed at increasing sturdiness: three «subtypes» were recognised by judges, Bulldog, Terrier and Dalmatian, each with its specific conformation, and a balance is now sought between the three. The first modern Bull Terrier is now recognized as «Lord Gladiator», from 1917, being the first dog with no stop at all.
Due to medical problems associated with all-white breeding, Ted Lyon among others began introducing color, using Staffordshire Bull Terriers in the early 20th century. Coloured Bull Terriers were recognized as a separate variety (at least by the AKC) in 1936. Brindle is the preferred color, but other colors are welcome.
Along with conformation, specific behavior traits were sought. The epithet «White cavalier», harking back to an age of chivalry, was bestowed on a breed which while never seeking to start a fight was well able to finish one, while socializing well with its «pack», including children and pups. Hinks himself had always aimed at a «gentleman's companion» dog rather than a pit-fighter-though Bullies were often entered in the pits, with some success.
The Bull Terrier's most recognizable feature is its head,  described as 'egg shaped' when viewed from the front, the top of the skull is almost flat from ear to ear. Profile curves gently downwards from top of skull to tip of nose which should be black and bent downwards at tip. Nostrils are well developed and under-jaw deep and strong snout. The unique triangle-shaped eyes are small, dark, and deep-set. The body is full and round, while the shoulders are robust and very muscular and the tail is carried horizontally. They are generally white in color, walk with a jaunty gait, and are popularly known as the 'Gladiator of the canine race'.
Bull Terriers are known to be courageous, playful, and active. They enjoy being around people but are strong willed and thus require an assertive owner; as such the Bull Terrier is not recommended for households with small children if the owner is a first time Bull Terrier owner. Bull Terriers are affectionate and need the companionship of their owners and should not be kept outside in a kennel. Bull Terriers can be both independent and stubborn and for this reason are not considered suitable for an inexperienced dog owner. They are protective of their family, although comprehensive socialization at an early age will prevent them from becoming over-protective and neurotic.
Bull Terriers have a strong prey instinct and, like any strong dog breed, when unduly challenged may cause injury or death to other animals, especially cats. That said, puppies brought up with cats and other animals get on well with the animals they know. Early socialization will ensure that the dogs will get along with other dogs and animals. 
The origin of the modern French Bulldog breed descends directly from the dogs of the Molossians, an ancient Greek tribe. The dogs were spread throughout the ancient world by Phoenician traders. British Molossian dogs were developed into the Mastiff. A sub-family of the Mastiff were the Bullenbeisser, a type of dog used for bull-baiting. 
Blood sports such as bull-baiting were outlawed in England in 1835, leaving these «Bulldogs» unemployed.  However, they had been bred for non-sporting reasons since at least 1800, and so their use changed from a sporting breed to a companion breed. To reduce their size, some Bulldogs were crossed with terriers, while others were crossed with pugs. By 1850 the Toy Bulldog had become common in England, and appeared in conformation shows when they began around 1860.  These dogs weighed around 16-25 pounds (7. 3-11. 3 kg), although classes were also available at dog shows for those that weighed under 12 pounds (5. 4 kg). 
At the same time, lace workers from Nottingham, displaced by the industrial revolution, began to settle in Normandy, France.  They brought a variety of dogs with them, including miniature Bulldogs. The dogs became popular in France and a trade in imported small Bulldogs was created, with breeders in England sending over Bulldogs that they considered to be too small, or with faults such as ears that stood up. By 1860, there were few miniature Bulldogs left in England, such was their popularity in France and due to the exploits of specialist dog exporters. 
The small Bulldog type gradually became thought of as a breed, and received a name, the Bouledogue Francais.  This Francization of the English name is also a contraction of the words «boule» (ball) and «dogue» (mastiff or molosser). The dogs were highly fashionable and were sought after by society ladies and Parisian prostitutes alike, as well as creatives such as artists, writers and fashion designers.  However, records were not kept of the breed's development as it diverged further away from its original Bulldog roots. As it changed, terrier and Pug stock may have been brought in to develop traits such as the breed's long straight ears, and the roundness of their eyes. 
The French Bulldog should have the appearance of an active, muscular dog, of heavy bone, smooth coat, compactly built, and of medium or small structure. The points should be well distributed and bear good relation one to the other, no feature being in such prominence from either excess or lack of quality that the animal appears deformed or poorly proportioned. In comparison to specimens of different gender, due allowance should be made in favor of the female dogs, which do not bear the characteristics of the breed to the same marked degree as do the male dogs.
Acceptable colors under the breed standard are the various shades of brindle, fawn, tan or white with brindle patches (known as «pied»). The dominant color is brindle, then fawn with pieds being less common than the other colors. The breed clubs do not recognize any other colors or patterns. This is because some colors come linked with health problems not usually found in the breed, most notably blue coloration, which is linked with a form of alopecia, sometimes known as «Blue Dog Alopecia».  The skin should be soft and loose, especially at the head and shoulders, forming wrinkles. Coat moderately fine, brilliant, short and smooth.
The head should be large and square. The top of the skull should be flat but slightly rounded. The stop should be well defined, causing a hollow or groove between the eyes. Muzzle should be broad, deep, and well laid back; The muscles of the cheeks well developed. The nose should be extremely short; Nostrils broad with well defined line between them. The nose and flews should be black, except in the case of lighter-colored dogs, where a lighter color of nose is acceptable. The flews should be thick and broad, hanging over the lower jaw at the sides, meeting the underlip in front and covering the teeth, which should not be seen when the mouth is closed. The under-jaw should be deep, square, broad, undershot, and well turned up. Eyes should be wide apart, set low down in the skull, as far from the ears as possible, round in form, of moderate size, neither sunken or bulging, and in color dark. No haw and no white of the eye showing when looking forward. Ears shall hereafter be known as the bat ear, broad at the base, elongated, with round top, set high in the head, but not too close together, and carried erect with the orifice to the front. The leather of the ear fine and soft.
The neck should be thick and well arched, with loose skin at throat. The forelegs should be short, stout, straight and muscular, set wide apart. The body should be short and well rounded. The back should be a roach back, with a slight fall close behind the shoulders. It should be strong and short, broad at the shoulders and narrowing at the loins. The chest, broad, deep and full, well ribbed with the belly tucked up.
The hind legs should be strong and muscular, longer than the forelegs, so as to elevate the loins above the shoulders. Hocks well let down. The feet should be moderate in size, compact and firmly set. Toes compact, well split up, with high knuckles and short stubby nails; hind feet slightly longer than forefeet. The tail should be either straight or screwed (but not curly), short, hung V low, thick root and fine tip; carried low in repose. Other than bat ears; black and white, black and tan, liver, mouse or solid black (black means without any trace of brindle) ; eyes of different color; nose other than black except in the case of the lighter-colored dogs, where a lighter color of nose is acceptable; hare lip; any mutilation.
The French Bulldog, like many other companion dog breeds, requires close contact with humans. They have fairly minimal exercise needs, but do require at least daily walks. A flat-faced breed, French Bulldogs cannot live outdoors. Their bulk and their compromised breathing system makes it impossible for them to regulate their temperature efficiently. In addition, they are top heavy and therefore have difficulty in swimming. Precautions must be taken when exercising during hot or humid weather, as they are prone to heat strokes.
French Bulldogs are very sweet, and make excellent companions. The French Bulldog rarely barks and if he does it's often to draw attention, to point out that he needs something or just because he is not happy. This breed is patient and affectionate with its owners, especially with children, who are especially protected by the females. French Bulldogs can easily live with other breeds when the proper introductions are done.
They are ranked 58th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs.  There are certain exceptions to this average level of canine intelligence; a French Bulldog named Princess Jacqueline which died in 1934 was claimed to understand 20 words, reacting correctly. 
English Bulldogs in culture and art
Since the end of the XVIII century the Bulldogs began to appear in the paintings of English painters. Typically, these were portraits of famous dogs, multiple winners in the bloody sport. Two portraits - « Crib and Rosa « Abraham Cooper and «Portrait of a bulldog Boll in the landscape « Henry Klouvza - was destined to play a major role in the formation of the English bulldog breed. Later, artists began to capture the famous representatives of the breed, has gained fame in the ring and become champions. Among the authors of such works, George Earl (1824-1908), Francis Feyrman (1836-1923), Joshua Gibson. Known series of paintings by Arthur Heyer (Bulldog and a cat), Reuben Ward Binks - «Five Bulldogs on the Beach» (1914, several variants), « Six Bulldogs in Rokliffe « (1915) and Arthur Vardlya who also portrayed on each picture for 6 - 7 champions in rural surroundings.
English Bulldogs in literature.
Leo Tolstoy in «The third Russian book to read» (1875) included a series of short stories about his favorite black bulldog Bulka.
In the story of Jack London's «White Fang» English Bulldog was the only dog that has been able to win the main character of the novel White Fang. Bulldog grabbed him in a stranglehold in the throat and nearly strangled.
English Bulldogs in music.
Song The Beatles «Hey Bulldog» from the album «Yellow Submarine» (1969)
American punk rock band Bulldog (formed in the early 1990s)
English Bulldogs in cinematography.
Serial « Pelagia and the White Bulldog « (2009) based on the novel by Boris Akunin.
The film « Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows « (2011). Bulldog Gladstone continues to be subjected to experiments of Sherlock Holmes.
The film « Sherlock Holmes « (2009). Bulldog on Gladstone Sherlock Holmes constantly experienced various drugs, introducing him to a state of clinical death, but without much harm to the animal.
The film «Hipsters « (2008). Bulldog Phil awarded « Golden Fang « as Best Supporting Actor.
The film « Tresor «, France (2009). One of the main characters - a white English bulldog.
The film « Hotel for Dogs « (USA, 2009)
Movie «Mr. Magoo « (USA, 1997)
In the movie « The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson: The Treasures of Agra « (1983) starred Vasily Livanov Bambula Bulldog, and receive a fee, as a member of extras.
English Bulldogs in mass media.
Microsoft Bulldog - information system from Microsoft.
Bulldog Communications - British Internet provider.
Garik «Bulldog» Kharlamov - Russian comedian.
Constables Oxford University informally called «bulldogs. «
The British Bulldogs (British bulldogs) - child's play, popular in schools in the UK, Canada and Australia. 
The role of dogs in human life
We live in a world in which people cannot live without dogs, because dogs are dedicated friend. One should note here that not everyone think about how much money people should spend, if they want to be a good owner. I asked people from Britain and from Russia about it.
“How much money do you spend on your dog in a month? ”
Jennifer K Britain
“I have an 8 month old puppy German Shepard and a 2 year old St. Bernard, so when it comes to food and toys and treats, i spend about 60Ј a month because i buy the really good food, which isn't cheap. but when i first got the puppy, i spent A LOT more than that because of shots and going to the vet... ”
“I have a Labrador. I spend about 15Ј a month for food for one dog per month. That is a base cost. We use revolution for flea and tick control, and there are the vaccination cost and vet visits that can run from 18Ј to over 60Ј if there are meds. ”
A working dog is a canine working animal, i. e., a type of dog that is not merely a pet but learns and performs tasks to assist and/or entertain its human companions, or a breed of such origin.
Although most modern dogs are kept as pets, there are still a tremendous number of ways in which dogs can and do assist humans, and more uses are found for them every year. The following list provides an idea of the versatility of dogs:
Dogs were used as draught animals to pull small carts for farms, peddlers, or travellers (milk, fish, rags & bones, meat, bread, and other products), to deliver mail, and to pull carts carrying people for transportation or entertainment. They were used in World War I to pull small field guns. Dogs in harness sometimes had guard dogs to protect them from stray dogs. In 1839, a ban on draught dogs in London and a later ban on all draught dogs and a tax on other working dogs caused the deaths of over 150, 000 dogs, who were replaced in their work by children and adults.
Service or assistance dogs help people with various disabilities in everyday tasks. Some examples include mobility assistance dogs for the physically handicapped, guide dogs for the visually impaired, and hearing dogs for the hearing impaired.
Therapy dogs visit people who are incapacitated or prevented in some way from having freedom of movement; these dogs provide cheer and entertainment for the elderly in retirement facilities, the ill and injured in hospitals, and so on. The very act of training dogs can also act as a therapy for human handlers, as in a prisoner rehabilitation project.
Rescue dogs assist people who are in difficult situations, such as in the water after a boat disaster.
Search dogs locate people who are missing; lost in the wilderness, escaped from nursing homes, covered in snow avalanches, buried under collapsed buildings, etc.
Herding dogs are still invaluable to sheep and cattle handlers (stockmen) around the world for mustering; different breeds are used for the different jobs involved in stock work and for guarding the flocks and herds. Modern herding dogs help to control cattle and wild geese in parks or goats used for weed control. A well trained dog can adapt to control any sort of domestic and many wild animals.
Sled dogs, although today primarily used in sporting events, still can assist in transporting people and supplies in rugged, snowy terrain.
Performing dogs such as Circus dogs and dog actors are trained to perform acts that are not intrinsically useful, but instead provide entertainment to their audience or enable human artistic performances.
Hunting dogs assist hunters in finding, tracking, and retrieving game, or in routing vermin. Less frequently a dog, or rather or a pack of them, actually fights a predator, such as a bear or feral pig.
Guard dogs and watch dogs help to protect private or public property, either in living or used for patrols, as in the military and with security firms.
Tracking dogs help find lost people and animals or track down possible criminals.
Cadaver dog or Human Remains Detection Dogs use their scenting ability to discover bodies or human remains at the scenes of disasters, crimes, accidents, or suicides.
Detection dogs of a wide variety help to detect termites and bedbugs in homes, illegal substances in luggage, bombs, chemicals, and many other substances.
War Dogs or K9 Corps are used by armed forces in many of the same roles as civilian working dogs, but in a military context. In addition, specialized military tasks such as mine detection or wire laying have been assigned to dogs. Military Working Dog is the more formal, current term for dogs trained for use in military tasks.
Police dogs, also sometimes called K9 Units, are usually trained to track or immobilize possible criminals while assisting officers in making arrests or investigating the scene of a crime. Some are even specially trained for anti-terrorist units, as in Austria.
Dogs are sometimes used in programs to assist children in learning how to read. The Reading With Rover program in Washington pairs trained dogs with children who read aloud to the dog. This process builds confidence and reduces stress. 
Dogs in World War One
Dogs had a vital part to play in World War One as the complexes of trenches spread throughout the Western Front. It is estimated that by 1918, Germany had employed 30, 000 dogs, Britain, France and Belgian over 20, 000 and Italy 3000. America, at first, did not use dogs except to utilize a few hundred from the Allies for specific missions. Later, after a chance stowaway, the USA produced the most decorated and highly-ranked service dog in military history, Sergeant Stubby.
Lots of dog breeds were used during World War One, but the most popular type of dogs were medium-sized, intelligent and trainable breeds. Two in particular were used because of their superior strength, agility, territorial nature and trainability; Doberman Pinscher's and GSDs, both native to Germany. Doberman's were used because they are both highly intelligent and easily trainable, and possess excellent guarding abilities. Being of slight frame and extremely agile, their dark coat allowed them to slip undetected through terrain without alerting the enemy. They were employed most frequently in Germany. German Shepherd's were used also because of their strength, intelligence and trainability, being eager to please their masters. Other breeds associated with WWI were smaller breeds such as terriers, who were most often employed as 'ratters'; dogs trained to hunt and kill rats in the trenches.
Military dogs in World War One were positioned in a variety of roles, depending on their size, intelligence and training. Generally, the roles fell into the category of sentry dogs, scout dogs, casualty dogs, explosive dogs, ratters and mascot dogs.
These dogs were patrolled using a short leash and a firm hand. They were trained to accompany usually one specific guard and were taught to give a warning signal such as a growl, bark or snarl to indicate when an unknown or suspect presence was in the secure area such as a camp or military base. Dobermans have traditionally been used as sentry dogs and are still widely used today as guard dogs.
These dogs were highly trained and had to be of a quiet, disciplined nature. Their role was to work with soldiers on foot patrolling the terrain ahead of them. These dogs were useful to the military because they could detect enemy scent up to 1000 yards away, sooner than any man could. Instead of barking and thus drawing attention to the squad, the dogs would stiffen raise its shackles and point its tail, which indicated that the enemy was encroaching upon the terrain. Scout dogs were widely used because they were highly efficient in avoiding detection of the squad.
Casualty or 'Mercy' dogs were vital in World War One. Originally trained in the late 1800's by the Germans, they were later utilised across Europe. Known as 'Sanitatshunde' in Germany, these dogs were trained to find the wounded and dying on battlefields and were equipped with medical supplies to aid those suffering. Those soldiers who could help themselves to supplies would tend to their own wounds, whilst other more gravely wounded soldiers would seek the company of a Mercy dog to wait with them whilst they died.
Dogs were used as messengers and proved to be as reliable as soldiers in the dangerous job of running messages. The complexities of trench warfare meant that communication was always a problem. Field communication systems were crude and there was always the very real possibility that vital messages from the front would never get back to headquarters or vice versa. Human runners were potentially large targets and weighed down by uniforms there was a chance that they would not get through. In the heat of a battle, there was even less of a chance of a runner getting through as the enemy's artillery was likely to be pounding your frontline and the area behind it. Vehicles were also problematic as they could breakdown or the 'roads' could have been reduced to a mushy pulp and travel on them made impossible.
Dogs were the obvious solution to this pressing problem. A trained dog was faster than a human runner, presented less of a target to a sniper and could travel over any terrain. Above all, dogs proved to be extremely reliable if they were well trained. A dog training school was established in Scotland and a recruit from this school traveled over 4000 metres on the Western Front with an important message to a brigade's headquarters. The dog traveled this distance (war records classed it as «very difficult» terrain) in less than sixty minutes. All other methods of communicating with the headquarters had failed - but the dog had got through.
Dogs also had another role to play on the Western Front. For men trapped in the horrors of trench warfare, a dog in the trenches (whether a messenger dog or not) was a psychological comfort that took away, if only for a short time, the horrors they lived through. It is said that Adolf Hitler kept a dog with him in the German trenches. For many soldiers on any of the sides that fought in the trenches, a dog must have reminded them of home comforts. 
Dog and human
In houses, dogs calm us psychologically, providing companionship and reducing stress, unless we are an intruder or someone who meets a dog behaving badly in which case, well, some dogs, of course, can bite or even kill us. One of the original reasons for the domestication of dogs was undoubtedly as protection, whether from other animals or from other humans, but our protectors can go wrong. Dogs attack more people than any other predator. When they do, they recall the dangerous possibilities of their (and our) bodies and teeth.
A dog has around 125 to 300 million scent glands, while a human has around 5 million scent glands. This means a dog's sense of smell is around 1, 000 to 100, 000 times more sensitive than a human's.
It is a dog's intricate sense of smell that has captured the interest of the medical world in using these animals to help detect human diseases and to help people who suffer from these diseases live a more fulfilling life.
Dogs4Diabetics is a US organization founded in 2004 that researches, trains and places medical assistance diabetic alert dogs with insulin-dependent diabetics.
Ralph Hendrix, executive director of Dogs4Diabetics, told Medical News Today how dogs are able to detect hypoglycemia in diabetics.
«We believe all diseases have scent associated with the diseases, due to the changes occurring within the body, with different organs expressing different chemical compounds. These scents are evident in breath and sweat, « he explained.
«Dogs have highly sensitive senses and can learn to recognize symptoms from many types of disorders. In our work, they are not taught to react to symptoms, but to scent. «
But of course, these dogs do not automatically adapt to detection of these scents. A great deal of training goes into ensuring they acquire the correct smell to carry out their job.
Dogs That Changed the World introduced Daisy and Tangle, dogs able to sniff out cancer cells, and Delta, a German Shepherd who can sense changes in the blood sugar levels of her young master. The talents of these special animals are matched by those of tens of thousands of remarkable canines - dogs trained to sense disease and seizures, to assist the physically and emotionally disabled, and to provide comfort, affection, and therapy to their human companions.
Daisy and Tangle were trained to detect the unique odor of bladder cancer cells in urine samples, but researchers have found that dogs can also nose out other forms of cancer. At the Sensory Research Institute at Florida State University in Tallahassee, scientists have trained dogs to detect the odor of skin melanomas and prostate cancer. In 2006, researchers at the Pine Street Foundation in Northern California reported that they had taught dogs to pinpoint patients with lung cancer (with 97 percent accuracy) and breast cancer (with 88 percent accuracy) -simply by sniffing their breath. The researchers are now training dogs to detect ovarian cancer.
Dogs like Delta are trained to detect subtle changes in a diabetic patient's body chemistry that occur when the levels of glucose in the blood drop too low or rise too high. Either can lead to seizures, convulsions, diabetic coma, and death. Other dogs have been trained to respond to heart attacks, and to recognize changes in the blood pressure of their owners. Delta, a German Shepherd, can sense changes in the blood sugar levels of her young diabetic master. Dogs known as seizure dogs (or seizure response dogs) have been trained or have learned to react when a person with epilepsy is having a seizure. These dogs might bark to notify others of the seizure, lie down next to the person to prevent them from harm, remove dangerous objects from the vicinity so the person is not harmed, or attempt to revive the person after the seizure ends if they lose consciousness. More remarkably, the companion dogs of epileptics may learn to sense an impending seizure in their owner before it happens. In a 1998 survey by researchers at the University of Florida, 10 percent of epileptic patients with companion dogs reported that their dogs seemed to know when they were going to have a seizure. Although experts aren't sure exactly how dogs do this, it may be that they are detecting subtle changes in body chemistry or in the behavior of their owner. In some cases, these dogs have been trained to perform a particular activity - running in circles, for example-to notify their owner of what they have sensed.
The most widely used and well-known service dogs are those trained to provide assistance to blind or visually impaired people, acting as the eyes of their owner. There are also hearing dogs, trained to assist deaf people and to alert them to sounds such as smoke alarms, doorbells, and crying babies; mobility assist dogs, which pull wheelchairs and provide help to the physically impaired; and walker dogs, which help provide balance when walking to individuals suffering from movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and spasms. In addition, dogs have been trained to assist persons with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorder. These dogs learn to recognize changes in their owner's behavior or environment that indicate paranoia, panic attacks, hallucinations, or potentially harmful repetitive actions, for example, and may remind them to take medication.
The same body that can kill, can also warm. In ancient cities, dogs may have saved lives by preventing their owners from freezing to death. Those hairless, Peruvian dogs with their yellow Mohawks are reported to have protected the cold body of many an Incan official. The native people of Australia also seem to have appreciated dog heat, `on cold nights they slept with their dingoes to keep warm (though the English are said to have preferred to warm themselves on pigs). ' Dogs still warm us with that same, canine heat.
What these researchers found: pregnant mothers who lived in houses with dogs tended to have lower levels of IgE antibodies in their cord blood-and such lower levels have been found to be protective when it comes to childhood allergies6. This study like any study, had limits. The number of women considered was relatively small. In addition, the study was not experimental. The dogs were not given randomly to women irrespective of their interest in having a dog. But who are we kidding? There are not researchers in the world dumb enough to try to force a pregnant woman who doesn't want a dog to take care for one, at least none who have survived.
The researchers studying pregnant mothers posited that the effect of the dogs is due to the effect of dogs on the microbes in the house and on and even in the body. Initially, this argument was pure speculation, but in 2010 another group of researchers considered the microbes in six houses with dogs and five without. Their goal was specific, figuring out which microbes were present. They seemed to find a difference, though they were appropriately cautious in interpreting it, stating that the diversity of bacteria in the dog houses seemed higher than that in the no-dog houses. Interestingly, fungal diversity seemed lower in dog houses (though again, the sample size was very small).
A more recent study has shown that children with pets in general (primarily dogs) are at a reduced risk of childhood wheezing (which is associated with allergy and asthma). The study also found that one common bacteria species, generally thought of as a beneficial gut microbe, Bifodobacterium longum, was more abundant in those children exposed to pets than those who were not exposed to pets and suffered from wheezing.
Dog meat is consumed in some East Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Vietnam, a practice that dates back to antiquity.  It is estimated that 13-16 million dogs are killed and consumed in Asia every year.  The BBC claims that, in 1999, more than 6, 000 restaurants served soups made from dog meat in South Korea.  In Korea, the primary dog breed raised for meat, the nureongi (ґ©··АМ), differs from those breeds raised for pets that Koreans may keep in their homes. 
The most popular Korean dog dish is gaejang-guk (also called bosintang), a spicy stew meant to balance the body's heat during the summer months; followers of the custom claim this is done to ensure good health by balancing one's gi, or vital energy of the body. While the dishes are still popular in Korea with a segment of the population, dog is not as widely consumed as beef, chicken, and pork. When I read this I decided to ask my Korean friend about dog meat. Is it true or not?
Many people are fond of pets. They keep different animals and birds as pets. More often they are dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea-pigs, parrots and fish. As for me I like parrots. They are my favourite pets. They are clever and nice. I've got a parrot.
топик [3,1 K], добавлен 04.05.2005
History of the English language, its causes and global distribution. His role in global communication between peoples and as a major business. Comparison of British and American dialects. Proof of the importance of their various teaching for pupils.
курсовая работа [119,7 K], добавлен 26.06.2015
The old Germanic languages, their classification and principal features. The chronological division of the History of English. The role of the Wessex dialect. The Norman Conquest and its effect on English. The Germanic languages in the modern world.
контрольная работа [34,7 K], добавлен 17.01.2010
A short history of the origins and development of english as a global language. Peculiarities of american and british english and their differences. Social and cultural, american and british english lexical differences, grammatical peculiarities.
дипломная работа [271,5 K], добавлен 10.03.2012
American history reflected in idioms. Structure of Idioms. Differences and usage in American English and British English. Influence of the American English on the world of idioms. Main differences in usage. English idioms and their usage in everyday life.
реферат [773,8 K], добавлен 27.10.2011
Why English language so the expanded language in the world. The English countries of conversation are located in various parts of the world and differ in the different ways. Each country has own customs of history, tradition, and own national holidays.
топик [10,7 K], добавлен 04.02.2009
Spread in the world of English as a native and first spoken. The origins of the English from the invading Germanic tribes in Britain in the 5th century and up today, the change in pronunciation. English-speaking countries of the world; American English.
презентация [7,1 M], добавлен 09.03.2015
The war of the Roses is a very important period for the British culture and history. Exposure of the dates and importance of some events for the Lancastrians and the Yorkists. Searching the peculiarities in the background of different things and events.
курсовая работа [39,2 K], добавлен 16.02.2010
In many respects the period between the end of World War I and the end of World War II was one of sharp discontinuities. Few eras in American history present such vivid contrasts compressed into so short a time.
реферат [26,0 K], добавлен 23.08.2008
Geographical location, state organization and population of England. Its remarkable sights and ancient monuments. King Henry VIII and British history religion. Newspapers, Radio, TV in Great Britain, British Broadcasting Corporation, pop and rock music.
курсовая работа [44,9 K], добавлен 12.10.2009