Discourse Analysis

Analysis of competing discourses. Examples of Discourse Analysis. Discourse Analysis, Discourse Definition and Discourse Community on wise GEEK. The grammar of a specific language. Discourse domain and Discourse Markers. Functions of Discourse Markers.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Язык английский
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The term discourse has several definitions. In the study of language, it often refers to the speech patterns and usage of language, dialects, and acceptable statements, within a community. It is a subject of study in peoples who live in secluded areas and share similar speech conventions.

Sociologists and philosophers tend to use the term discourse to describe the conversations and the meaning behind them by a group of people who hold certain ideas in common. Such is the definitions by philosopher Michel Foucault, who holds it to be the acceptable statements made by a certain type of discourse community. This explanation will primarily consider the definition pertaining to sociology.

A discourse community can be defined as people who share similar thoughts and ideas. The fan base of the Rolling Stones for example, might constitute such a community. Within this fan base, certain attitudes would be considered unacceptable and outside of the community. For example, someone who did not hold the song Brown Sugar in the same high esteem as other members might be summarily tossed out on his ear. Ideology defines what can be discussed.

Discourse in this manner can exist over time and represents the total of all written/spoken/recorded thoughts that the community claims. Thus early analysis of the Rolling Stones is as valid as opinions held today by modern fans. When discourse applies to a larger philosophical ideal, like Marxism, that explaining Marxism, predating Marxism, and applying Marxism to today would all be part of the community, and some study the history of such discourse.

It is flexible to the degree to which a discourse community allows such. For example, the discourse of the post-structuralisms tends to be wide open to new interpretations and ideas, as well as vehement attacks on the contribution of others. As long as some members of the community accept new conversation, then it forms part of the community and thus exists without a time line.

Rhetoricians and philosophers often speak of competing discourses. We can see such an example in the Christian right movement and the liberal left. Each group has a discourse that competes with other thoughts and beliefs and each has a history. Some study the times when certain competing discourses begin to emerge and become more popular. For example, a philosopher or political scientist might look at the predominant religious right and question how this discourse influenced presidential elections.

The same analysis of competing discourses might be applied to approaches to literature or art. For example, for a while, post-modernist discourse tended to be most influential in the study and interpretation of art. This has led to a backlash from formalist critics and their community. Philosophers like Foucault see competing discourses as something akin to war. In fact, real war can be often attributed to this competition.

Others liken discourse and its communities to an essential need for humans to express belonging and share beliefs. The variety is essential because of a person's individual needs. Evaluation of discourse helps us to discover trends in all such communities.

Studies may also exist to determine how words within discourse can express viewpoints. The words couch potato has negative connotations and is primarily employed by those who view watching television as an inferior activity. Contrasting this to the words avid television fan shows how feelings about a subject are often expressed in words. A liberal person might employ the term bible thumper, where a person belonging to the religious right might employ the term religious right. Language choice frequently defines where our thoughts and allegiances lie.

Some effort has been made to nullify insulting language and discourse communities through what is frequently termed political correctness. However, the language of political correctness is now its own community. Those employing this language believe that words should exist without sexism or racism. By using politically correct speech, such members actually are making statements that sexism and racism are not acceptable. Anti-politically correct discourse communities now battle it out with those who consider themselves politically correct. Thus, the two communities are very much as Foucault described, fighting wars of words to express ideology.

Examples of Discourse Analysis on wise GEEK

In a nutshell, discourse analysis does not answer, but interprets. The method of discourse analysis has been used as far back as the 1950s. It has become useful in studying language as a tool for social interaction.

They may use different theoretical frameworks and corresponding discourse analysis methods. For example, so-called critical discourse analysis proposes that language is fundamentally a tool of social power, and its methods typically scale human conversations onto parameters such as inequality and dominance.

Discourse Analysis on wise GEEK

The grammar of a specific language is a surface structure representing transformations of the fundamental, universal relationships. Within this framework, discourse analysis methods include graphically mapping the transformation in relationships and creating computational rules for their grammatical changes.

In a nutshell, discourse analysis does not answer, but interprets. The method of discourse analysis has been used as far back as the 1950s. It has become useful in studying language as a tool for social interaction.

Discourse Definition on wise GEEK

The concept of the role of music as discourse originally stemmed from the realization that music stimulates the organs in the ear, and in this regard, fits the definition of discourse or language because it conveys information to a discerning listener. Music's ability to enhance emotional states like serenity, regret, or exuberance has led some researchers to title musical discourse as the “music of the emotions.

Sociology and neuroscience. Each discipline has its own definition and interpretation of discourse within its subject's context. Many disciplines -- such as.

analysis competing discourse marker

Discourse Community on wise GEEK

Other more specific idiomatic terms, such as “techno-babble” or “geek speak,” provide examples of how people informally analyze a discourse community revolving around information technology. Another example of a discourse-using community is a set of readers of a particular scientific or academic journal.

Shared experiences online can be used for everything from professional advancement to improved ability to navigate video games. Researchers who examine online communities note that cooperating on tasks tends to increase the feeling of connection and community between the members.

Discourse domain

Discourse domain is a cognitive construct created in response to a number of factors, including semantic category, but also to other features of situational and linguistic context. For example, when we enter a room where a conversation is going on, we of course pay attention to the topic of the talk, but we also take note of a number of other features of the situation, including the physical setting, who the participants are, what the purpose of their conversation appears to be, whether the conversation seems to be businesslike, friendly, or angry, what features of language the participants are using, and what relationship they appear to have with each other. Depending upon our analysis of the situation in terms such as these, we might feel that this is a situation we are familiar with and would feel comfortable joining; in other words, as Douglas and Selinker would say, we possess a discourse domain for dealing with this communication situation. Discourse domains are developed or engaged in response to signals in the situational and linguistic environment which interlocutors attend to in interpreting (indeed, creating) context.

Discourse Markers

Functions of Discourse Markers

"Although somewhat dated, [this list of functions based on Laurel J. Brinton (1990:47f)] is still relevant to current studies of discourse markers. According to this list, discourse markers are used

- to initiate discourse,

- to mark a boundary in discourse (shift/partial shift in topic),

- to preface a response or a reaction,

- to serve as a filler or delaying tactic,

- to aid the speaker in holding the floor,

- to effect an interaction or sharing between speaker and hearer,

- to bracket the discourse either cataphorically or anaphorically,

- to mark either fore grounded or back grounded information."

(Simone Muller, Discourse Markers in Native and Non-Native English Discourse. John Benjamins, 2005)

"Speakers, particularly in conversational exchanges, tend to use discourse markers... as a way of indicating orientation to what is happening in the discourse. The discourse markers have little explicit meaning but have very definite functions, particularly at transitional points... In the written language, equivalents are expressions such ashowever, on the other hand, on the contrary, which are used in the transition from one sentence to another."

(R. Macaulay, The Social Art: Language and Its Uses. Oxford Univ. Press, 2006)

"Then indicates temporal succession between prior and upcoming talk. Its main difference from now is the direction of the discourse which it marks: now points forward in discourse time and then points backward. Another difference is that now focuses on how the speaker's own discourse follows the speaker's own prior talk; then, on the other hand, focuses on how the speaker's discourse follows either party's prior talk."

(D. Schiffrin, Discourse Markers. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988)

Also Known As: DM, discourse particle, discourse connective, pragmatic marker, pragmatic particle

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