Lexicology of the English language
Subject matter of Lexicology. Types of Lexicology and its links with other branches of linguistics. Meaning and context. Causes of semantic change. Definition of polysemy. The difference between homonymy and polycemy. Classification of antonyms.
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a bare -- скучный человек, a washout -- пропавший человек.
There are some words which indicate the special impor-t:^ce of the thing expressed. They are called intensifiers. For example. even, ever, all, so, awfully, tremendously, wonderfully, terribly. awfully glad, terribly important . . .
The Uzbek words: o?, фи?он, аф?он, фарёд are used as intensifiers.
4. Evaluatory words
It should be pointed out that among the emotionally coloured words we can find words which express evaluation, judgment. They are called evaluatory words. Mostly names of animals have a strong evaluatory force.
For example. «Silly ass» said Dick. «He's jealous because he didn't win a prize».
cattwitted --мелояный, dirty dog -- грязный подлец, colt -- a young male horse used for a young unexperienced person, pup -- щенок, They have negative evaluation. But in English we have words which have positive evaluation, For examplebunny -- кролик(ласк), bunting-- птичка (ласк). Jn the English language we can find a lot of vulgar words which are used in emotional speech: For example. Damn! Alas!
One and the same word may have different evaluatian when it is uzed with words denoting different sex. He is a bull (it has a positive evaluation) She is a bull (it has a negative evaluation) In Uzbek: «че?ра» has positive evaluation but «6aшapa» has negative.
5. Stylistic differences of words
On different occasions and situations the speaker uses different words, chooses different words in different spheres of communication. There are some words which are used in lecture, in a poem or when speaking to a child, an off icial person etc. They are very highly frequent words. These words are called stylistically neutral words.
For example, evening, man, girl, table, horse, read, write, speak, beautiful, nice etc.
But we have a lot of words which cannot be used in any situation or, we speak to any person. They are called stylistically marked words.
For example. the English nouns «horse», «steed», «gee-gee» have the same meaning, they all refer to the same animal but they are stylistically different.
«Horse» is stylistically neutral and may be used in any situation. «Steed» belongs to poetic vocabulary. It has a lofty meaning. «Gee-gee» -- is a nursery word neutral in a child's speech. And it is not used in adult conversation. So stylistically coloured words are suitable only on certain definite occasions in specific conditions of communication. Each stylistically coloured word has a neutral synonym:
For example. steed -- horse, ire -- anger, sustain-- suffer, obtain-- get, accomodation -- room, woe -- sorrow, fair -- beautiful, slay --kill.
Among the stylistically--coloured words we can find: Slang- words.
Slang- words. They are expressive, mostly ironical words. They serve to create fresh names for some things. They sound somewhat vulgar, harsh, mockingly, contemptously. For example. The word «inoney» has the following slang words as: beans, brass, dibs, dough, chink, oof, wads.
The slang synonyms for word «head» are: attic, brain -- -- pan, hat, peg, nut, upper storey. The slang synonyms for the adjective «drunk» are: boozy, cock-eyed, high, soaked, tight.
6. The correlation of different aspects of words
The words have different characteristic features: some words have many meanings and some of them have only one or two meanings. Some of them are more frequent in speech than the others. Some words give a lot of derivatives and others do not. Some of them may be a component of many phraseological units and some of them are not used in the formation of phraseological units. So we see that different words may have different activity in the language and speech. So- different words play different role in the language and in speech. And studying the interdependence and interrelation of these different aspects of words is very important.
The correlation is the interdependence of different aspects of words. Scientists paid attention to the interdependence of different pecularities of words for a long time. For example. George Zipf (The Meaning and Freguency Relationship of Words. The Journal of General Psychology (U. S. A., vol 33, 1945) and French linguist Quiraud worked out the correlation of meaning of words and their frequency value. R. S. Ginzburg tried to study the interdependence of frequency value and the coliocability of words etc. The interdependence of different aspects of the word may be easily observed through a comparative analysis of these aspects in relation to each other.
The frequency value is very important feature of a word and it is, as a rule, a most reliable and objective factor indicating the relative value of the word in the language. The frequency value alone is in many cases enough to judge about structural, stylistic, semantic, and etymological pecula-rites of words. The frequency value singles out two classes of words: notional words and functional words.
The notional words have low frequency value but functional words are more frequent than the notional words in speech.
It is interesting to note that the words «the», «of», «and», «to», «a», «in», «that», «is», «was», «he» are the most frequent words. They often occur in the English texts.
There is a certain interdependence between the number of meanings in a word and its structural and derivational tructure, its etymological character, its stylistic reference.
The higher frequency, the more polysemantic is the word.
For example. change --790 fr.-more than 10 meanings
take--7008 fr-more than 10 meanings
serve-- 1744 fr-more than 10 meanings
The longer the word the fewer meanings it has
For example. «man» has more than 10 meanings but «woman» has 4 meanings, the word «hand» has more than 12 meanings but the word «handshake» has only 1 meaning.
The latest linguistic investigations show that the number of meanings may be correlated with the number of morphemes the word consists of. Derived words have less meanings and frequency value than the root words.
For example. «heart» has 5 meanings, «hearty» has 3 «heart- felt -- 1, heartily -- 2, «girl» has 7 meanings, «girlhood» has 1, «girlish» -- 2, girlishness has 1 meaning etc», «man» has more than 11 meanings but the derived words «manful», «manly», «manliness» have only one meaning each.
Derived words are as a rule poorer in the number of meanings and have lower frequency value than the simple words. For examplethe noun «hand» has 15 meanings while the derived verb «to hand» has only one meaning, «teach» has 5 meanings but the word «teacher» has only 2 meanings.
We can see the interdependence between the number of meanings of the word and its stylistic reference. The neutral style words with zero emotive charge have more meanings than the literary, stylistically coloured words of some emotive charge.
For example. «try» and «endeavour» are synonyms, the former is a neutral style word and it has 8 meanings, but «endeavour» a bookish word and it has only 1 meaning; «make» has 2 meanings but its literary synonym «manufacture» has only 2 meanings; «horse» has 5 meanings but its poetic synonym «steed» has only one meaning. We may also observe the interdependence between the number of meanings of the words and their word-building ability.
The more number of meanings the word has the more derivatives it gives.
For example«divide» has 12 meanings and 24 derivatives (divi-dable, dividant, divided, divider, dividing, division, dividedness, dividedly, undivided, undividable, undividedly, undivi-dedness, misdivision etc, but the verb «joke» has only 2 meanings and can give 3 derivatives (joker, jokingly, joke). The verb «extend» has 8 meanings and it can be the stem for 14 derivatives (extendible, extendibility, extender, unextended, unextendedly, overextend etc). The verb «fix» has 14 meanings and it has 15 derivatives (fixer, fixation, fixative, unfix, fixity, fixedly, fixedness etc).
The frequency value, semantic activity of the words are connected with their phraseological activity too.
The greater frequency and number of meanings the word has, the greater number of phraseological units they are used in, For example. the following verbs have a lot of meanings and a higher frequency value therefore they may be the components of a lot of phraseological units.
take --766, get --474, turn--108, -
pass -- 75, carry -- 81, serve--32,
raise -- 57, push -- 31, catch -- 61
touch -- 36, move -- 29, change -- 26,
lift --27, enter --21, cross --20.
Frequency value may also be used as a clue to the etymological character of the word and to its interrelation with number of meanings. The most frequently used words belong either to the native words or to the early borrowings which are fully assimilated in English. The verbs catch, change, take, get, give, call, serve, return etc are early borrowed words therefore they are very frequent. The verbs «build», «believe», «work», «begin», «go», «teach», ^understands, «stop», «help», ^answers, «write», «read», «come», «see», «open», «sing» etc are the native words. They were born in Great Britain therefore they have a lot of meanings and high frequency value.
Late borrowings as «regime», «bourgeoisie» etc have low frequency value and are very seldom polysemantic. Let's consider the synonyms «to ask», «to questions, «to interrogates, «to demands or «to keeps, «to preserves, «to retains. Among these words only «ask» and «keep» are polysemantic and are widely used in Modern English because theverbs «to ask» and «to keep» are of native origin but others are borrowings.
By systematically comparing the relative frequency of various words with the number of senses in which they are used, the late Q. K. Zipf, arrived at an interesting conclusion which he termed the principle of divercity of meanings. According to Zipf, there is a direct relationship between the number of different meanings of a word and its relative frequency of occurrences. He even tried to find a mathematical formula for this relationship. His calculations suggested that «different meanings of a word will tend to be equal to the square root of its relative frequency.
Frequency value of different meanings of polysemantic words may be different too. For example. the adjective «exact» has two meanings (ани?, озода). The comparison of the frequency value of these meanings shows that they are not of equal importance in the semantic structure of the word. The first meaning of this word comprises 78 % of occurrences of the word and 18% belongs to the second meaning. Thus, as we see, different aspects of the word are interdependent and interrelated. Among them the frequency value or the semantic activity of the word are in most cases enough to judge about structural, stylistic, semantic, wordbuilding phraseological activities and etymological pecularities of words. If the word has a high frequency value or has a number of meanings one may suppose that it is monomorphemic, simple, monosyllabic, stylistically neutral, and active in word formation and can be a component of several phraseological units.
The analysis of the correlation of different fspects of the most frequent verbs in English showed the following result.
The aspects of activity of verbs
The coefficient ol the correlation
frequency-- semantic activity
frequency --wordformational activity
frequency -- valancy
frequency -- phraseological activity
semantic activity -- wordformationa activity
semantic activity-- phraseological activity
phraseological activity -- wordformational activity phraseological activity--valancy
CHAPTER 5. PHRASEOLOGY
1. Definition of phraseological units, their stability and ideomaticity
Functionally and semantically inseparable units are usually called phraseological units. Phraseological units cannot be freely made up in speech but are-reproduced as ready made units. The lexical components in phraseological units are stable and they are non-motivated i. e. its meaning cannot be deduced from the meaning of its components and they do not allow their lexical components to be changed or substituted.
In phraseological units the individual components do not seem to possess any lexical meaning outside the word group.
For example. red tape (bureaucratic methods), to get rid of; to take place; to lead the dance; to take care.
Prof. A.I. Smirnitsky states that a phraseological unit may be defined as specific word groups functioning as a word-equivalent. The phraseological units are single semantically inseparable units. They are used in one function in the sentence and belong to one part of speech.
According to their semantic and grammatical inseparability we may classify the phraseological units into: noun equivalents (heavy father), verb equivalents (take place, break the news) adverb equivalents (in the long run, high and low).
«Being word equivalents phraseological units may be more or less complFor exampleThere, are phraseological units with one semantic centre, i. e with the domination of component over another. This semantically dominating element also determines the equivalence of the phraseological unit to a certain class of words. This type of phraseological units is termed «collocation» (For example: verb -- adverb collocation: to look after; attributive collocation; For example. out of the way; prepositional noun collocation: e. g. in accordance with.
There are phraseological units with two centres. They differ from collocations by the absence of one central word which focuses the main semantic and grammatical properties of the whole. They are termed «set expressions» (verb + noun set expression), For example. to fall in love; adjective -f noun set expressions e. g. black ball; phraseological repetitions e. g. spick and span.
Prof. A. Koonin does not support Smirnitsky's point of view on the equivalence of phraseological units. A. Koonin points out that the components of phraseological units are mounted separately and therefore they can't be used in one function in the sentence. For example. He gets rid of it. The problem of equivalency of phraseological units to words demands further investigation.
A.V. Koonin thinks that phraseology must be an independent linguistic science and not a part of Lexicology. Phraseological units are based on the functions in speech.
Stability of phraseological units is seen in its disallowance of the substitution o[ word groups. For example. «to shrug one's shoulders» does not allow to substitute either «shrug» or shoulder
Idiomaticity of phraseological units is lack of word groups. If a word group does not allow word by word translation it is called idiomatic word groups. For example. to kick the bucket (умереть) in the soup (затруднительном положении) under a cloud (в плохом настроении)
Among the phraseological units there are the so-called imperative phraseological units 1. Т. Т. Икрамов. Фразеологические единицы с фиксированным глагольным компонентом в императиве в современном английском языке. Автореф. дисс. кандидита филол. наук. М. 1978. For example. God Bless his soul!, Curse her! Damn him!, Stay well!, Go well!, Heaven forbid!, Lord love usl etc.
These phraseological units mostly denote the emotional and expressive state of a person.
Proverbs, sayings and quotations exist also as ready made units with a specialized meaning of their own which can not be deduced from the meaning of their components. Therefore they may be included in phraseological units. For example. East or West home is best, a friend in need is a friend indeed. To be or not to be.
The history of many phraseologisms is an interesting record of the nation's past, of its way of life, customs and traditions. Many phraseological units are connected with commerce, For example. to talk shop, to make the best of the bargain, to have all one's goods in the shop window, a drug on the market (наркотик). Many phraseological units are associated with the sea (the waves). For example. all at sea, to nail one's colours to the mast, to sail under false colours. Many phraseological units were borrowed from the Bible, For example. the root of all evil --корень зла, любовь к деньгам . Daily bread -- хлеб насущный, средство к существованию.
There is a subject of discussion among the linguists about the state of such combinations like «to give in», «to make up», «to take off», «to get up», «to give up», etc; what is the nature of the second element of such combinations? The second element of such units is not a word therefore they are not-phraseological units. Phraseological units, as we know, consist of words. The second element is not a morpheme because it is not a part of the word, they are not adverbs because adverbs have definite lexical meanings and are used in a certain function in the sentence. But these units (get up, give up etc) have idiomatical meanings therefore. A.V. Koonin calls such units «set phrases» which have no phraseological character. There are synonyms among phraseological units, For example. through thick and thin, by hook or by crook, for love or money -«?еч бўлмаганда» (во что бы не стало); pull one's leg, to make a fool of smb -- «а?мо? ?илмо?» (дурачить). Some of phraseological units are polysemantic as «at large»-- 1) «озодликда» (на свабоде), 2) «очи? ?авода» (в открытом), 3) «ма?садсиз» (без определенной цели), 4) «нишонга тушмаган» (не попавший цель), 5) «эркин» (свабодный), 6) «асосан» (в целом) 7) «умуман» (вообще), 8) «батафсил» (подробно) etc.
It is the context that realizes the meaning of a phraseological unit in each case. The usage of phraseological units in speech is a subject of research work of many linguists.
There are a number of idiomatic or colloquial phrases in the English language: as «end and aim», «Iord and masters, «without let or hindrances», «act and deeds», «pure and simple», «in deed and truths», «really and trulys», «bright and shinings», «honest and true», «proud and haughty», «weak and feebles, «race and run», «grunt and groans», «clean and neats», «toil and delves». Such double phrases occur very frequently in the «Book of Common Prayer», where we find for instance, «sins and wickedness», «dissemble nor cloak», «assemble and meet together», «requisits and necessarys, «er-red and strayed», «declare and pronounce», «pardoneth and absolveth», «bless and sanctify», «offer and present», «rule and governs, «knowledge and understanding», «religiously and devoutly», «food and sustenances, «search and examine your consciences», «prayers and supplications», to try and examine themselvess, «confirm and strengthens. (Games B. Qreenough)
2. Ways of forming phraseological units
A.V. Koonin classified phraseological units according to the way they are formed. He pointed out primary and secondary ways of forming phraseological units. Primary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group :
a) Most productive in Modern English is the formation of phraseological units by means of transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups, For example. in cosmic technique we can point out the following phrases: «launching pad» in its terminological meaning is «учиш майдони» (стартовая плошадка) , in its transferred meaning - «юбориш манзили» (отправной пункт), «to link up» -«ало?а ўрнатмо?» (стыковать) in its tranformed meaning it means -«танишмо?» (знакомиться);
b) a large group of phraseological units was formed from free word groups by transforming their meaning, For example. «granny farm» - «?арилар пансионати» (пансионат для престарелых), «Troyan horse» - «компьютер учун дастур» (компьютерная программа, преднамеренно составленная для повреждения компьютера);
c) phraseological units can be formed by means of alliteration , For example. «a sad sack» - «бахтли во?еа» (счастный случай) «culture vulture» - «санъатга иш?ибоз одам» (человек, интересующийся искуством);
d) they can be formed by means of expressiveness, especially it is characteristic for forming interjections, For example. «My aunt!», « Hear, hear !» etc;
e) they can be formed by means of distorting a word group, For example. «odds and ends» was formed from «odd ends»;
f) they can be formed by using archaisms, For example. «in brown study» means «in gloomy meditation» where both components preserve their archaic meanings;
g) they can be formed by using a sentence in a different sphere of life, For example. «that cock won't fight» can be used as a free word-group when it is used in sports (cock fighting ), it becomes a phraseological unit when it is used in everyday life, because it is used metaphorically,
h) they can be formed when we use some unreal image, For example. «to have butterflies in the stomach» - «хавотир олмо?» (испытать волнение), «to have green fingers» -«бо?бонлик ?ўлидан келмо?» (преуспеть как садовод- любитель) etc.
i) they can be formed by using expressions of writers or polititions in everyday life, For example. «corridors of power» (Snow), «American dream» (Alby) «locust years» (Churchil), «the winds of change» (M. Millan).
Secondary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a phraseological unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit; they are:
a) conversion, For example. «to vote with one's feet» was converted into «vote with one's f eet»;
grammar form, For example. «Make hay while the sun shines» is transferred into a verbal phrase -«to make hay while the sun shines»;
c) analogy, For example. «Curiosity killed the cat» was transferred into «Care killed the cat»;
d) contrast, For example. «cold surgery» - «a planned before operation» was formed by contrasting it with «acute surgery», «thin cat» - «a poor person» was formed by contrasting it with «fat cat»;
e) shortening of proverbs or sayings For example. from the proverb «You can't make a silk purse out of a sow's ear» by means of clipping the middle of it the phraseological unit «to make a sow's ear» was formed with the meaning «хато ?илмо?» (ошибаться).
f) borrowing phraseological units from other languages, either as translation loans, For example. « living space» (German), « to take the bull by the horns» (Latin) or by means of phonetic borrowings «meche blanche» (French), «corpse d'elite» (French), «sotto voice» (Italian) etc.
3. Classification of phraseological units
Phraseological units can be classified according to the degree of motivation of their meaning. This classification was suggested by acad. V.V. Vinogradov for Russian phraseological units. He pointed out three types of phraseological units:
a) fusions where the degree of motivation is very low, we cannot guess the meaning of the whole from the meanings of its components, they are highly idiomatic and cannot be translated word for word into other languages, For example. on Shank's mare - (on foot), at sixes and sevens - (in a mess) etc.Phraseological fusions are such units which are completely non motivated word groups; For example. to kick the bucket to get one's goat, to show the white feather.In these word groups the meaning of the whole expressions is not derived from the meaning of components.
b) unities where the meaning of the whole can be guessed from the meanings of its components, but it is transferred (metaphorical or metonymical), For example. to play the first fiddle ( to be a leader in something), old salt (experienced sailor) etc. Phraseological units: the meaning of such word-groups can be perceived through the metaphorical meaning of the whole phraseological unit or the meaning of which may be seen as a metaphorical transference of the meaning of the word group: For example. to show one's teeth, to know the way the wind blows, to stand to one's guns, to take care of;
c) collocations where words are combined in their original meaning but their combinations are different in different languages, For example. cash and carry - (self-service shop), in a big way (in great degree) etc. Phraseological collocations include motivated relatively stable word groups. They have a certain degree of stability; For example. to take an interest, to fall in love, to look through one's fingers, meet the demand etc.
Thus, at present the term «phraseological unit» is usually used not to all set expressions but only to those which are completely or partially non-motivated.
Prof N. Amasova gives two categories of phraseological units depending on whether just one component or both are used in phraseologically bound meaning. If all the components have idiomatic meaning such phraseological units are called «idioms», For example. to toe the line (to do exactly as one is told), a free lance (a person who acts independently). If one of the components has bound specialized meaning dependent on the second component she called «phrasemes».
For example. dutch courage (courage given by drink), to bring to book (to bring to justice), small years (in the childhood), small beers (weak beer).210
Prof. A.I. Smirnitsky 1. А.И. Смирницкий. Лексикология английкого языка. М., 1956 worked out structural classification of phraseological units, comparing them with words. He points out one-top units which he compares with derived words because derived words have only one root morpheme. He points out two-top units which he compares with compound words because in compound words we usually have two root morphemes.
Among one-top units he points out three structural types;
a) units of the type «to give up» (verb + postposition type), For example. to art up, to back up, to drop out, to nose out, to buy into, to sandwich in etc.;
b) units of the type «to be tired» . Some of these units remind the Passive Voice in their structure but they have different prepositons with them, while in the Passive Voice we can have only prepositions «by» or «with», For example. to be tired of, to be interested in, to be surprised at etc. There are also units in this type which remind free word-groups of the type «to be young», For example. to be akin to, to be aware of etc.
The difference between them is that the adjective «young» can be used as an attribute and as a predicative in a sentence, while the nominal component in such units can act only as a predicative. In these units the verb is the grammar centre and the second component is the semantic centre;
c) prepositional- nominal phraseological units. These units are equivalents of unchangeable words: prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs , that is why they have no grammar centre, their semantic centre is the nominal part, For example on the doorstep (quite near), on the nose (exactly), in the course of, on the stroke of, in time, on the point of etc. In the course of time such units can become words, For example. tomorrow, instead etc.
Among two-top units A.I. Smirnitsky points out the following structural types:
a) attributive-nominal such as: a month of Sundays, grey matter, a millstone round one's neck and many others. Units of this type are noun equivalents and can be partly or perfectly idiomatic. In partly idiomatic units (phrasisms) sometimes the first component is idiomatic, For example. high road, in other cases the second component is idiomatic, For example. first night. In many cases both components are idiomatic, For example. red tape, blind alley, bed of nail, shot in the arm and many others.
b) verb-nominal phraseological units, For example. to read between the lines , to speak BBC, to sweep under the carpet etc. The grammar centre of such units is the verb, the semantic centre in many cases is the nominal component, For example. to fall in love. In some units the verb is both the grammar and the semantic centre, For example. not to know the ropes. These units can be perfectly idiomatic as well, For example. to burn one's boats,to vote with one's feet, to take to the cleaners' etc.
Very close to such units are word-groups of the type to have a glance, to have a smoke. These units are not idiomatic and are treated in grammar as a special syntactical combination, a kind of aspect.
c) phraseological repetitions, such as : now or never, part and parcel, country and western etc. Such units can be built on antonyms, For example ups and downs , back and forth; often they are formed by means of alliteration, e.g cakes and ale, as busy as a bee. Components in repetitions are joined by means of conjunctions. These units are equivalents of adverbs or adjectives and have no grammar centre. They can also be partly or perfectly idiomatic, For example cool as a cucumber (partly), bread and butter (perfectly).
Phraseological units the same as compound words can have more than two tops (stems in compound words), For example to take a back seat, a peg to hang a thing on, lock, stock and barrel, to be a shaddow of one's own self, at one's own sweet will.
Phraseological units can be clasified as parts of speech. This classification was suggested by I.V. Arnold. Here we have the following groups:
a) noun phraseologisms denoting an object, a person, a living being, For example bullet train, latchkey child, redbrick university, Green Berets,
b) verb phraseologisms denoting an action, a state, a feeling, For example to break the log-jam, to get on somebody's coattails, to be on the beam, to nose out, to make headlines,
c) adjective phraseologisms denoting a quality, For example loose as a goose, dull as lead ,
d) adverb phraseological units, such as : with a bump, in the soup, like a dream , like a dog with two tails,
e) preposition phraseological units, For example in the course of, on the stroke of,
f) interjection phraseological units, For example «Catch me!», «Well, I never!» etc.
In I.V.Arnold's classification there are also sentence equivalents, proverbs, sayings and quatations, For example «The sky is the limit», «What makes him tick», » I am easy». Proverbs are usually metaphorical, For example «Too many cooks spoil the broth», while sayings are as a rule non-metaphorical, For example «Where there is a will there is a way».
The vocabulary of a language is enriched not only by words but also by phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units. They are compiled in special dictionaries. The same as words phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units «idioms». We can mention such dictionaries as: L.Smith «Words and Idioms», V.Collins «A Book of English Idioms» etc. In these dictionaries we can find words, peculiar in their semantics (idiomatic), side by side with word-groups and sentences. In these dictionaries they are arranged, as a rule, into different semantic groups.
Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning.
Phraseological units are not translated into uzbek word for word. The correspondent or equivalents of the English phraseological Units in uzbek may be different.
1. It gave me chance to sleep. I didn't sleep last night -- ?еч?иси йў?, ?айтанга ухлаб олдим, кеча мижжа ?о?маган эдим. 2. «Tonight you will tell me everything, said Rinaldi--кеч?урун менга о?измай-томизмай хикоя ?илиб берасиз - деди Ренальди. 3. When we swaggered by twirling
.his new mustache, everybody stopped to look and admire -- У энди сабза ура бошлаган мўйловини бураб, савлат тўкиб юрган чо?ида ?амма одамлар унга ?арашар эди. 4. I sacrificed everything for something that never came --Рўёбга чи?маган ана шу нарсани деб бутун умримни хазон ?илдим. 5. It was still raining hard - Ём?ир ?амон челаклаб ?уяр эди. 6. All right, I wash my hands of the matter. But I warn you all that a time's coming when you're going to feel sick whenever you think of this day - Яхши бўлмаса! Агар шундай бўладиган бўлса, мен ?ўлимни ювиб ?шлти?имга ураман. Аммо сизларга айтадиган бир гапим бор: бир кун келади бу ?илмишингизги пушаймон бўласиз ва ?илган ишингизни эслашнинг ўзидаё? ?ушингиз кетиб ?олади. 7. Do you know how she seems to me? -- She seems fresh, like a flower --Фуогни ?андай тасаввур ?илишимни биласизми? - Гулдек тоза 8. It was as plain as day --Бир пасда ?аммаси ?андай равшан бўлди-?олди.
CHAPTER 6. THE ENGLISH WORD-STOCK
1. Origin of words in English
Etymologically the vocabulary of the English language consists of two groups -- the native words and the borrowed words.
The etymological linguistic analysis showed that the borrowed stock of words is larger than the native stock of words. In fact native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English vocabulary. A native word is a word which belongs to the original English stock, which belongs to Anglo-Saxon origin. To the native words we include words from Common Germanic language and from Indo-European stock.
Borrowed words are words taken over from other languages. Many linguists consider foreign influence plays the most important role in the history of the English language. But the grammar and phonetic system are very stable (unchangeable) and are not often influenced by other languages. Besides when we speak about the role of native and borrowed words in the English language we must not take into consideration only the number of them but their semantic, stylistic character, their wordbuilding ability, frequency value, collocability (valency) and the productivity of their word-building patterns. If we approach to the study of the role of native and borrowed words from this point of view we see, though the native words are not numerous they play an important role in the English language. They have high frequency value, great word-forming power, wide collocability, many meanings and they are stylistically neutral. Almost all words of native origin belong to very important semantic groups.
" They include most of the auxiliary and model verbs: shall, will, should, must, can, may; pronouns: I. he, my, your, his, who, whose; prepositions: in, out on, under, for, of; numerals: one, two, three, four, five, six, etc; conjunctions; and, but, till, as, etc.; words denoting parts of body: head, hand, arm, back, foot, eye etc; members of a family: father, mother, brother, son, wife; natural phenomena and planets: snow, rain, wind, sun, moon, animals: horse, cow, sheep, cat; common actions: do, make, go, come, hear, see, eat, speak, talk etc. All these words are very frequent words, we use them every day in our speech. Many words of native origin possess large clusters of derived and compound words in the present-day language.
For example. help -- helper, helpful, helpfully, helpfulness, helping^ helpingly, helpable, helpably, helped, unhelpable etc.
Such affixes of native origin as er, -ness, -ish, -ed,
-un, -mis, -dom, -hood, -ly, -over, -out, -under --are of native origin.
We see that the role of native words in the language is great. Many authors use native words more than foreign ones. Thus Shakespear used 90% native words and 10% foreign words. Swift used 75% native words.
Borrowed words have been called «the milestones of philology» -- said O. Jesperson -- because they permit us (show us) to fix approximative^ the dates of linguistic changes. They show us the course of civilization and give us information of the nations».
Borrowing words from other languages is characteristic of English throughout its history More than two thirds of the English vocabulary are borrowings. Mostly they are words of Romanic origin (Latin, French, Italian, Spanish). Borrowed words are different from native ones by their phonetic structure, by their morphological structure and also by their grammatical forms. It is also characterisitic of borrowings to be non-motivated semantically.
English history is very rich in different types of contacts with other countries, that is why it is very rich in borrowings. The Roman invasion, the adoption of Cristianity, Scandinavian and Norman conquests of the British Isles, the development of British colonialism and trade and cultural relations served to increase immensely the English vocabulary. The majority of these borrowings can be hardly distinguished from native words.
English continues to take in foreign words , but now the quantity of borrowings is not so abundunt as it was before. All the more so, English now has become a «giving» language, it has become Lingva franca of the twentieth century.
When in two languages we find no trace of the exchange of loanwords one way or the other, we are safe to infer that the two nations have had nothing to do with each other, but if they have been in contact, the number of the loan-words and still more the quality of the loanwords, if rightly interpreted, will inform us of their reciprocal relations, they will show us which of them has been the more fertile in ideas and on what domains of human activity each has bean superior of the other. If all other sources of information were closed to us except such loanwords in our modern North-European languages as «piano», «soprano», «opera», «libretto», «tempo», «adagio» etc, we should still have no hesitation in drawing the conclusion that Italian music has played a great role all over Europe. (0. Jesperson).
The well-known linguist Shuchard said «No language is entirely pure», that all the languages are mixed. Borrowed words enter the language as a result of influence of two main causes or factors; linguistic and extra-linguistic. Economic, cultural, industrial, political relations of speakers of the language with other countries refer to extra-linguistic factors. The historical development of England also influenced the language.
2. The penetration of borrowed words in English
« ... in 1066 came the Norman conquest, an event which had more influence on the English language than any other from outside. There is an important difference between the influence now to be examined and the earlier foreign influences. The native language was not completely driven out, leaving little impression on the language of the conquerors, as had happened when the Angles and Saxons conquered the Britons, nor modified by a related language, as in the case of the Scandinavian invasion, but instead a second language was established in the country in use side by side with the native language.
The comparison may be carried further; Scandinavian first came into and influenced chiefly the north and north-east, whereas French was most influential in the south and south-east, a fact which became of increasing importance as a standard English language gradually developed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Scandinavian modified the existing language through related words and construction, but French introduced entirely new words. Scandinavian made its way into the everyday speech of the people, whereas, although many French words eventually became part of our everyday speech and can hardly be recognized today as foreign loan-words, the French element was in the main composed of words reflecting a high state ,lof culture and influenced at first chiefly the language of the upper classes. (J. A. Sheard.)
«... The influence which French exerted on our language is seen in all aspects of life, social, political, and religions, and hardly any walk of live was unaffected by it. Had the Conquest not taken place it may be that English would have developed along entirely different lines, keeping in the main its Germanic characteristics particularly as regards vocabulary, much as the German and Scandinavian languages have' done, and therefore lacking the tremendous number of Roman words which are now an accepted part of our language. It may be interesting to consider the general implication of such a large adoption of French loan words into English.
The first point to be emphasized is that here we are not dealing with completely new ideas introduced from a different type of civilization and culture, but rather the imposing by a dominant race of their own terms for ideas which were already familiar to the subject race. Such a state of affairs obviously means that there will arise pairs of words, the native and the foreign term, for the same idea and a struggle for survival between the two, so that one of the words was eventually lost from the language, or survived only with some differentiation of meaning.
Let us first take examples of native wor.ds replaced by French words; it is possible to compile a very long list, so here we must confine ourselves to a few, merely by way of illustration «cynecic» was replaced by «royal», «cynestol» by «throne», «cynehelm» by «crown», «dema» was replaced by «judge», «firen» by «crime» «rihtoew» by «justice», «sach» by «such», Much of the loss of Old English vocabulary can be accounted for by the influx of French words for the same or a similar idea in the Middle English period. (/. Sheard).
Thus, due to the great influence of the Roman civilization Latin was for a long time used in England as the language of learning and religion. Old Norse of the Scandinavian tribes was the language of the conquerors (9 -- 10--11 centuries). French (Norman dialect) was the language of the other conquerors who brought with them a lot of new notions of a higher social system, developed fueda-lizm. It was the language of upper classes, of official documents and school (11 -- 14 cent). These factors are extra-linguistic ones.
The absence of equivalent words in the language to express new subjects or a phenomena makes people to borrow words. For examplethe words football, volleyball, michman in Russian; to economize the linguistic means, i. e. to use a foreign word instead of a long native expressions and others are called linguistic causes.
The closer the two interacting languages are in structure the easier it is for words of one language to penetrate into the other. The fact that Scandinavian borrowings have penetrated into such grammatical classes as prepositions and pronouns (they, them, their, both, same, till) can only be attributed to a similarity in the structure of the two languages.
Borrowings enter the language in two ways: through oral speech(by immediate contact between the people) and through written speech (by indirect contact through books). Words borrowed orally (inch, mill, street, map) are usually short and they undergo more changes in the act of adopter. Written borrowings (communque, bellas -- lettres, naivete, psychology, pagoda etc) are often rather long and they are unknown to many people, speaking English.
Answer the following questions.
1. What does the vocabulary of the English language consist of? 2. What words are called words of native origin? 3. What words are called borrowed words? 4. How do we define the role of words in the language? 5. Words of which origin play an important role in the English language? 6. What pecularities have the native words in the English language? 7. What did scientists call the borrowed words? 8. What are the extra-linguistic causes of borrowings? 9. What are the linguistic causes of borrowings? 10. What are the two ways of borrowings in the English language?
3. The classification of borrowed words
Some scientists classify borrowings into: phonetic borrowings, translation loans, semantic borrowings, morphemic borrowings.
Phonetic borrowings are most characteristic in all languages, they are called loan words proper. Words are borrowed with their spelling, pronunciation and meaning. Then they undergo assimilation, each sound in the borrowed word is substituted by the corresponding sound of the borrowing language. In some cases the spelling is changed. The structure of the word can also be changed. The position of the stress is very often influenced by the phonetic system of the borrowing language. The paradigm of the word, and sometimes the meaning of the borrowed word are also changed. Such words as: labour, travel, table, chair, people are phonetic borrowings from French; apparatchik, nomenklatura, sputnik are phonetic borrowings from Russian; bank, soprano, duet are phonetic borrowings from Italian etc.
Translation loans are word-for-word (or morpheme-for-morpheme ) translations of some foreign words or expressions. In such cases the notion is borrowed from a foreign language but it is expressed by native lexical units, «to take the bull by the horns» (Latin), «fair sex» ( French), «living space» (German) etc. Some translation loans appeared in English from Latin already in the Old English period, For example. Sunday (solis dies). There are translation loans from the languages of Indians, such as: «pipe of peace», «pale-faced», from German «masterpiece», «homesickness», «superman».
Semantic borrowings are such units when a new meaning of the unit existing in the language is borrowed. It can happen when we have two relative languages which have common words with different meanings, For example. there are semantic borrowings between Scandinavian and English, such as the meaning «to live» for the word «to dwell' which in Old English had the meaning «to wander».
Morphemic borrowings are borrowings of affixes which occur in the language when many words with identical affixes are borrowed from one language into another, so that the morphemic structure of borrowed words becomes familiar to the people speaking the borrowing language, For example we can find a lot of Romanic affixes in the English word-building system, that is why there are a lot of words - hybrids in English where different morphemes have different origin, For example. «goddess», «beautiful» etc.
Non-assimilated borrowings (barbarisms) are borrowings which are used by Englishmen rather seldom and are non-assimilated, For example. addio (Italian), tete-a-tete (French), dolce vita (Italian), duende (Spanish), an homme a femme (French), gonzo (Italian) etc.
There are different kinds of borrowed words.
According to the nature of the borrowing borrowed words may be: 1) borrowings proper; 1) translation loans; 3) semantic loans.
Borrowings proper are words which are taken from another language with their sound, graphic forms and their meaning.
For example. street, wine (from Latin), anger, scare (from Scandinavian), garage (from French),
Translation loans are words or expressions formed from the elements existing in the English language according to the patterns of the source language. For example. collective-farm, five-year- plan, house of rest, peaceful coexistence.
A semantic loan is the borrowing of a meaning for a word already existing in the English language. For example. the compound word «shock brigades which existed in the English language with the meaning “ аврийная бригада”received a new meaning «ударная бригада» under the influence of the Russian language (compare Russian «ударная бригада»). The English word «pioneer» meant «explorer» and «one who is among the first in new field of activity*. Now under the influence of the Russian word «пионер» it has got the meaning «a member of the Young Pioneer's Organization. A word borrowed from another language never brings into the adopting language the whole of its semantic structure (meaning). It is borrowed in one of its meanings. For example. the Russian word «sputnik» was borrowed by the English language only in the meaning of artificial sattelite.
«Whenever the need filling motive plays a part, the borrower is being confronted with some new object or practice for which he needs words. Under these conditions . . . three rather distinct things may happen, giving rise respectively to «loanwords», «loanshifts» and «loanblends».
«Loanwords». The borrower may adopt the donor's word along with the object or practice; the new form in the borrower's speech is then a loanword . . .
When confronted with a new object or practice for which words are needed, the borrower may somehow adapt material in his own language. A new idiom arises and since it arises under the impact of another linguistic system, it is a «loanshift»
. . . Loanshifts involve lexical and semantic change and in some cases may lead to minor grammatical change.
Loanblends. A loanblend is a new idiom developed in the borrowing situation in which both the loanword and the loanshift mechanisms are involved: the borrower imports part of the model and replaces part of it by something already in his own language, (Ch. F. Hockett)
«The type of word borrowed by personal contact would undoubtedly at first be names of objects unfamiliar to the borrowers, or products and commodities exchanged by way of trade. If the contacts were maintained over a long period then ideas concerned with government, law, religion and customs
lie might be absorbed and perhaps the names of these would be adopted. Only in the case of nations in relatively advanced, stages of civilization would there be much influence exerted through the written word; concrete objects would come first, then abstract ideas learnt from what might actually be seen from their effects in everyday life and abstract ideas through the indirect contact achieved by books would come much later. (/. A. Sheard).
4. Assimilation of borrowed words in English
When a word comes into another language it adapts the phonetic, grammatical, lexical system of that language. This process is considered as the assimilation of a borrowed word. The assimilation of borrowed words may be: 1) grammatical, 2) phonetic; 3) lexical. In phonetic assimilation we speak about the changes of a word in its sounds and stress. For example. Modern English «change» came from French «changer» [aunz?r]. We can see the following changes of it in the English language. [ is changed into [tj]; [au] into [ei];  into [ds] The stress in French words falls on the final syllable where as in English on the initial. , For example.F.: hist'oir.-E. 'history.
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