History of New Zealand
Abel Janszoon Tasman as the first European explorer who discovered New Zealand. Social organization with families, sub-tribes and tribes. The influence on New Zealand American, Australian and other European cultures. The traditional crafts of carving.
|Рубрика||Иностранные языки и языкознание|
|Размер файла||13,3 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
History of New Zealand
The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Mвori culture centred on kinship links and land. The first European explorer to discover New Zealand was Abel Janszoon Tasman on 13 December 1642.  From the late 18th century, the country was regularly visited by explorers and other sailors, missionaries, traders and adventurers. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi was signed between the British Crown and various Mвori chiefs, bringing New Zealand into the British Empire and giving Mвori equal rights with British citizens. There was extensive European and some Asian settlement throughout the rest of the century. War and the imposition of a European economic and legal system led to most of New Zealand's land passing from Mвori to Pвkehв (European) ownership, and most Mвori subsequently became impoverished.
From the 1890s the New Zealand parliament enacted a number of progressive initiatives, including women's suffrage and old age pensions. From the 1930s the economy was highly regulated and an extensive welfare state was developed. Meanwhile, Mвori culture underwent a renaissance, and from the 1950s Mвori began moving to the cities in large numbers. This led to the development of a Mвori protest movement which in turn led to greater recognition of the Treaty of Waitangi in the late 20th century. In the 1980s the economy was largely deregulated and a number of socially liberal policies. Foreign policy, which had previously consisted mostly of following the United Kingdom or the United States, became more independent. Subsequent governments have generally maintained these policies, although tempering the free market ethos somewhat.
Early Mвori adapted the tropically based east Polynesian culture in line with the challenges associated with a larger and more diverse environment, eventually developing their own distinctive culture. Social organization was largely communal with families (whanau), sub-tribes (hapu) and tribes (iwi) ruled by a chief (rangatira) whose position was subject to the community's approval. The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Mвori culture, particularly with the introduction of Christianity. However, Mвori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of their identity, and Mвori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand. Non-Mвori Polynesian cultures are also apparent, with Pasifika, the world's largest Polynesian festival, now an annual event in Auckland.
The largely rural life in early New Zealand led to the image of New Zealanders being rugged, industrious problem solvers. Modesty was expected and enforced through the «tall poppy syndrome», where high achievers received harsh criticism. At the time New Zealand was not known as an intellectual country. From the early 20th century until the late 1960s Mвori culture was suppressed by the attempted assimilation of Mвori into British New Zealanders. In the 1960s, as higher education became more available and cities expanded urban culture began to dominate. Even though the majority of the population now lives in cities, much of New Zealand's art, literature, film and humour has rural themes.
Mвori quickly adopted writing as a means of sharing ideas, and many of their oral stories and poems were converted to the written form. Most early English literature was obtained from Britain and it was not until the 1950s when local publishing outlets increased that New Zealand literature started to become widely known. Although still largely influenced by global trends (modernism) and events (the Great Depression), writers in the 1930s began to develop stories increasingly focused on their experiences in New Zealand. During this period literature changed from a journalistic activity to a more academic pursuit. Participation in the world wars gave some New Zealand writers a new perspective on New Zealand culture and with the post-war expansion of universities local literature flourished.
As part of the resurgence of Maori culture, the traditional crafts of carving and weaving are now more widely practised and Maori artists are increasing in number and influence. Most Maori carvings feature human figures, generally with three fingers and either a natural-looking, detailed head or a grotesque head. Surface patterns consisting of spirals, ridges, notches and fish scales decorate most carvings. The pre-eminent Maori architecture consisted of carved meeting houses (wharenui) decorated with symbolic carvings and illustrations. These buildings were originally designed to be constantly rebuilt, changing and adapting to different whims or needs.
Maori decorated the white wood of buildings, canoes and cenotaphs using red (a mixture of red ochre and shark fat) and black (made from soot) paint and painted pictures of birds, reptiles and other designs on cave walls. Maori tattoos (moko) consisting of coloured soot mixed with gum were cut into the flesh with a bone chisel. Since European arrival paintings and photographs have been dominated by landscapes, originally not as works of art but as factual portrayals of New Zealand. Portraits of Maori were also common, with early painters often portraying them as «noble savages», exotic beauties or friendly natives. The country's isolation delayed the influence of European artistic trends allowing local artists to developed their own distinctive style of regionalism. During the 1960s and 70s many artists combined traditional Maori and Western techniques, creating unique art forms. New Zealand art and craft has gradually achieved an international audience, with exhibitions in the Venice Biennale in 2001 and the «Paradise Now» exhibition in New York in 2004.
Maori cloaks are made of fine flax fibre and patterned with black, red and white triangles, diamonds and other geometric shapes. Greenstone was fashioned into earrings and necklaces, with the most well-known design being the hei-tiki, a distorted human figure sitting cross-legged with its head tilted to the side. Europeans brought English fashion etiquette to New Zealand, and until the 1950s most people dressed up for social occasions. Standards have since relaxed and New Zealand fashion has received a reputation for being casual, practical and lacklustre. However, the local fashion industry has grown significantly since 2000, doubling exports and increasing from a handful to about 50 established labels, with some labels gaining international recognition.
Many of the more imposing structures in and around Dunedin and Christchurch were built in the latter part of the 19th century as a result of the economic boom following the Central Otago Gold Rush. A common style for these landmarks is the use of dark basalt blocks and facings of cream-coloured Oamaru stone, a form of limestone mined at Weston in North Otago. Notable buildings in this style include Dunedin Railway Station, the University of Otago Registry Building, Christchurch Arts Centre, Knox Church, Dunedin, ChristChurch Cathedral, Christchurch, Christ's College, Christchurch, Garrison Hall, Dunedin, parts of the Canterbury Provincial Council Buildings and Otago Boys' High School. Several more recent buildings have mimicked this style by using brick in place of basalt, but using lighter stone facings in an identical style to the older structures. Notable among these buildings are Otago Girls' High School and the Timaru Basilica. This region was able to call upon the talents of many fine architects during this period, among them Robert Lawson, Francis Petre, Benjamin Mountfort, and George Troup.
Oamaru stone, despite its susceptibility to the elements, is used as a major construction material on several fine buildings, most obviously in the town of Oamaru itself. The historic sector of this town contaains numerous fine buildings built in this creamy stone, among them the Forrester Gallery and Waitaki District Council building. Waitaki Boys' High School is also a prime example of the use of Oamaru stone architecture.
tasman discovering culture craft
Размещено на Allbest.ru
Some information about english speaking countries: Canada, USA, Australia. The history of country, geographic position, climate, landscapes and islands, unique flora and fauna of New Zealand. Its political structure, dominant cultural groups and economy.
топик [170,4 K], добавлен 05.12.2010
Geography Location. Flora and Fauna. Government and Politics. Population and People. Religion. Education. Language. Holidays. Newspapers and Magazines. Radio and TV. Arts. Maori Arts. Literature. Cinema.
реферат [14,2 K], добавлен 20.02.2006
Kil'ske of association of researches of European political parties is the first similar research group in Great Britain. Analysis of evropeizacii, party and party systems. An evaluation of influence of ES is on a national policy and political tactic.
отчет по практике [54,3 K], добавлен 08.09.2011
Language is the most important aspect in the life of all beings. General information about Proto-Indo-European language. Proto-Indo-European phonology. Comparison of modern languages of origin. All words about family, particularly family members.
курсовая работа [30,2 K], добавлен 12.12.2013
Language of germanic tribes - firstly, alphabets, which used those tribes; secondly, the main written records. Old English scribes used two kindes of letters: the runes and the letters of the Latin alphabet. Runic inscriptions, Ulfila`s Gothic alphabet.
эссе [187,7 K], добавлен 13.01.2011
The central elements of the original Community method. A new "intergovernmentalist" school of integration theory emerged, liberal intergovernmentalism. Constructivism, and reshaping European identities and preferences and integration theory today.
практическая работа [29,4 K], добавлен 20.03.2010
Understanding of the organization and its structure. Any organization has its structure. Organizational structure is the way in which the interrelated groups of the organization are constructed. Development of management on the post-Soviet area.
реферат [24,7 K], добавлен 18.01.2009
The development of American English pronunciation. English changes in which most North American dialects do not participate. Eastern and Southern American English. Australian speech as a subject to debate. Long and short vowels. Canadian pronunciation.
реферат [62,2 K], добавлен 14.05.2011
A hymn as a type of solemn song, usually religious, written for the purpose of praise. The National Anthem of England, Scotland. "The Star-Spangled Banner", "Advance Australia Fair", "God Defend New Zealand". Investigation of the Song "Priozersk".
реферат [30,7 K], добавлен 01.04.2014
Positive proposals needed, objections to centralisation, embrace New Zealand. Renaming the states, democratic considerations. Land management, planning, financial and geographical considerations. Local government in provincial cities and the country.
эссе [66,2 K], добавлен 24.06.2010