Influence of the American English on pronunciation literary norm of the British English language

History of formation of the American variant of English language. English language-Differences of the American and British language. Modern condition of English language as polynational. Grammatical distinctions between American and British variants.

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International institute for humanities and linguistics

Influence of the American English on

pronunciation literary norm of the British English language

Made by student

of 41 « Z »

Bryakova B.

Moscow , 2010



1.The main part. History of formation of the American variant of English language

2 English language - Differences of the American and British English language

3 The American English - the list of differences from the British English

4. Lexical distinctions between American and British versions of English language.

5. Pronunciation

6 Grammatic distinctions between American and British variants of English language

7. Modern condition of English language as polynational

The conclusion

The List of the used literature

language еnglish вritish differences


The Americans are identical to the British in all respects except, of course, language."

Oscar Wilde

"Giving English to an American is like giving sex to a child. He knows it's important but he doesn't know what to do with it."

Adam Cooper (19th century)

"We (the British and Americans) are two countries separated by a common language."

G.B. Shaw

English it is possible by right to name language of the international dialogue, its role in the modern world is difficult for overestimating. Each person, wishing to get prestigious highly paid work, should speak in good English. In many countries the knowledge of this language is considered an attribute of erudition and competence. Besides, English - language of a science, modern technologies, trade, cultural and business relations, aircraft, navigation, diplomacy, etc.

Also it is impossible to forget, that in this language the significant part of the population of our planet speaks. It is an official state language of the Great Britain, the USA, Australia and New Zealand, it is one of state languages on territories of Canada, the republic of South Africa, Malta and the Irish Republic. As the second language English is widely widespread in India and a number of the African countries.

Certainly, all these countries have the distinctive features of the use of English language. Even inside of the Great Britain there are some regional variants. For example, лондонцы, especially well formed, speak at all how Scots. So-called Cockney English (break) - the special London dialect based on rhyming of conformable words, in general it is impossible to understand without special preparation. There are special expressions and at Australians: station large farm (ферма), beauts - sights (достопримечательности), и у индусов: a car-lifter-a car thief (угонщик), to bag-to capture (заполучить), fleetfoots-sneakers (кроссовки)

However, any of these variants has no so much characteristic features and it is not considered such significant and full, as the American variant of English language which and began to name - the American English (American English or Am. E.).

1. The main part. History of formation of the American variant of English language

In the beginning of the seventeenth century colonists from England have started to bring the language to America. The first settlement of Englishmen in Northern America has been based in 1607 is there was a city of Jamestown in territory of present state of Virginia. In November, 1620 arrived by the ship "Mayflower" puritans had been based the city of Plymouth. Inhabitants of these two settlements had various language traditions. Colonists of Jamestown " arrived mainly from the western part of England, from such counties, as Somerset and Gloucestershire, with a characteristic pronunciation for these places ( sound [s], that is Somerset they say the name as Zomerset, and a rolling pronunciation of a sound [r] after vowels) ". Plymuthcolonists arrived from east counties of England (Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Essex, Kent) and London where dialects were some other sort - so, the sound [r] after vowels there was absent. These sound distinctions continued to be kept and in the further. Carriers of various dialects were settled on the West and the south. And though the picture of distribution of dialects never was precise because of constant population shift from the north on the south and in the opposite direction and inflow of emigrants from the various countries of the world, distinctions at a level of dialects continue to be kept in the USA and now. In XVII - XVIII centuries streams of emigrants constantly grow, bringing with themselves a variety of languages and dialects. For example, the state of Pennsylvania was occupied mainly by Quakers who occured, as a rule, from average and northern parts of England. Formation of language of colonies influenced not only England. In XVIII century to Northern America the wave of immigrants from Ireland has rushed. In the West and the Southwest of the modern United States the main thing was the Spanish language. Along the river St.Lavrentiy natives of France lodged. In New York, Originally referred to New Amsterdam, the Dutch language predominated. Germans lodged in Pennsylvania. Besides a plenty of the Negros who have become by object slaveselling was imported into southern areas. All these new inhabitants of Northern America (it is not necessary to forget also aboriginals - Indians) brought the contribution to formation of a dialect of colonies. Mass emigration in the new state - the United States America - has proceeded in XIX - XX centuries thus, despite of an abundance of languages and cultures новопоселенцев, predominating language still there was an English. " Owing to natural process of assimilation the majority of families of immigrants started to speak English during a life of one-two generations ". However polycultural character of the United States is easy for noticing. In particular, policulture it is expressed at a level of antroponymus: " the USA meet personal names which have kept the national features: Spanish - Rodolfo, Dolores, etc., Italian - Antonio, Niccolo, Paolo, etc., Portuguese - Mario, Manuel, Raul, etc., German - Rupert, Rudolf, etc. ". However English language of North American colonies was essentially riched due to loans. They have borrowed words from American Indian languages for a designation of plants unfamiliar to them (for example, hickory - a sort of a hazel grove, or persimmon -) and animals (raccoon -woodchuck - a wood marmot). From the French language of a loan word chowder - a version of a soup, prairie -; from Dutch - words scow - a barge, a jolly boat, sleigh Many new words have appeared by a combination already known, for example, backwoods - a solitude, outskirt, bullfrog - (a kind of a frog). Many English words have received new value, for example, lumber in the meaning. "Stuff" (used in English language in narrower value - cloths, a tatter); corn in value "corn" (in England this word earlier designated any grain, as a rule, wheat). It is obvious, that new words appeared so far as as in a life of former Europeans now there was a set of new realities for which designation in English and other languages of words was not. Except for a lexicon, there was a difference in a pronunciation, in grammatic designs, especially strong - in intonation. Often the opinion expresses, that if colonization has occured двумя-three centuries earlier, the American variant of English as strongly would differ from British as modern French - from Italian, i.e. instead of different variants of one language would appear different languages. However colonization has occured after the invention of publishing and proceeded during an epoch of Education with its ideas of general formation. During long time the majority of the books readable in America, were English. Moreover, many colonists continued to support communications with England in what they differed from the Anglo-Saxon ancestors, as is known, torn any communications with continent after resettlement to British isles. Proenglish adjusted Americans condemned any "americanisms" emphasizing a difference between them and Englishmen. During present time many "americanisms" have was extended even in the British variant of English language.

2. English language - Differences of the American and British English language

As a rule, it can be heard from lips of leading national news though local leaders, as a rule, use a local dialect. A principal cause of such crushing - that the USA were occupied very non-uniformly by inhabitants of the different countries, therefore even now in speech of concrete district it is possible to catch shades of language on which here spoke once. For the sake of justice, it is necessary to note, as the British English has similar features - the pronunciation can depend not only on district, but also from social group speaking. It still renders the big influence on how speak in former colonies of the British empire, but there as there are the dialects most known from which - the Canadian English and Australian English.

Quantity of differences of English from American dialects hugely. Traditionally it is considered, that the English variant is more formal, and is under construction under more strict grammatic laws, than American though in many respects it is caused by distinctions in national characters, and diligence of caricaturists.

Thus activity of the American entertaining industry is felt and behind ocean. Many American expressions are used behind ocean, at that that the return occurs seldom enough. Though some expressions from American even more often used as American, are British, others are actively used, and the some people are so often used both there, and there, that are considered as a part of a standard language. That is juicy, some words and language turns which have come to New light with the first colonists have not changed, having lost thus the former use in Old. Thus, some elements of old English now are considered cleanly American. By the way, in case you collide with English speech, it will be useful to remember, that in Britain 24 hour system, while in America - 12- (except for medicine and militarians) is more often used.

English curses in general. Englishmen, unlike Americans, talk smut rather seldom. Probably, it speaks specificity of their character. Therefore, if the Englishman who has approached to you has used in your address more than two obscene curses (the word "fuck" and derivative of it to obscene does not concern), be cautious: it is not excluded, that now you are to ba beaten, and, probably, with legs.

To get stuffed = to fill a stomach,. Englishmen love this word. Therefore in the British English popular saying of student's folklore " лучше переесть, чем недоспать " can sound approximately so: " It's better to get stuffed than not to have your sleep out ". And here the American can advise you " to get stuffed " in some other situation, especially, if you not his best friend.

Lemonade. In America that's the name of non-sparkled drink. And it is not excluded, that it, really, it will be made of a lemon. In England IT call "squash". And here "lemonade" in british variant¬should be necessarily sparkled and cold, and to taste reminds US "pop" or "soda" more likely

Concerning to distribution of a variant of English, it is necessary to add, that popularity of this language and its existence in the modern world as an international language are connected with leading positions first of all the USA. It is surprising, that in the majority of educational establishments, as a rule, teach classical British English (Queen's English, earlier King's English, Royal English), but the majority of students imitate the American variant.

The American variant of English language has developed in territory of the USA for the period from the basis of colonies about one today. It was formed on the basis of the British variant with inclusion of elements of languages of immigrants, Indians. Differs from British elements of grammar, a pronunciation, a writing of words (center, theater), lexicon (gas station, railroad) and to other attributes, has own ethnic (for example, [Black English]) and territorial (for example, [Appalachian English]) dialects.Some researchers are inclined to consider as its independent language (American language). The standard variant of the American English can be named General American; some researchers consider, that to territories of the USA is widespread, at least, 5 basic regional variants (the east of New England [Eastern New England], the continental North [Inland Northern], northern Midland [North Midland] (the largest), southern Midland [South Midland], the South [Southern]). The basic lexical and phonetic standards of the modern language are traditionally fixed in Webster " s Dictionary

3. The American English - the list of differences from the British English

The American English has got the international value after the second world war when the United States began to play the important role in a post-war reorganization of the world, and achievements in the field of policy, economy and modern technologies have allowed the USA to render significant influence for the whole world. Today the American English renders dominating influence on " world English ", and it speaks following factors:

1. Population (the number of carriers of the American English makes 70 % against 17 % of carriers of the British English from the general number speaking on English as native).

2. More powerful economy of the USA in comparison with British.

3.Superiority in strength of higher educational institutions in the USA in comparison with the Great Britain.

4.Scale of the printing industry of the USA.

5.Relevancy of influence of the American mass media and information technologies on a global scale.

6.Appeal American the pop-culture and its influence on language and a way of life of all globe

7.International political and an economic situation of the USA.

Both American English, and the British English are only variants of one same English language. Between them there are more than similarities, than distinctions, especially there where speech of the formed people sounds or language of a science is used. The reason of the majority of divergences are features of historical and cultural development of two countries, a variety of local and regional idioms and steady expressions, and also influence of mass media and advertising. Both Americans, and British mutually laugh and dislike languages each other. From the point of view of Englishmen American English too rectilinear and rough, and the British English they esteem for language of polite people. Americans consider the British English черезчур as the tense, hypocritical language of snobs, and native American affable and friendly. At petrol filling station in the USA you will hear: " Fill her up, will you? ", and in the Great Britain: " Would you mind filling up my car? "

The American English so has come off from Australian, New Zealand, Canadian and other variants and has left far forward, most likely, because the representatives of many European people who have arrived to America in searches of the best life while Australia and New Zealand were occupied mainly by British who have kept the language have taken part in its formation. The American English now meets even more often: it study at schools and high schools of other countries alongside with the standard British variant (Standard British English). Some americanisms supersede the British names of those or other subjects and concepts, and British sometimes use any more capacious and short word of the American variant in daily speech. This variant has won such popularity also that the USA play a huge role practically in all spheres of a life. Many, and it is rather fair, declare, that influence of this country comes too far, that the USA try to impose the point of view another. Partly it is valid so, but a subject of given clause at all is not the analysis of economic or political activity of America, and only the analysis of linguistic features of the American variant of English language and Its differences from British. Native speakers, both its British, and American variants, concern to these distinctions with some share of irony. It is enough to recollect statements of known people on this theme: " England and America are the two countries divided by one language ", " At British and Americans really much in common, except for language " (O.Uald). Such ironic attitude is shown and at cinema. The hero of film " This mad, mad, mad, mad world " director Stanley Kramer says: " As these Englishmen have spoiled our language! "

4. Lexical distinctions between American and British versions of English language

The Englishman commented to the American about the "curious" way in which he pronounced so many words, such as schedule (pronounced shedule). The American thought about it for a few moments, then replied, "Perhaps it's because we went to different shools!" While in the UK I learned that the "English" and "American" languages have less in common than might be supposed. New words can be confusing and their meaning may be lost to you. More troublesome is a word which has a completely different meaning in each language. The problem is that you think you understand.

The distinctive features of American and British English can be seen especially in the following areas:


semantics (the meanings of words)









The items found below may cause confusion for one who is conversant in both languages. The word being defined is an "English" word or phrase. The definition is in "American". All English words are entered in capital letters so the reader will not be misled. Mixed case words may be safely interpreted by the American reader. Not all meanings are given for a particular word. English words often have several meanings and only those which differ (from American) are listed here. There are some of the main differences in the English of American and British speakers. Differences in the way that the same language is spoken in different places are called varieties or dialects. These varieties may be regional or national. For example, we can hear different forms of English in various regions of the U.S., or in different parts of the English-speaking world.There are two important types of difference in the meanings of words in the two varieties:

1. The same object may have a completely different name

2.The same word is used in both varieties, but it may have a completely different meaning.

Same Object, Different Names

The Englishman commented to the American about the "curious" way in which he pronounced so many words, such as schedule (pronounced shedule). The American thought about it for a few moments, then replied, "Perhaps it's because we went to different shools!" While in the UK I learned that the "English" and "American" languages have less in common than might be supposed. New words can be confusing and their meaning may be lost to you. More troublesome is a word which has a completely different meaning in each language. The problem is that you think you understand.

The items found below may cause confusion for one who is conversant in both languages. The word being defined is an "English" word or phrase. The definition is in "American". All English words are entered in capital letters so the reader will not be misled. Mixed case words may be safely interpreted by the American reader. Not all meanings are given for a particular word. English words often have several meanings and only those which differ (from American) are listed here. Some of the biggest differences are in the words used for basic everyday things, such as common foods, household equipment, and the parts of a car.


British English

American English





Pinafore Dress






Wellington Boots / Wellies



Gym Shoes



Dressing Gown




Polo Neck

Turtle Neck

Dressing Gown

Bath Robe

Swimming costume / Cozzy

Bathing Suit

At School

British English

American English

Friend / Mate








Public School

Private School

State School

Public School



School dinner

Hot Lunch

Staff Room

Teachers Lounge

Play Time / Break Time


Open Day / Open Evening

Open House

Marking Scheme

Grading Scheme

Drawing pins


On the Road

British English

American English

Sleeping Policeman

Speed bump

Car park

Parking Lot

Car Journey

Road Trip

Zebra Crossing / Pedestrian Crossing

Cross Walk

Lollipop Man or Lady

Crossing Guard



Traffic Jam / Tailback

Traffic Jam



Articulated Lorry

Tractor Trailer


Gas / Gasoline



Petrol Station

Gas Station





Fire Engine

Fire Truck

Phone Box

Telephone Booth

Buildings / Shop

British English

American English

Semi-Detached House


Flat (one storey)



Town House


Drug Store / Druggist

Cafe / Caffs (not 24 hrs)



House (one story)\Ranch House


British English

American English

Biscuit / Bickie




Fairy Cake

Cup Cake





Sausage / Banger


Crisps Potato ChipsChips

(French Fries in McDonald's)

French Fries



Puddings / Afters / Dessert /

Sweets Dessert

Jacket Potato / Baked Potato

Baked Potato







Sandwich / Butty / Sarny


Ice lolly


Bill (at restaurant)




Food / Grub / Nosh



A slice of bacon

Eggy bread (fried)

French Toast

Runner beans

Green beans


Take out

Scotch Pancakes


Parts of a Car

British English

American English





Reversing lights

Back-up lights

Exhaust pipe

Tail pipe / Muffler



In and around the House

British English

American English

The Toilet / Loo / The John /

Bog / WC

Bathroom / Restroom



Garden Backyard




Bin / Dust Bin

Trash Can

Telephone / Blower / Phone


Television / Box / Telly/ TV

TV / Television

Couch / Sofa / Settee


Hand Basin /


Run the bath

Fill the tub


British English

American English

Girl / Lass


Boy / Lad


Man / Bloke / Gentleman / Guy /


Man / Guy

Lady / Woman


Policeman / Bobby / Copper

Policeman / Cop




Garbage Man




Crazy Person




British English

American English





Bat (table tennis)

Paddle (ping pong)

Other Words

British English

American English





Bank Holiday

National Holiday





Quid (slang for pound)



Doctor's office

Trodden on

Stepped on

I'm knackered

I'm Beat

Kip / sleep


Wireless / Radio


Starkers / naked


Come round

Come over

Off you go

Go ahead

It's gone off

It's spoiled

Lady bird

Lady bug

mobile phone


ground floor |

1st Floor

1st Floor

2nd Floor











bank note |


milliard |





















Intersection, junction




Last name









tube/underground |

























Sewer/soil pipe



briefs |











Term paper


Two weeks




Vacuum cleaner







postal code

Zip code

Same Word, Different Meanings

Differences of this type can be very confusing, even for people whose first language is English. The Macmillan English Dictionary provides over 25 special usage notes that deal with these American/British "false friends".


American Meaning

British Meaning


a game played in the US, with an egg-shaped ball that the players can throw or kick. British speakers call this game American football.

a game played all over the world, with a round ball that the players kick (but do not throw). American speakers call this game soccer.


thin flat pieces of potato, fried and eaten cold. Also called potato chips. British speakers call these crisps.

long thin pieces of potato, fried and eaten hot. American speakers call these fries or French fries.


a piece of clothing with buttons on the front and no sleeves that men often wear over their shirt as part of a suit. British speakers call this a waistcoat.

a piece of underwear that you wear under a shirt. American speakers call this an undershirt.

The word trunk in the British English has some values, such as "trunk", "tree trunk", in the American variant it is translated as " a luggage carrier of the machine ", that British in turn name boot. Besides, it is possible for itself to present reaction of the British to which will tell: " Put your bag in the trunk "

Drummer for British - "drummer", in the American variant is "direct-sales representative", therefore it is not necessary to be surprised, if the American will ask you: " Ask the drummer about the prices ". About the prices in this case it is necessary to learn from the direct-sales representative, instead of at the drummer.

Word check and bill also deliver weight of efforts to the people who are not owning that or other variant of English language. Bill in the British English - "account", and not the bank account which by the way, refers to account and too differs: the current account in the Great Britain refers to current account, and in America - checking account. Bill is an account in a bar or restaurant while bill in the USA is a denomination, a banknote: a ten - dollar bill, a fifty-dollar bill. British name banknotes: a twenty-pound note, a hundred-pound note and т.д.. To ask the account in Britain follows, having told, " Can I have the bill, please? ", in the USA - " The check, please ". The word check in the British variant is, but it means "check" and to write it it is necessary shegue, and check in the British variant is translated "to check up".

To buy clothes, being in England or America, also it is necessary, remembering some distinctions in variants of English language. The word vest is " a vest without sleeves " for British and "waistcoat" for Americans. In England the waistcoat refers to waistcoat, and a vest without sleeves in America - undershirt. Pants - "cowards" in the British English and "trousers" in American. In turn Americans will name cowards underpants, and British trousers - trousers.

5. Pronunciation

The most distinctive and characteristic feature of the American pronunciation can be named носовой, little bit nasal reprimand (twang). Americans say a vowel facing носовой to a consonant in a nose: candy [к?di], manner [m?n?] In combinations of a vowel a with consonants in the British English sounds [a:] (last [|a:st], danse [da:ns]), danse [da:ns]), in American - (grass [gr?s], fast [f?st]). The vowel about in the closed syllable sounds [] in the British variant, in American - is closer to [?] therefore such words, as dog, got and so forth are differently said in R.P. And G.A. In standard British English the consonant r in a combination to vowels at pronouncing is lost, turning to a long sound: ar [a:], or [?:], ir, er, ur [?:]. In the American variant r sounds very distinctly as, for example, in words arm, university, circle, etc. In intervocal position (between vowels) consonants t and d are said in the American English practically equally: [d], therefore words writer and rider can be distinguished only at a writing, on their hearing it is very easy to confuse, though in the British variant to make it it is impossible. The vowel u sounds [ju:] if it is said by British, and [u:], - if Americans. Thereof words duty, new, tune differ on a pronunciation in two variants of English language. The words terminating on - ile (fertile, futile) in the British English are said with a sound [ail] on the end, in American - [l]. Therefore fertile it is rhymed in the American variant with turtle: [f?:tl]-[t?:tl]]. According to a normative British pronunciation, such it is not supposed. The basic difference of the British pronunciation from American in tonic system is connected with presence in the American variant of a tertiary accent (tertiary stress) at which shock is not only the first, but also, equally, last syllable: dictionary, territory, testimony etc... At a normative British pronunciation at all these words the first syllable is shock only. Famous linguist Dzh. Wells in this connection has absolutely fairly noticed, that all the american pronunciation differs from the British norm " is unpredictable and is unexpected ".

There are a number of easy-to-hear differences in the way that English is pronounced by American and British speakers. Here we will look at the following areas: stress, some vowel sounds, and vowels followed by an "r."

Stress (Loudness in Your Voice)

American and British speakers have different stress patterns in their speech when they say certain words with two or more syllables. For example:


American English

British English







The same differences can be heard in words like gourmet, chalet, garage, parquet, and pate.

In words with several syllables like secretary, American speakers emphasize the ending more than British speakers, so that the word seems to have an extra syllable:


American English

British English







The same differences can be heard in words like conservatory, contributory, inflammatory, inflationary and preparatory.

In words like missile, however, British speakers give more emphasis to the last syllable


American English

British English







The same differences can be heard in docile, fragile, mobile, and tactile.

The sounds /j/ and //

In some words, British speakers say /ju/ and American speakers say

/u/ when they follow /d/, /t/, or /n/, for example:


American English

British English













The vowel sounds // and /?/

In many words where a comes before a sound such as /f/, /v/, /s/, or /z/, American speakers use a short a, like the sound in gas, where many British speakers (especially in southern England) use a longer a, like the sound in father. For example:


American English

British English













Vowels followed by /r/

Vowels with an /r/ following them are called rhotic or r-coloured. These are pronounced without the /r/ by many British English speakers, but the /r/ is pronounced by most American English speakers.

For example, mother and bird both have 'r-coloured' vowels in American English:


American English

British English







However, if the /r/ appears in front of a vowel in the next word, it is pronounced by both American and British speakers.

6. Grammatic distinctions between American and British variants of English language

There is a certain difference in the use of times of a verb. So, instead of Present Perfect the American can use Past Simple. Refusal from Perfect Tenses in a spoken language became so usual phenomenon, that it already is time for entering in grammar; a phrase: " Did you go see " Redheat " with Arnold? " It is represented to many Americans absolutely natural and true though situationally on all norms, including described in American грамматиках, it is required Perfect: " Have you seen …? " Or though in the colloquial form: "Seen" Redheat " yet? " Usually main the contribution to ignoring times of group Perfect attribute to immigrants from those countries in which language there are no perfect times, mention also Russian. However any a?u?«-speaking American will take advantage Perfect if other choice will make the statement ambiguous or not clear. Past participle a verb got sounds as gotten.

Instead of an auxiliary verb shall in America use will which, in turn, is superseded by the form gonna - a colloquial variant going to. It is nowadays the general tendency of English language. In the complex system of verbal times which have gradually come in the stead binary time system of old english language which initially expressed representation about time as about opposition of the ?a?O«nUN-future of time to the past, two important changes are seen. The first consists in more and more wide use of the expanded forms of type I am eating ' I I eat (at present) ' due to simple forms of type I eat ' eat (in general) '. This change results from desire to give to the action described by a verb, it is more than vivacity and realness - and it it differs from other modern lines in language, as a whole aspiring to greater profitability and brevity of language expression. The second change consists in wider use of the expanded forms of a verb go For transfer of the near future. The verb go, before meant walk ' to go on foot ' (as at Беньяна to Ways of the pilgrim: " I have resolved to run when I can, to go when I cannot run, and to creep when I cannot go " ' I have settled, where I can, run; to go, when I can not run, and creep, when I can not go '), nowadays has so lost the former material value that can be used as an auxiliary verb at itself as in expression: " We are going to pass a long way ".

Also in the American colloquial variant of English language such tendency of an English verb to do, as gradual replacement of the form of the third party does by the form of the first and second person do is brightly expressed. It concerns and to the negative form of this verb. This tendency proves and in the British variant of language (as an example it is possible to result a line from a song of group " The Beatles " - " She's got a ticket to ride, and she do not care "), that is is not actually American. However literary norm still there is a use in the third party of a verb does.

In the American variant of language it is not used should after verbs demand, insist, require, etc. similar, for example: " I demanded that he apologize " instead of " I demanded that he should apologise " in the British variant.

Many irregular verbs (for example, to burn, to spoil) in the American variant of language are correct.

Articles are differently used. For example, " to/in THE hospital " in the American variant, while in British " to/in hospital " without an article.

Often in the same expression instead of one pretext another is used, for example, " on the weekend/on weekend " instead of " at the weekend/at weekend " in the British variant; " on a street " instead of " in a street ".

Many steady expressions in the American variant of language receive change. For example, the American will tell " take a shower/a bath " instead of " have a shower/a bath ". Instead of "needn't" the complex form " do not need to " is used.

Adjectives slow and real are used as an adverb: He likes to drive slow (instead of slowly). She's real nice (instead of really).

Americans less willingly, than Englishmen, use plural of a verb at collective nouns However, despite of all stated above, the majority of grammatic features of the American variant of English language have no in modern English of the status normative.

7. Modern condition of English language as polynational

Modern British language, first, is non-uniform, secondly, farther from the classical English existed 3 centuries ago. Inside of the British variant 4 language types are allocated: conservative English (conservative - language of royal family and parliament), the accepted standard (received pronunciation), RP - language of mass-media, it still name BBC English) and the advanced English (advanced - language of youth). Last type - the most mobile, it actively incorporates elements of other languages and cultures. Advanced English it is most of all subject to the general tendency to simplification of language. Changes occur first of all in the lexicon, one of the most mobile parts of language: there are new phenomena which should be named, and old get new names. The new lexicon comes to the British youth language and from other variants of English, in particular, American. Language of the formed population of London and southeast of England - in due course has got the status of the national standard (RP). Its basis " correct English " - makes language of the best private schools (Eton, Winchester, Harrow, Rugby) and universities (Oxford, Cambridge). It also is that classical, literary English which is base of any rate of English language at linguistic schools for foreigners.

And here America has created practically a modern language: changes have concerned not only phonetics and lexicon, but also the steadiest part of language - grammar. Therefore it is quite natural, that disputes are conducted basically around of two variants of English language - British and American.

Unlike the British variant the American English more flexible, opened to changes and easy for perception. In particular, therefore it also has received greater distribution to the world. It is language of new generation without the certain nationality and the residence which have been brought up on a masscult. English language of modern youth more or less the general owing to basically to the general culture, a rock music, the dense communications both those ideals and idols which, since Elvis Presley, remain the general

One more feature of a modern spoken language of Americans - a designation of a class of subjects or the phenomena one of words of this class. This phenomenon in language refers to синекдохой (a designation of the whole in connection with). So, under the certificate of M. of A.Goldenkova, " Americans of all feathery predators name hawks ", that is "hawks". Also it notes the use of a word bug - "bug" - as a designation of all in general bugs (Last value of this word - " the electronic overhearing device " that has given an occasion and in Russian to name such devices "жучками") and words pine - "pine" in value "fur-tree" (including christmas).

There is one more widespread sphere of English lexicon which recently actively gets into the literature and cinema and demands therefore special explanatories. It is a question about American slang.

Slang borrows enough most part of the dictionary of the modern American. In XX a century there is an active process of transition slang lexicon in literary English. " Permeability for nonliterary layers of language, especially сленга, long since is one of characteristic features of the American and Australian variants of English language ". In the recent past сленговыми such nowadays widespread words and expressions, as of course, to take part, to get up, lunch were. Especially it is necessary to tell about expression which recently enters into all school textbooks of English language, being by origin American slang idiom. This expression ОК, a colloquial abbreviation of a word-combination all correct. Now there is an active penetration into English language of others, than habitual to us, variants of the statement and denying. Instead of yes even British nowadays use yea. Besides " it is frequent Englishmen on Canadian manners speak not yes, and yap, and not no, and nope " The American variant of English has influenced and functioning of proper names. " In present century the tradition of use of derivatives of full names (diminutive and caressing forms) as independent names has continued development ". Derivatives of names in modern English language are used not only at a private-household level of dialogue (among relatives, friends and friends), but also in official conditions. As an example names of some presidents of the USA can serve it: James Earl Carter it was reduced up to Jimmy Carter, William Jefferson Clinton - up to Bill Clinton.

The conclusion

As we have seen between the American and British variant of English language are appreciable enough. However opinion on essential distinctions between American and British variants of English language - only a myth. Actually not too it is a lot of them. Difficultly enough at times happens to understand, this or that book is written by the American or British author. " … separate dictionary features in speech of inhabitants of various English dominions are not so great, that it was possible to speak even about Separate adverbs, characteristic for this or that area: their grammatical system and the basic dictionary fund completely coincide with the same basic components of an English national language in mother country ". Nevertheless distinctions between these two variants of language every year it is totaled more and more. In opinion of director of the Russian representation of British school Language Link of Robert Dzhenski, now it is possible to speak about occurrence and fastening of the certain average universal English which has incorporated features of different languages. This - instead of American, not British and any another - the variant also is " language of the international dialogue ". It, naturally, is easier for understanding. First, it is neutral on painting, во-the second, foreigners speak English more slowly, say sounds separately, and words is precise. Besides it is more convenient: it is not necessary to strain, trying to come nearer to "cleanly British" or "cleanly American" pronunciation. In opinion of many Russian linguists and teachers, "correct" language is the British variant, more precisely, that its part which refers to " the accepted standard " (RP). Correct base English is necessary, by the way, and to understand and other variants of language, dialects and features. And can master them. As the teacher of the Moscow linguistic center Natalia Kuznetsova considers, the person with good classical English will not be gone anywhere and if it will be necessary, easily enough. In Natalia Kuznetsovoj's opinion to begin with the British variant it is necessary also because it is the fullest and a rich language. The American grammar in comparison with British is noticeably simplified. The American English it is possible to name "negligent" language. The British variant more particular, more scrupulous. In it there is an enormous set of intonational models, unlike American where there is practically one: an equal scale and descending tone. This intonational model defines also all Sound structure of the American variant.

In the British English it is a lot of scales: descending and ascending, step and sliding. The same concerns tones. Sometimes the accent gives out not pronouncing of a sound, and темпоральные characteristics: it is necessary to tighten a little bit a sound - and in you learn the foreigner. Americans, by the way, with a piety concern to the British English. The British English Americans name refined - this language at them never was, as was not, naturally, and that refers to " as English traditions and culture ". All this, naturally, speaks well for the British variant for studying at school. But to the teacher, undoubtedly, it is necessary to explain to pupils the basic lexical and grammatic distinctions between two variants of languages - such work should become one of the cores in studying лингвострановедческого a material. Thus to the core should become the British variant of English.

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