English Topics for Exams

Short histories on different themes: Belarus (Health care in Belarus, Education in Belarus), Great Britain (A day trip to London, British theatre and its theatrical traditions, System of education in the UK), my home (My family, The house of my dreams).

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид топик
Язык английский
Дата добавления 31.10.2010
Размер файла 105,9 K

Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже

Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.

Sports and games

Sports are very good for active relaxation and are important for our physical and mental health.

There are lots of types of sports and games. We can practice outdoor and indoor sports, in water or anywhere we want. Outdoor sports are as follows: golf, skiing (cross-country, down-hill, slalom. ski-jump), windsurfing, marathon-running, fishing, climbing, hiking or tourism, mountaineering, horse riding, rallies.

Indoor sports include table tennis, gymnastics, and chess. Ball games, athletics (sprint, high jump, long jump, javelin throw, ball through etc.). tennis, shooting, skate-boarding and skating (figure skating, speed skating and roller skating) may be practiced both outdoors and indoors.

There are also aquatic sports - water skiing, swimming, diving, water polo, yachting, kayaking, canoeing, rowing. People all around the world go in for sports. Ball games are popular with lots of people. They are basketball, volleyball, football (called soccer in America), tennis, handball. Many people go to the hills or mountains where there are adapted slopes and down-hill runs for skiing. Rugby and especially baseball are very popular in the United States.

Millions of people like to attend matches, watch them on TV or listen to them on the radio and keep their fingers crossed for their favourite teams.

Many sports have their origins in Britain that is why Britain is sometimes called the cradle of sports. Two types of rugby, hockey, cricket, darts, tennis and boxing were invented in England, Golf has its origins in Scotland. Here are the major sports events in Britain - Wimbledon (the Grand Slam Tennis Tournament), the British Open Golf Championship, the Grand National (it is the best, known horse-racing steeplechase).

Physical Culture and Sport in My Life

Many people all over the world are fond of sports and games. Sport helps them to stay in good shape, keeps them fit, healthy and makes them more organized and better disciplined. For some, it is a professional occupation, a road to records, tides, fame or self-expression. For others, it is just a business, and as such, it is as good as any other business, if it brings profits. Sport is also a means of relaxation and entertainment, a way of spending leisure time or building up health.

Many sports are popular in Belarus, They are: football, basketball, volleyball, weightlifting, tennis, track and field, boxing, swimming, judo, shooting, hockey, figure-skating and cross-country skiing. All these sports have their strong supporters. In Belarus much attention is paid to organized sports. There are many skating-rinks in the cities. There are also numerous water-pools for water sports and activities. Stadiums, gyms, shooting galleries, football fields and sport grounds are used in our country not only for daily sport activities, but for numerous national and international matches and competitions regularly held in Belarus. They attract many fans and journalists. Various sport clubs, societies and complexes work in our republic. Professional sport is paid much attention. The most famous complexes in Belarus are Raubichi and Staiki.

There are also a lot of amateur clubs and keep-fit centres in Belarus where people go in for aerobics, yoga, bo-dy-building, swimming, skating, jogging and horse-riding.

Great attention is paid to sport in our schools, colleges and universities. You can hardly find a school without a gym or a sports ground.

As for me I have been practising sports through all my educational establishment. Though I can't boast of my great progress I think my time was not wasted. I became stronger and more energetic, and at the same time more self-controlled and self-disciplined. I became more self-confident and sociable and it helped me to make many new friends. My favourite sports are football, table tennis, chess and hockey. I'm not only a fan of these sports, but I'm always eager to play a game or two. Whenever I have a chance, I also like to watch sport reports and competitions on TV. But the greatest pleasure for me is to watch the Olympic Games on TV. These are the greatest international sports games in the world. They help to bring people closer to each other, let them understand each other better.

I've already named my favourite sports, but I also don't forget about ray everyday morning exercises. Almost every day I do some outdoor training. To my mind jogging is a good way of keeping fit. The important thing here is to build up slowly and not to overdo it. It's best to keep away from roads so as not to breath in traffic fumes instead of fresh air,

Our life becomes more and more comfortable and that is the reason why the need for us to go in for sports is so pressing. More and more people, both young and old, go in for physical activity in their leisure time. They may choose what they like: gymnastics or games, aerobics or dance, aquatics or hiking.

Health care in belaus

Health protection and improving of medical services remain among major priorities of the social policy in the Republic of Belarus.

 The collapse of the Soviet Union was associated with a serious breakdown in the infrastructure supporting health care and medical education in Belarus. The economic disruption produced by a new independence added more stress on the republic's abilities to respond to the needs of even their healthiest citizens. Immunization rates have fallen, infant mortality has risen, fertility rates have plummeted and common illnesses have become fatal. Something had to be done, independent of the government, to make adequate health care available.

It also became apparent that there was an urgent need to upgrade the capability of many existing health care practitioners, not only in Belarus, but throughout the former Soviet Union, where health care practices may lag behind western standards by as much as 50 years. Despite this professional need, there is currently no efficient mechanism to transfer the advances of contemporary medicine into standard clinical practice.

The main lines for development of health protection at the modern stage include: expansion of activities for prevention of diseases; development of the network of day-care centres for medical support without hospitalisation of patients; and equipping of medical organisations with new contemporary medical equipment.

In Belarus, according to the Public Health Development Concept, the budget-funded public health system is to be maintained. The population is extensively covered with the hospital medical treatment and is serviced with sufficient medical personnel. The volume of services provided to the population in the governmental health institutions not reduced, but even substantially increased in 1990s.

Some positive tendencies of the change in the population health indicators were observed, namely, reduced mortality (including from malignant tumours), primary disability in the able-bodied age; reduced morbidity accompanied by temporary disability, malignant tumours, totally severe intestinal infections and others.

The national health facilities were partially restructured, and the Republican Scientific and Practical Centres were established: Human Radiation Medicine and Ecology Centre in Gomel, Mother and Child, Neurology and Neurosurgery Centres. Formation of the human health potential depends on multiple factors, namely, lifestyle, genetic predisposition and environmental condition, medical activity of the population, medical service condition and many others.

The governmental medical service system in the Republic of Belarus is structured by the area principle in accordance with the administrative and territorial division.

Rural health institutions provide emergency medical service, first aid and primary feldscher and medical service to the rural population residing in rural and urban-type settlements.

District health institutions provide primary medical service to residents of district centres, as well as sanitary medical and most needed specialized medical service (surgery, otorhynolaryngology, ophthalmology, neurology, endocrinology, psychonuerology, cardiorheumatology) for residents of the entire administrative district. Municipal health institutions provide the primary medical service, sanitary medical and most needed specialized medical services to urban residents. Regional and republican health institutions in addition to the mass medical service provide narrow specialized medical service (urology, proctology, etc.).

In addition to the public providers, private providers employing physicians and paramedical personnel also are available in Belarus.

The Ministry of Health authorities and organizations of the sanitary and epidemiological service are in charge of the disease prophylactics by preventing, revealing and suppressing violation of the sanitary and epidemiological legislation.

One of the major spheres of activity of the sanitary and epidemiological service in preventing diseases is promoting the healthy lifestyle. The National Program for Promoting Healthy Lifestyle of the Population of the Republic of Belarus is being implemented in the country, with the main target being to provide incentives to the Belarusian citizens for healthy way of life.

To coordinate activities of the state administration bodies and control preventive actions, an Intersectoral Coordination Council charged with protection of the Republic of Belarus from carrying and spreading of the bird flue was established.

Character and appearance

Appearances are deceptive. It is a common truth; practically everyone has met at least someone whose character and appearance differ radically.

When one sees a tall, broad-shouldered youth, one expects him to be strong-willed and brave. One thinks: a model to follow! How often a good looking individual turns out to be petty, weak-willed or even cowardly. Then one thinks: a mediocrity!

At the same time everyone knows that a lot of great people were of a poor build: short and fragile. It didn't stop them from displaying intelligence and courage. Ingenuity does not depend on one's complexion or constitution.

Plump or fat people create an impression of generous and kind personalities. Strangely enough, rarely they may be thrifty, even greedy. One usually thinks: a scrooge!

On the other hand, thin or slim nervous ladies tend to be lavish. They like to buy and never think twice when they pay.

Has it ever happened to you that you come to an important office and see an important boss? You immediately evaluate his looks: round-faced, small narrow eyes, dimples on the cheeks and an upturned nose. What a kind-hearted person! A simpleton! You tell the boss of your troubles and expect immediate help. But the boss appears to be rude, harsh and wilful. You never get your help and think: a stone heart and an iron fist.

When someone sees a delicately built pretty blonde with curly hair, blue eyes, a straight nose and a high forehead, one is inclined to think that the beauty is intelligent and nice. It may be disappointing to think later: what a stupid, capricious, impolite bore!

On the contrary, when one sees a skinny brunette with ugly irregular features - a hooked nose, a pointed chin, close-set eyes and thin lips, strange thoughts come to one's head; because it is the image of evil people - cruel and cunning. It may be a relief some time later to find her a clever, gentle and good-mannered lady.

Nature likes to play tricks on us. But don't you think it is a present on the part of nature? Life becomes not a boring routine, but a brilliant kaleidoscope of characters and appearances which often clash.

Eating out

Eating out in Britain is no problem at all. There are many places to eat. Their names are so different - a restaurant or cafe, cafeteria or coffee shop, pancake house or steakhouse, pizza place or sandwich shop, eatery or simply grill.

Some of them have proper names like «The Pines». Others are named after their owners like «Marie's» or former owners if the place has earned a good reputation. You can also eat at a take away place. When you buy something they ask «Here or to go?». The competition is so strong that you can always find a good meal you can afford. From time to time nearly all restaurants make «Special offers» of cheaper meals. On Sunday one can find in the local paper and take advantage of a «Sunday brunch special».

All restaurants in Britain serve table d'hote and a la carte dinners. Table d'hote dinners are cheaper than a la carte ones. When you dine a la carte you order course by course, as you desire. But table d'hote dinner consists of several dishes, the choice is limited, and it is served at a fixed price.

In the middle of the day when employees or workers have a short break for lunch, they find it impossible to get home for this meal and so they take it in a self-service cafe, or a fast food restaurant as they just want to eat up quickly and are not much interested in its quality. There are a lot of such places to suit every taste and purse.

There are quite a large number of vegetarians in Britain and an even larger number who are concerned about their health. For them “Health food shops” are abundant in the country as well as delicatessens, or deli for short.

We can't but mention the so-called fish-and-chips shops, which serve this traditional English dish (fish is deep fried in oil and served with chips). Housewives find it convenient to buy it in the evening and take the meal home thus avoiding the process of cooking.

And, of course, the British pub (short for a «public house). It is unique. This is not because it is different in character from bars and cafes in other countries. It is because it is different from any other public place in Britain itself. Without pubs, Britain would be a less sociable country. A pub with forty customers in it is nearly much noisier than a cafe or restaurant with the same number of people in it. Pubs used to sell almost nothing but beer and spirits. These days you can get wine, coffee and some hot food as well. At one time it was unusual for women to go to pubs. These days parents can even take children with them if there is a garden at the back and the pub has a special children's certificate. One of their notable aspects is that there no waiter service. In pubs you have to go and fetch your drinks yourselves, you can get up and walk around - it is like being in your own house. Unlike other eating or drinking place, the staff are expected to know the regular customers personally and chat with them if they are not serving someone. It is also helped by the availability of pub games and, frequently, a television. It is notable that very few pubs have tables outside because the Victorians thought it was somehow not proper for people to be seen drinking.

British food

British cuisine varies widely, depending on what part of the country you're visiting. The cuisine of London, for example, is far different from the cuisine of Yorkshire, or the cuisine of tiny, unfamiliar regions scattered across the country and virtually unknown to Americans and the rest of the world. Many hold the opinion that the true cuisine of the British is not what is found in the big cities, but the unknown treasures of the table that are hiding in the farmlands and countrysides and old villages across the U.K.

If you wander the British countryside, and you stop at a local pub or restaurant for breakfast, prepare yourself for an experience. As discussed above, the classic British breakfast is a large meal, bigger than what we're used to as Americans, and most of it tends to be fried (terrible for your health). Fried bacon and eggs, fried bread, and fried tomatoes are standards in country cooking.

Asking for coffee with your breakfast in the UK is a big no-no. Give tea a try. British cuisine leans heavily on tea, served with milk and sugar, the latter of which is usually coarse, brown, and unrefined. Tea is served for any meal and any time in between. It's just as quintessentially British as it sounds.

Any typical British meal, whether it's breakfast, lunch or dinner, tends to have some form of potatoes. The British rely heavily on potatoes in the countryside, and they serve them in very traditional manners. A wonderful British treat is something called a pasty. Meat, potatoes, vegetables and warm gravy are wrapped in a flaky bakery crust and sold ready to eat. Pasties are treated like take-out sandwiches or fast food, as you can walk down the street with a paper cone or napkin wrapped around them. They keep your hands warm too, which is a must during the cold winters or rainy days.

The other major staple of typical British country food is fish and chips. Fish and chip shops abound in all cities in England. British fish and chips are amazingly crackly, cooked until the coating is rich brown and salty, and the meat inside tender, white, and flaky. Chips, or potato wedges, are served hot and crispy on the side, and generally the whole thing is smothered in as much vinegar and salt as the consumer's mouth and stomach can stand. There is something distinctly British about malt vinegar, which sits on the tables at restaurants like American ketchup.

The smells and flavours of traditional English cuisine are well worth experiencing. If you find yourself in Britain, take time out to explore the sites, the back pathways and rolling fields. And stop at a bakery for a pasty, stop at a shop for fish and chips. Order tea instead of coffee, if you drink that horrible stuff.

The British experience just isn't the same if you miss out on the marvelous tradition of authentic British food.

Belarusian cuisine

Modern Belarusian cookery is based on old national traditions which have undergone a long historical evolution. But the main methods of traditional Belarusian cuisine are carefully kept by the people.

Common in Belarusian cuisine were dishes from potato which is called among people "the second bread". The Belarusians bring fame to their beloved potato in their verses, songs, dances. There are special potato cafes in the country where you can try various potato dishes. Potato is included into many salads, it is served together with mushrooms, meat; different pirazhki (patties) and baked puddings are made from it. The most popular among the Belarusians are traditional draniki, thick pancakes, prepared from shredded potatoes. A wide spread of potato dishes in Belarusian cuisine can be explained by natural climatic conditions of Belarus which are propitious for growing highly starched and tasty sorts of potatoes.

A lot of place in the diet of the Belarusians belongs to meat and meat products, especially to the pork and salted pork fat. One of the people's proverbs says: "There is no fish more tasty than tench, as well as there is no meat better than pork". The salted pork fat is used slightly smoked and seasoned with onions and garlic. Pyachysta is one of the traditional holiday dishes. This is boiled, stewed or roasted sucking pig, fowl or large chunks of pork or beef. Dishes prepared from meat are usually served together with potatoes or vegetables such as carrot, cabbage, black radish, peas, etc. It is characteristic that many vegetable and meat dishes are prepared in special stoneware pots.

Among dishes from fish the Belarusians prefer yushka, galki and also baked or boiled river-fish without special seasonings. In general, what concerns the most common seasonings such as onions, garlic, parsley, dill, caraway seeds, pepper, they are used very moderately in Belarusian cookery.

The choice Belarusian food are fresh, dried, salted and pickled mushrooms, and also berries such as bilberry, wild strawberries, red whortlberry, raspberries, cranberry and some others.

Of flour dishes the most popular is zacirka. Pieces of specially prepared dough are boiled in water and then poured over with milk.

The Belarusians prefer to use whole milk which affected some methods of making yoghurt and the so called klinkovy cottage cheese. In Belarusian cuisine the milk is widely used for mixing in vegetable and flour dishes.

Myadukha, berezavik, kvas, beer are traditional Belarusian drinks.

A day trip to london

It's hard to imagine a journey more guaranteed to please than a day trip to London, with all the excitement and variety that one of the world's greatest capital cities has to offer.

There's so much to see in London that it is well worth planning your day carefully before you set off.

The tour departs from Piccadilly Circus.

It's difficult to say what is the real centre of London, but many people would choose Piccadilly Circus. This is because it is not only central but also the heart of London's entertainment world. Within a few hundred yards of it we find most of London's best known theatres and cinemas, the most famous restaurants and the most luxurious night-clubs.

In the middle of Piccadilly Circus there is a statue said to be of Eros, the god of love. Few people know that it really represents the Angel of Christian Charity. On New Year's Eve it is boarded up to prevent over-enthusiastic revellers from climbing onto it.

It is particularly in the evening that Piccadilly Circus is thronged with people going to the theatre or the cinema, or perhaps to a restaurant. Many others have come to an evening stroll. The crowd is a motley one, for it is composed of people of many nationalities. The atmosphere is distinctly cosmopolitan, and one hears around a great variety of languages. It has been said that if you listen carefully, you may even hear English!

It is out of the question to tour London without catching a glimpse of Nelson standing high over his Trafalgar Square, anything from 167 - 185 feet high. What is certain, however, is that the column was built during the early part of the 19th century to commemorate Nelson's victory in 1805, and there's no doubt that this national hero still draws the crowds. Crowds of tourists as well as those famous pigeons still flock there in all seasons, and at Christmas time a vast tree stands there surrounded every evening by scores of carol singers.

You don't have to search for history in London, there is history around virtually every corner. The most obvious landmarks are the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey and the Houses of Parliament.

The Tower of London is an open history book of England. It has been a fortress, palace, home of the Crown Jewels and national treasures, arsenal, mint, prison, observatory and tourist attraction.

The Tower of London was started by William the Conqueror who invaded Britain in 1066. He built the White Tower to impress and frighten the English. The Tower of London brings to the visitor's mind a vision of imprisonment, torture and violent death at the hands of a masked executioner with an axe. Many prisoners laid their heads on the chopping block. Among the victims were noblemen, politicians, traitors and two of Henry III's wives.

The men who guard the Tower are Beefeaters. They can tell you everything about its history. Their clothes are the uniform of royal guards of the year 1500.

The ravens with their clipped wings are another famous sight. Legend says “Only as long as the ravens stay, will the White Tower stand”. Kings and queens have come and gone, some even lost their heads on Tower Green, but the Tower of London has survived them all.

Happy ghosts haunt the aisles of the superb Gothic Westminster Abbey, where a succession of English monarchs from William I have been crowned and many are buried in magnificent tombs recently restored to their original colours. But it's not only the crowned heads that are worthily remembered here. George Frederick Handel, Sir Walter Scott and Oliver Goldsmith are elaborately commemorated in the Poets' Corner. Over a thousand monuments are crowded into the building; they not only commemorate prominent men and women from every walk of life, but also give a breathtaking view of English monumental sculpture. However, it is perhaps the simple grave of the Unknown Warrior, which is the most poignant. His tomb symbolizes the sacrifice of more than a million British who lost their lives in World War I.

The Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey face each other across Parliament Square, where statues of Sir Winston Churchill, Abraham Lincoln and several other statesmen stand.

Every day when people in the UK and overseas switch on their radio to listen to BBC news, they can hear one of the most famous sounds in London. On the hour, the bells of Big Ben ring loud and clear. Many people think that Big Ben is the clock or the whole tower next to the Houses of Parliament. In fact, it is the largest of the five bells at the top of the tower.

No visit to London would be complete without a look at St. Paul's Cathedral, which was built after the Great Fire of 1666. It stands in the heart of the City. The architect was Sir Christopher Wren. It took him thirty-five years to finish St. Paul's. Wren designed St. Paul's to give a feeling of space and light. You can climb 627 steps to the dome, which houses the famous Whispering Gallery. If you whisper close to the wall on one side of the dome, you can be heard on the other side.

St. Paul's was the burial place of Wren, who died at the age of 91, having changed London's skyline with some 50 exquisite churches.

To make sure you make the most of London, go to Buckingham Palace, the London home of the kings and queens of Britain, and watch the Changing of the Guard, one of the most popular tourist sights. First

My visit to the theatre

I've never given a thought to the reason why I go to the theatre. My parents took me when I was a child, and the habit stuck.

With me, the theatre is rest, work and a festive occasion. A good play makes me think: is it true to life? What should I have done in his place?

The theatre is not only my favourite pastime. It occupies an immense part of my life. I think it is the greatest of the arts, I believe it to be the school of life, and the happiest moments of my own life have certainly been lived in theatres.

Sometimes one hears that the days of the theatre are over because it cannot successfully compete with the films and TV. I think that is nonsense. How can the theatre be compared with the cinema! In the latter you just stare at flat dead shades on the screen. In the theatre you communicate with living breathing people who share with you their joys and sorrows, and -- what is more -- their joys and sorrows are also your joys and sorrows. In their problems you recognize your own, and you are no longer alone. The drama properly staged and acted is not only communication but communion.

There are two theatres in Gomel. They show dramas, tragedies, and comedies. I enjoy every opportunity to see a new play there. As a rule I go to the evening performances (usually they begin at 7 p.m.). I usually go there with my friends or parents. We have to book the tickets in advance for a first night because the house is usually full. So we leave our coats in the cloak-room and buy a programme to know who is in the cast. The usherette shows us to our seats. Usually we take places in the stalls, but also people like to watch the performance from the boxes, balconies and pits. Boxes, of course, are the most expensive. After the 3rd ring the lights go down and the curtain drops.

Last year during my stay in Moscow I was lucky to see the play “My Fair Lady” at The Bolshoy Theatre. It was a first night. Everything was performed so realistically, so true to life that I began to feel for them like in real life. The play, the acting, the staging were beyond any description. The audience in times couldn't take their eyes off the stage. All the actors had wonderful dresses and the scenery was out of ordinary. The spectators were deeply impressed by the play and the cast. All the actors were at their best and captivated the audience. When the final curtain fell and the lights went up, the theatre burst into storm of applause. I have never seen the audience applaud so much before. Many people couldn't help throwing flowers onto the stage. Curtain call followed curtain call. As for me, I was actually crying. The emotional impact was immense. I still remember every detail of that performance.

Shakespeare said: "The world is the theatre and we are the actors." I think I can agree with his words. During all our life we play different roles - we are children at home, pupils at school and customers in the shop. Life gives us a great variety of scenery and situations. For all our life we depend on people, surrounding us, happenings, time, and place where we are now, just like an actor depends on the director, and script. But I need to add that our life can't be fully called the theatre because I think life is much more interesting, dangerous and unexpected.

Many people believe that it's much more convenient to watch a performance on TV at home, because you don't have to bother about the tickets, a baby-sitter and transport and so on. As for me I think that it is dull and boring to death. The main parts of the theatre and theatrical performance are the atmosphere of a play, scenery and people. If you see it on TV you only see the movement, just like a bad film and you only waste your time. The other thing is cinema. The films are specially made to attract public by scenery, beauty of animation and special effects. As for me-I go to the theatre to see the emotions, to the cinema to see well-made beautiful movement and switch on the TV-set to see news.

Education in belarus

Scientific and intellectual potential is the main strategic resource of Belarus. In 1950s Belarus became the country of universal literacy. In 1989, according to the results of the census, 899 people per each thousand engaged in the national economy had higher and secondary education; 144 people among them were the graduates from the higher educational establishments. Thus, we can say that Belarus had a developed system of education. It embraced 11,000 educational establishments; 430,000 teachers worked there; 33 per cent of population attended different forms of classes.

Nowadays the number of students attending different educational establishments has not changed. The republic guarantees its citizens the right to universal secondary education and creates means for further professional education. It tries to preserve the democratic character of education, paying much attention to common human values, developing independent critical thinking instead of simple perception of information.

The republic is reforming its system of education today with the aim of creating an independent, qualitatively new national school, corresponding to international standards and ensuring

each citizen the right to the high-quality education according to his abilities and inclinations.

The reform envisages a continuity of study at all stages, such as pre-school, secondary school, vocational training and specialized secondary school, and at the higher school level. It gives teachers and students freedom in the choice of educational forms and methods, while the results must correspond to the state educational standards.

The main principles of the educational system in Belarus are the priority of human values, national culture as the basis of education, humanism, sense of ecological purpose, scientific basis, democracy, support of gifted children and so on.

In the period from 1996 till 2010 the reform envisages:

12 year secondary school. Academic education in the 11--12th forms according to the main trends of the higher education: humane, natural, aesthetic and technological.

Primary vocational training at vocational schools.

Secondary vocational training at secondary specialized schools and colleges.

Higher education at two levels: the first level for those seeking a bachelor's degree (4--5 years) and the second level to obtain a master's degree (5--6 years).

5.Possibility for masters to obtain doctoral degree.
There have been changes in the organization of education

itself. New types of educational establishments have appeared: gymnasiya, lyceum, experimental school, college. There appeared non-state-owned schools of various kinds, private kindergartens, schools at home, commercial institutes. So, it stimulates effectiveness of education, creates non-idealistic attitude to society on students' part.

Scientific and Technological Progress

It's difficult to overestimate the role of science and technology in our life. They accelerate the development of civilization and help us in our co-operation with nature. Scientists investigate the laws of the universe, discover the secrets of nature, and apply their knowledge in practice improving the life of people.

Let's compare our life nowadays with the life of people at the beginning of the 20th century. It has changed beyond recognition. Our ancestors hadn't the slightest idea of the trivial things created by the scientific progress that we use in our every day life. I mean refrigerators, TV sets, computers, microwave ovens, radio telephones, what not. They would seem miracles to them that made our life easy, comfortable and pleasant. On the other hand, the great inventions of the beginning of the 20th century, I mean radio, aeroplanes, combustion and jet engines have become usual things and we can't imagine our life without them.

A century is a long period for scientific and technological progress, as it's rather rapid. Millions of investigations, the endless number of outstanding discoveries have been made. Our century has had several names that were connected with a certain era in science and technology. At first it was called the atomic age due to the discovery of the splitting of the atom. Then it became the age of the conquest of space when for the first time in the history of mankind a man overcame the gravity and entered the Universe. And now we live in the information era when the computer network embraces the globe and connects not only the countries and space stations but a lot of people all over the world. All these things prove the power and the greatest progressive role of science in our life.

But every medal has its reverse. And the rapid scientific progress has aroused a number of problems that are a matter of our great concern. These are ecological problems, the safety of nuclear power stations, the nuclear war threat, and the responsibility of a scientist.

But still we are grateful to the outstanding men of the past and the present who have courage and patience to disclose the secrets of the Universe.


Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling. They travel to see other continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It's always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun. Most travelers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them - the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds. Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had. People travel by train, by plane, by boat, by car, by bike and on foot. People travel to have a holidays or to have business. If people have business trips they choose the fastest transport. They often travel by plane or by train. It is very expensive but it is very fast. And if people want to have a rest they choose traveling by boat, by car, on horseback and etc. When you travel by car or by bike you can stop where you want. All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations. If we are fond of traveling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes. I like to travel. First of all, the members of our family usually have long walks in the country. Such walks are called hikes. If we want to see the countryside, we have to spend a part of our summer holidays on hikes. It is useful for all members of our family. We take our rucksacks, we don't think about tickets, we don't hurry up and we walk a lot. During such hikes we see a lot of interesting places, sometimes we meet interesting people. I like to travel by car. It is interesting, because you can see many things in a short time. When we go by car, we don't take tickets and we put all things we need in a car. We don't carry them.

Buildings and homes

As the saying goes “East or West Home is Best”. The expression is used mainly in terms of our Motherland, our native country. But it in full measure may be referred to the very place we live in; not only to the psychological spiritual notion of home, but it's very embodiment-the house. I completely share the idea that there's no better place than home, the house where we were born, grew up, celebrated family events. Whenever I leave for a long time for the summer period, I always want back home in my dreams. But to tell you the truth for me it's more important not the house itself, the design or smth of that kind, but the friendly atmosphere, relationships between the members of the family.

Still I should say about my flat. It consists of 2 rooms (living-room and bedroom), a kitchen and a bathroom. My flat is well-equipped and well-planned. It goes without saying that it has all modern conveniences. I do in fact love my flat, I like for example to tidy it up, to clean the carpets, to water the flowers, to dust the furniture. Fortunately, it doesn't take a lot of time to arrange everything in perfect order and after cleaning I'm still full of energy to spend fruitfully the rest of the day.

What are the differences between homes in this country and Britain? No visitor to Britain can help being struck by the many building sites and the relatively large number of new houses and flats that he sees in the suburbs of towns and cities all over the country. The overwhelming majority of these dwellings are two-story houses built either in pairs (semi-detached), or singly (detached houses) with a small enclosed garden at the front and the back. In recent years a considerably large proportion of new housing has been built in the forms of flats and blocks of flats have not become a common feature of the urban scene. Nevertheless, the traditional British prejudice in favour of house has only been modified, not fundamentally changed. An increasing number of people chiefly elderly men and women and childless prefers to live in bungalows. Almost everybody in Britain dreams of living in a detached house - that is a house that is a separate building. The saying: “An Englishman's home is his castle” is well-known. It illustrates the define for privacy and the importance attached to ownership. Their houses are the opportunity for self-expression. People like to choose the colour of their front door and window frames, for example.

What things would you like to improve on your room, flat or house? Firstly, I'd like to say that the room I like best is my bedroom. It's rather big but it's not so light as there is only one window in it. There are two bedside-tables and a big bed between them. An alarm-clock and a small lamp with a pink lamp-shade are on the table. In the left-hand corner there is a dressing table with a big mirror. At the opposite there is an entertainment unit. In my room there is also a built-in wardrobe with coat hangers to hang clothes on. There is a thick carpet on the floor and plain dark-blue curtains on the window. I'm fond of photos and that's why there are lots of photographs on the walls and on the table. In the right-hand corner there is a floor standing uplighter, I like it very much. Still there are a lot of things I'd like to change in my room. First of all the flat design, the size of the room itself. But I realize that now it's impossible and the only way out is to buy a new flat to my taste. I'd also like to change my kitchen completely and to make a kitchen every woman dreams about, because any woman spends most of her time in the kitchen cooking the dishes or smth else. It should be large and rather big. There shouldn't be too much furniture but it should be as cosy as all other rooms in the flat. Beyond all doubts, there should be a gas-cooker and a sink-unit with a draining board and some cupboards. In the cupboards which form the lower part of the sink-unit, scrubbing brushes, floor cloths, soda powder and other things should be kept. On the left hand side cupboards stretch the whole length of the wall. They should contain saucepans, frying pans, jugs, mixing bowls, teapots and food. There should be a washing-machine, a fridge, a microwave.

What is your dream house? I would like to live in a detached house with a view over the river. It's so pleasant to look at such a marvelous view! In my opinion it shouldn't be too large, just for my family. Maybe a two-storied building with 4 or 5 rooms, a basement, an office, a big kitchen and a bathroom on each floor. It will be enough to have the spiral staircase from the lounge up to the gallery room that should win me over. The semi-circular windows should let in loads of light and the rooms of the house will be very bright and roomy. Of course, I can say that it's a good idea to have a house with home automation. F.ex. when the windows will open and close themselves depending on the weather. When it gets dark, the curtains will close automatically. Or other features like an intelligent kitchen which will show you how to cook and measure the ingredients, and a central cleaning system that sucks up dust as soon as it lands. The security system will get in touch with the police if necessary. So in a few words the house will be governed by 1000 computers, sensors and electric switches. It goes without saying that it's very convenient and it surely protects people's lives.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of living with your parents? I'm a good example of those living with parents. It's a universal truth that everything in the world has its weak and strong points. This case is no exception. But what can be better than living at a place where you were born, celebrated family events, you don't suffer from nostalgia

Love and Marriage: Family matters

So, speaking about weddings, I would like to mention first that I don't understand people, who are getting married at the age of 17-20, it's hideous. Because they don't realize that they'll break their lives by divesting themselves of the greatest years. Cause at that age they all are still children and children can only play representing a family but it's wrong to transform such a game into a reality, because they are too young to do it. The same I can tell about weddings the reasons of which is pregnancy, such wedlocks exist for a short time as usual.

As for me I decided that it would be better to get married when I'll be 25-27 years old. I think that nowadays marriage is only the way to bring up lawful children. And it would be better and admissible for me to live in civil marriage with a beloved person. And only when we'll be sure in each other, in our joint future and our financial stability it would be possible to speak about our marriage and children.

I'm an atheist, so I want to have a humanist wedding and after it a ceremony in a register office. As any other girls I want my wedding to be as unusual as possible, I want us to recite our own vows, and to invite a crowd of friends and relatives.

Getting older you look for real, true love. You simply fall in love and want to make the other person happy too. And so you marry and take on the responsibilities of married life. In this new life you learn to take care of your partner, and you expect to have a family and bring up your children in the way you know to be right. As parents, you wish to provide them with everything you know a child needs: love, protection, safety and understanding. By rearing children and being a good partner you yourself feel needed and loved. The self-realization in marriage and parenthood is the key to happiness, although it is still associated with effort, sacrifice and hard work. If the decision to get married does not result from an unpleasant domestic situation you have a great chance to succeed in marriage.

Philosophy of life

Life is beautiful and we shouldn't miss it, shouldn't mortgage our lives to some future dreams. We often tell ourselves just as soon as we have got past this or that stage that now we will be able to devote our energies to what we really want to do. Thus we live on the never-never. I'm happy to say that I'm not a master of the never-never. I realize that it's a wrong approach and I'm sure that we are the makers of our destiny.

The concept of life is being not a rehearsal, has to do with the saying: Don't put off till tomorrow what you can do today. That's what I try to follow, especially when it comes down to exams. Thus, though being an absolute adherent of the theory I fail to be its true follower, either for the fact of being lazy or for the fact of being failure or for in fact not really willing to achieve smth. At the same time I'm far from being a follower of going where life takes me as more or less. I apply efforts to reach certain goal.

My ambitions

Like any human being I dream about certain things: about having a family, giving birth to children. These dreams are quite likely to come true, though not always easy.

Another dream which is possible to realize, but at the same time to be unfulfilled has to do with traveling. As visiting one country still leaves a possibility and gives way to a burning desire to see another land.

What things contribute to success?

Is rich success open to all? What contribute to it? The first answer which comes into my mind has to do with money. How can we become millionaires?

1) The most certain route is to start out wealthy 2) Good looks is another advantage

3) Studies show that about 60% of all millionaires left school early either because they were thrown out or were bored. Thus there's little correlation between how well children do at school and job satisfaction.

4) Successful people are the one's who when smth doesn't work try smth else. Unsuccessful people keep on doing the same thing only harder.

What things are important to your happiness?

1) Friends. They make us happy, although simply having them isn't enough. It's important to be able to tell them what's really going on in your life and how you feel and for them to do the same with you. People who focus on others - are more cheerful and more relaxed. 2) Get a pet. 3) Have faith. People who practice a religion have been found to be happier and less stressed than those who don't. People, who don't see any meaning in life, tend to be less satisfied with almost everything (job, home, income, appearance).

4) Go with a flow. Most of us think we're happiest at play and least happy at work. That's why we work very hard to afford leisure time. But it turned out that we're happiest when we are in a state of what we may call a “flow”. Activities that engage both body and mind will help you get into the “flow”. 5) Keep positive. Most of us talk to ourselves a lot of time. If your selftalk is negative and anxious, than you will feel unhappy. The good news is that this kind of thought process is easily changed.

Laws of life: Enthusiasm, energy, humility, pleasing others, giving, learning, altruism, value time, study hard.

Crime and punishment

The term "crime" is mostly commonly regarded as an offence against the state or individuals. There exist many classifications of crimes. One of them is as follows. The first group is crimes against people or property. Crimes against people include assault, kidnapping, murder, rape. Such crimes usually bring severe punishment. Crimes against property include car theft, burglary, fraud, vandalism. These crimes carry a lighter punishment than crimes against people. The second group is crimes against public order and morality. They include disorderly behaviour, prostitution, public drunkenness and vagrancy. Some people don't regard some of these ones as crimes. For example, they believe drunkenness is a medical problem and it should be treated. The third group is organized crimes - activities of groups of gangsters or racketeers. They specialize in gambling, blackmail, prostitution, drug peddling and some others. The fourth group is called "white-collar crimes". These are fraud, cheating in the pavement of taxes, petty thefts by employees. You commit a "white-collar crime" if you take money for a car repair that was not made or medical services that were not performed. One of the most common "white-collar" crimes today is a computer crime, which can be easily committed once a criminal learns the code or password to activate the system. The last group is political crimes. It includes acts of terrorism and assassinations of political figures throughout, the world. Nowadays such political crimes as airplane hijacking, assassinations, bombing and taking of hostages have become more frequent.

Подобные документы

  • Culture of Belarus as a product of a millenium of development under the influence of many various factors. Rituals and Holy Places. Traditional zadruga housekeeping. Holiday and traditional celebratings in Belarus: summer Kupalle and winter Kaliady.

    презентация [1,3 M], добавлен 01.05.2011

  • The factors of formation of a multiparty system in Belarus. The presidential election in July 1994 played important role in shaping the party system in the country. The party system in Belarus includes 15 officially registered political parties.

    реферат [9,9 K], добавлен 14.10.2009

  • The education in Great Britain. The three stages of schooling with children: primary school, secondary school and higher education, technical college of higher education and universities. The classification of the universities in England and Wales.

    презентация [422,5 K], добавлен 18.04.2011

  • System of education from an elementary school up to high school and some areas of a countryside in Great Britain. In high school pass examination on the certificate GCE. Universities in GB that have turned to national legends: Oxford and Cambridge.

    реферат [17,1 K], добавлен 09.02.2009

  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland. Geographical Position of the British Isles. Britannic history. Population of Britain today: The social framework. British political institutions. British national economy. Education in Britain.

    курс лекций [127,5 K], добавлен 27.10.2011

  • Belarus is a country with an open economy. Commodity structure of exports and imports in 2007. Dynamics of the foreign economic activity development. Import and export Geographical Structure. The trade balance with Russia. Main indicators of foreign.

    презентация [437,3 K], добавлен 01.04.2010

  • Regarding the development stages of the education system in England XIX - XXI century. The system of primary and secondary education in England. The traditional base of British higher education system of universities, polytechnic schools and colleges.

    презентация [509,1 K], добавлен 20.12.2013

  • British education. My future profession. Art gallereys of London. British theatres. Moscow theatres. My favorite painter. Art in Moscow. Theatres, music halls and cinemas. The use of computers. Exploration. Learning languages.

    реферат [13,7 K], добавлен 16.10.2002

  • The United Nations. The NATO. The Court system of the USA. The court system of England. The British Education System. Political system of the USA. Political system of Great Britain. Mass media (newspapers). Education in the USA.

    топик [11,0 K], добавлен 26.03.2006

  • State of the Honduran education system. Structure of the Honduran education system: Pre-school, Primary and Secondary education. Higher education - University and National School. Adult education and professional training. Current trends in education.

    реферат [23,1 K], добавлен 15.05.2008

Работы в архивах красиво оформлены согласно требованиям ВУЗов и содержат рисунки, диаграммы, формулы и т.д.
PPT, PPTX и PDF-файлы представлены только в архивах.
Рекомендуем скачать работу.