Effective methods of teaching English

Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching. The bases, effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language (communicative teaching method; project method; the method of debates; games and role play). Practical aspect of ways of teaching.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 10.11.2009
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Chapter I. Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching

1.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language

1.2. Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language

1.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategies

1.2.2 Communicative Teaching Method

1.2.3 Using project method in teaching a foreign language

1.2.4 The method of debates

1.2.5 Games

1.2.6 Role play as a method of teaching

Chapter II. Practical aspect of ways of teaching





Last years the imperative need of using a foreign language appears in all areas of a science, manufacture and culture.

In present practice of teaching foreign languages there are some typical problems forcing the teacher to address to experience of the colleagues, to innovative ideas, to a science.

Among these problems, difficulties and lacks of a traditional technique of teaching there are the following basic problems:

ь Low authority of a subject because of shortages of a present technique of teaching.

ь Low intensity of pupils' speech activity.

ь Superficiality in forming of base skills and haste of transition from reproductive to productive kinds of work.

ь Absence of good practical recommendations on elimination and the prevention of gaps in pupils' knowledge and skills.

ь Weakness of existing system of appreciation of pupils' work.

ь Spontaneity of a choice and application of evident support, their low didactic efficiency.

Researches of methods of teaching have show, that all named problems will effectively solved, if we apply elaborations of various innovators for amplification of a traditional technique of teaching that can increase essentially quality of teaching foreign (in particular English) language.

Imperfection of the existing approach to teaching foreign language in the high school, which is focused only on communicative purposes to the detriment of such kinds of language activity as reading and the writing, that has led to the low level of knowing a foreign language of graduates of secondary school.

Importance and openness of the problem of effective teaching foreign languages have caused its topicality, and consequently the choice of a theme for the given course work.

It also has determined the aim of work: to distinguish the most rational techniques of teaching a foreign language which can be used in school.

The subject of this course paper is variety of methods and ways and their effectiveness of using in teaching a foreign language.

The object of research is the process of teaching and pupils who are the subjects of this teaching process.

In this work it is necessary to solve the following primary objectives:

1. Theoretically to comprehend and approve in practice available approaches to teaching a foreign language in high school.

2. To analyze the basic contents of a teaching material and principles of its organization in a rate of foreign language

3. To compare suggested approaches and to choose the most comprehensible.

Proceeding from this, the hypothesis of the given research can be formulated as follows:

1. Teaching a foreign language should be complex (parallel) with an insignificant oral advancing;

2. Teaching should be directed on formation of steady interest to a subject;

During the work the following methods of research were applied:

1. The analysis of the scientific literature on a theme of course work;

2. The analysis of programs and textbooks on the English language of various authors and for various types of schools both domestic, and foreign;

3. The analysis of experimental training on the basis of experience of the teachers using innovative techniques, results of supervision.

Basis and investigation: school № 3, school № 41, resource center.

Theoretical value of this course paper is in its results, having received which it will be possible to organize effectively teaching process, using in practice methods and ways of teaching which were offered in this work.

Practical value of the work is in given methodical recommendations and great number of tasks and exercises which can be applied by teachers of any subjects in primary and secondary schools.

The structure of this course work consists of two parts: theoretical and practical. In the first chapter “The bases of teaching a foreign language” different bases and principles of teaching are considered. Analyzing publications on a problem of research in the second chapter of theoretical part the most effective methods and ways of teaching are suggested. The basic part of work is a practical part with exposition of experience of teachers - innovators. In it rod directions of technique of teaching different age - groups are proved and the analysis of the given approaches is resulted, including a number of methods and the receptions, raising quality of teaching a foreign language.

In the conclusion sums up the done work.

The bibliography contains the most known and important researches for the given work of teachers-innovators and scientists: psychologists, didactists, methodologists.

The appendix included some exercises that for any reasons has not come in the basic part of course work

Chapter I. Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching

1.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language

In the given theoretical part of work it is necessary to pay attention on those basic statements in which the most essential parts of activity are reflected and generalized. That means the methodical principles underlying teaching.

Principles of teaching are understood as starting statements which determine the purposes, the contents, methods and the organization of teaching and are shown in interrelation and interconditionality. In our case principles are used to define strategy and tactics of teaching English language at all stages practically in each point of educational process.

As far as the result of teaching of pupils foreign language is formation their skills of using language as means of intercourse, the leading principle is the principle of a communicative orientation.

Its main function is in creation of all conditions of communications: motives, purposes and problems of intercourse. The communicative orientation defines selection and the organization of language material, its situational conditionality, communicative value both speech and training exercises, communicative formulation of educational problems, organization and structure of the lesson. This principle assumes creation of conditions for speaking and intellectual activity of pupils during each moment of teaching [1;22-23].

Proceeding from the aforesaid teacher should follow the rules:

1) Principle of communicative orientation

· Rule 1 - Selection of situations.

· Rule 2 - Recurrence and novelty.

· Rule 3 - Participation of everyone in intercourse.

· Rule 4 - Favorable conditions for intercourse.

· Rule 5 - Communicativeness of tasks.

As far as juniors have still insignificant experience of collective intercourse and they are taught not only to associate in English, but also to associate in general, teacher should provide the support on pupils' realizing the models of intercourse in native language, realizing the communicative function of this or that language unit. Realization of this principle is carried out through system of cognitive problems, solving which children "open" laws of the native language.

On the basis of this realizing there is children's acquaintance with the form and functions of corresponding units of English language.

Proceeding from this, it is possible to plan some rules - following which allows realizing this principle in teaching and educational process.

2) Principle of support on the native language:

· Rule 1. Display of generality between Russian and English languages.

· Rule 2. Formation of the common educational skills.

· Rule 3. Use of similarity and distinctions in the script.

· Rule 4. Use of similarity and distinctions in pronunciation.

· Rule 5. Uses of carry and avoidance of interference in teaching vocabulary and grammar.

It is established, that for each kind of speaking activity "set" of actions and even the lexical and grammatical registration [2; 34]. It has allowed to formulate methodical principle of the differentiated approach in teaching a foreign language.

Thus the differentiation is carried out as though at different levels of generalization - precise differentiation is conducted in teaching:

· oral and written speech;

· speaking and listening;

· reading aloud and reading silently;

· script and spelling.

In teaching English language process of integration is realized, it shows, first of all, that mastering of various aspects of language, its phonetics, grammar, lexicon occurs not separately as certain discrete components of language, but is also integrated. Pupils seize and acquire them during carrying out of speech actions which realization can demand the use of a word, word forms, a word-combination, superphrase unity and, at last, the text, caused by situations of intercourse.

Considering the given specific principle of teaching the English language it is possible to formulate rules, their observance will help the teacher to realize this principle.

3) Principle of differentiation and integration:

· Rule 1. The account of specificity of each kind of speaking activity.

· Rule 2. Use of teacher's speech and sound recording for listening.

· Rule 3. Teaching monologic speech, proceeding from features of each form.

· Rule 4. Teaching reading aloud and silently in view of features of each form.

· Rule 5. Mastering of aspects of language in speech units.

· Rule 6. Use semi-typed font in teaching writing.

In a basis of teaching any subject at school including foreign language, there are general didactic principles. Such principles are: scientific character, availability, presentation in teaching, an individual approach in conditions of collective work and others.

Specific and general didactic principles express typical, main, essential, that should characterize teaching a foreign language at school and, first of all at the beginning stage where bases of mastering are pawned by this subject. The understanding of action of principles of teaching and direct use of rules will allow the teacher to carry out teaching effectively.

The learning is the active process which is carried out through involving pupils in a various activities, thus making it active participant in reception of education. In this bilateral process it is possible to allocate the basic functions which are carried out by each the parts. The teacher carries out organizational, teaching and supervising functions. Functions of the pupil include acquaintance with a teaching material, the training which is necessary for formation of language skills and speaking skills, and application of investigated language in the solving of communicative problems [4; 36].

We distinguish three basic functions which are carried out by the pupil, and the teacher is to organize and direct the doctrine of the pupil. Then it is necessary to attribute acquaintance, training and application to the basic methods. Control including correction and an estimation is accompanying, as it is in each of the basic methods.

The organization of acquaintance with "portion" of a teaching material includes:

First, display. I.L.Bim marks, that display is addressed to sensual perception of pupils - acoustical, visual, motor [5; 3]. The teacher can accompany display by some explanatories;

Second, an explanation inducing pupil to reflection is necessary and enough for understanding and realizing of a perceived material with a view of the subsequent intelligent training and application. The teacher can involve various means of presentation.

Due to training memory of the pupil is enriched with new units of language and automatism in their use is developed. At application of new vocabulary organizing function of the teacher is shown most precisely. He should create favorable conditions, benevolent atmosphere for normal course of the speech act. He should make such conditions in which each pupil would like to participate in work of group, in which children aspired to understand the contents and sense of the text, they have read or listened to, and were not afraid to make a mistake. At application of new vocabulary it is supervised formulation of speaking skills, it is established, how the pupil can use each of them in the practical purposes.

The considered methods reflect essence of pedagogical process in which the teacher and pupils cooperate. These methods are used in teaching a foreign language at school, open specificity of a subject and are directed on achievement of the practical, educational and developing purposes.

Each of the considered methods is realized in system of the modes used by the teacher in the organization of teaching pupils, carried out by the latter through the decision of set of the specific targets which are bound up with cogitative operations and perception by sense organs. Modes as well as methods are structural-functional components of mutual action of teacher and pupil. But if the method names the basic, dominating activity mode is bound up with the concrete action making essence of formed speech activity[1; 52].

It is very important, that modes which are applied by the teacher, let pupils solve tasks, and not just demand simple storing. And also it is necessary, that the pupil not only reproduces speech unit, but also creates his own «speech product ", i.e. he can construct the statement in connection with a communicative problem facing to him, using units of language.

1.2 Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language.

1.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategies

Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching

One of the primary goals of using constructivist teaching is that students learn how to learn by giving them the training to take initiative for their own learning experiences.

According to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom are as follows:

* the learners are actively involved

* the environment is democratic

* the activities are interactive and student-centered

* the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous

Examples of constructivist activities

Furthermore, in the constructivist classroom, students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas [1]. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook. Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:

* Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.

* Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.

* Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.

* Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.

* Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods. {1}

Role of teachers

In the constructivist classroom, the teacher's role is to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the teacher's main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject.

David Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:

* Modeling

* Coaching

* Scaffolding[6; 45-46]

Jonassen recommends making the learning goals engaging and relevant but not overly structured.

Learning is driven in CLEs by the problem to be solved; students learn content and theory in order to solve the problem. This is different from traditional objectivist teaching where the theory would be presented first and problems would be used afterwards to practice theory.

Depending on students' prior experiences, related cases and scaffolding may be necessary for support. Instructors also need to provide an authentic context for tasks, plus information resources, cognitive tools, and collaborative tools.[6; 34]

Constructivist assessment

Traditionally, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers. However, in constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student's work, and the student's points of view {2}. Some assessment strategies include:

* Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus” question and allows an open discussion on the topic.

* KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, What we have learned, How we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study. (See Appendix 1)

* Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.

* Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.

* Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study.{1}

* Jigsaw and RAFT activities. (See Appendix 2, 3)

1.2.2 Communicative Teaching Method

The “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages” -- also known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) or the “communicative approach” -- emphasizes learning a language through genuine communication. Learning a new language is easier and more enjoyable when it is truly meaningful.

Communicative teaching is based on the work of sociolinguists who theorized that an effective knowledge of a language is more than merely knowing vocabulary and rules of grammar and pronunciation. Learners need to be able to use the language appropriately in any business or social context.

Over the last three decades, theorists have discussed (and continue to discuss) the exact definition of communicative competence. They do agree, however, that meaningful communication supports language learning and that classroom activities must focus on the learner's authentic needs to communicate information and ideas.

Grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary are, of course, necessary parts of effective communication. With the communicative method two primary approaches may be taken. Some teachers prefer to teach a rule, then follow it with practice. Most, though, feel grammar will be naturally discovered through meaningful communicative interaction.

The communicative approach is a flexible method rather than a rigorously defined set of teaching practices. It can best be defined with a list of general principles. In Communicative Language Teaching (1991), expert David Nunan [7] lists these five basic characteristics:

1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.

2. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.

3. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning process itself.

4. An enhancement of the learner's own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.

5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.

As these features show, the communicative approach is concerned with the unique individual needs of each learner. By making the language relevant to the world rather than the classroom, learners can acquire the desired skills rapidly and agreeably.

1.2.3 Using project methods in teaching a foreign language

In the European languages the word "project" is borrowed from Latin: the participle 'projectus' means «thrown out forward ", "striking one's eye". With reference to a lesson of foreign language, the project is specially organized by the teacher and independently carried out by pupils complex of the actions, finished with creation of a creative product. A method of projects, thus, is the set of educational and cognitive modes which allow to solve this or that problem as a result of independent actions of children with obligatory presentation of results.

Let's result some examples how to achieve at once at the lesson with the help of project methods the several purposes - to expand children's vocabulary, to fix the investigated lexical and grammatical material, to create at the lesson an atmosphere of a holiday and to decorate a cabinet of foreign language with colorful works of children.

The work with the projects teacher can realize in groups and individually. It is necessary to note, that the method of projects helps children to seize such competences as: to be ready to work in collective, to accept the responsibility for a choice, to share the responsibility with members of the team, to analyze results of activity.

1.2.4 The method of debates

It allows forming also the conscious attitude to consideration of problems, activity in its discussion, speech culture, an orientation on revealing of the reasons of arising problems and installation on their decision further. Here the principle of formation of critical thinking in pupils is realized. Language, thus, is simultaneously both the purpose and means of teaching. The method of debates helps pupils not only to seize all four kinds of speech activity, but to means of a language situation on a background of a problem in social and cultural sphere to find out the reasons of the arisen situations and to try even to solve them. Interest to the independent decision of a problem is the stimulus, driving force of process of knowledge.

Thus, application of a method of discussion allows making active cognitive activity of pupils, their independence, forms culture of creative operative thinking, creates conditions for use of personal life experience and received before knowledge for mastering new. As discussion and the decision of problems occurs during controlled group dialogue at participants skill to operate in interests of group is developed, there is an interested respect for interlocutors and conducts to formation of collective. Application of this method in aggregate with a method of projects will allow generating thinking and owning not only the English language {3}, but also the expert understanding in various problems, capable to be guided in quickly varying information streams.

Not less interesting technique of activization of cognitive activity trained is the technique of role game which also can to reflect a principle of problematical character at its certain organization and allows to solve problem situations of a various degree of complexity. It can be used as independently, and in a context of a method of projects, is especial as the specific form of protection of the project. Trained apply the experience of the saved up knowledge, results of research during work above the project in realization of socially significant roles growing on the importance with passage of a cycle of occupations. Such modeling of situations of professional - business intercultural dialogue helps pupil to get used to various situations of the future activity which he can face in a real life. Problematical character of role game is realized through modeling of situations in which this or that problem can find the certain decision. Being in a role, pupil solves problem situations, evidently showing in full communicative competence the practical decision of a problem. Certainly, such way of protection should be adequate to a researched problem. Selection by that and problems for use of this or that method - a separate research problem. Here it is important, that communicative competence was formed in real acts of intercourse in which the English language is means of formation and a formulation of idea. Thus, pupil, being based on the skills generated with the help of a debatable method, it is capable to apply and develop these skills in concrete situations of dialogue, carrying out socially significant roles and skill to assert the position in problem situations.

1.2.5 Games

The advantages of using games. Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas". In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus ). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future.

Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems.

Choosing appropriate games. There are many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must correspond to either the student's level, or age, or to the material that is to be introduced or practiced. Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore, structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language have to relate to students' abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the student's experience.

Another factor influencing the choice of a game is its length and the time necessary for its completion. Many games have a time limit, but according to Siek-Piskozub, the teacher can either allocate more or less time depending on the students' level, the number of people in a group, or the knowledge of the rules of a game etc.

When to use games. Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do". Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen. At different stages of the lesson, the teacher's aims connected with a game may vary:

1. Presentation. Provide a good model making its meaning clear;

2. Controlled practice. Elicit good imitation of new language and appropriate responses;

3. Communicative practice. Give students a chance to use the language.

Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.

1.2.6 Role play as a method of teaching

Scholars suggest different steps and various successions in applying role play in teaching. Based on the empirical evidence, we suggest our step-by-step guide to making a successful role play.

Step 1 - A Situation for a Role Play

To begin with, choose a situation for a role play, keeping in mind students' needs and interests (Livingstone, 1983). Teachers should select role plays that will give the students an opportunity to practice what they have learned. At the same time, we need a role play that interests the students. One way to make sure your role play is interesting is to let the students choose the situation themselves. They might either suggest themes that intrigue them or select a topic from a list of given situations. To find a situation for a role play, write down situations you encounter in your own life, or read a book or watch a movie, because their scenes can provide many different role play situations. You might make up an effective role play based on cultural differences.

Step 2 - Role Play Design

After choosing a context for a role play, the next step is to come up with ideas on how this situation may develop. Students' level of language proficiency should be taken into consideration (Livingstone, 1983). If you feel that your role play requires more profound linguistic competence than the students possess, it would probably be better to simplify it or to leave it until appropriate. On low intermediate and more advanced levels, role plays with problems or conflicts in them work very well because they motivate the characters to talk [8]. To build in these problems let the standard script go wrong. This will generate tension and make the role play more interesting. For example, in a role play situation at the market the participants have conflicting role information. One or two students have their lists of things to buy while another two or three students are salespeople who don't have anything the first group needs, but can offer slightly or absolutely different things.

Step 3 - Linguistic Preparation

Once you have selected a suitable role play, predict the language needed for it. At the beginning level, the language needed is almost completely predictable. The higher the level of students the more difficult it is to prefigure accurately what language students will need, but some prediction is possible anyway [9]. It is recommended to introduce any new vocabulary before the role play [10].

At the beginning level, you might want to elicit the development of the role play scenario from your students and then enrich it. For example, the situation of the role play is returning an item of clothing back to the store. The teacher asks questions, such as, 'In this situation what will you say to the salesperson?', 'What will the salesperson say?' and writes what the students dictate on the right side of the board. When this is done, on the left side of the board the instructor writes down useful expressions, asking the students, 'Can the customer say it in another way?', 'What else can the salesperson say?' This way of introducing new vocabulary makes the students more confident acting out a role play.

Step 4 - Factual Preparation

This step implies providing the students with concrete information and clear role descriptions so that they could play their roles with confidence. For example, in the situation at a railway station, the person giving the information should have relevant information: the times and destination of the trains, prices of tickets, etc. In a more advanced class and in a more elaborate situation include on a cue card a fictitious name, status, age, personality, and fictitious interests and desires.

Describe each role in a manner that will let the students identify with the characters. Use the second person 'you' rather than the third person 'he' or 'she.' If your role presents a problem, just state the problem without giving any solutions.

At the beginning level cue cards might contain detailed instructions (Byrne, 1983). For example,

Step 5 - Assigning the Roles

Some instructors ask for volunteers to act out a role play in front of the class (Matwiejczuk, 1997), though it might be a good idea to plan in advance what roles to assign to which students. At the beginning level the teacher can take one of the roles and act it out as a model. Sometimes, the students have role play exercises for the home task. They learn useful words and expressions, think about what they can say and then act out the role play in the next class.

There can be one or several role play groups. If the whole class represents one role play group, it is necessary to keep some minor roles which can be taken away if there are less people in class than expected [11]. If the teacher runs out of roles, he/she can assign one role to two students, in which one speaks secret thoughts of the other (Shaw, Corsini, Blake & Mouton, 1980). With several role play groups, when deciding on their composition, both the abilities and the personalities of the students should be taken into consideration. For example, a group consisting only of the shyest students will not be a success. Very often, optimum interaction can be reached by letting the students work in one group with their friends (Horner & McGinley, 1990).

Whether taking any part in the role play or not, the role of the teacher is to be as unobtrusive as possible (Livingstone, 1983). He or she is listening for students' errors making notes. Mistakes noted during the role play will provide the teacher with feedback for further practice and revision. It is recommended that the instructor avoids intervening in a role play with error corrections not to discourage the students.

Step 6 - Follow-up

Once the role play is finished, spend some time on debriefing. This does not mean pointing out and correcting mistakes. After the role play, the students are satisfied with themselves, they feel that they have used their knowledge of the language for something concrete and useful. This feeling of satisfaction will disappear if every mistake is analyzed. It might also make the students less confident and less willing to do the other role plays (Livingstone, 1983).

Follow-up means asking every student's opinion about the role play and welcoming their comments (Milroy, 1982; Horner & McGinley, 1990). The aim is to discuss what has happened in the role play and what they have learned. In addition to group discussion, an evaluation questionnaire can be used.

The methods submitted above are only less part of the whole list of various effective methods of teaching a foreign language. The teacher should remember that each of the submitted methods works more effectively if they are combined and applied together at every lesson. It is impossible to allocate the best and most effective of them, every teacher himself chooses for himself what method approaches for each concrete case better.

Chapter II. Practical aspect of ways of teaching

In a theoretical part of this course paper it was spoken about various effective ways of teaching a foreign language. But if teacher wants effectively put them into practice, it is necessary to know how to use these methods at each separate lesson. Therefore, in a practical part of the given course paper the examples of various exercises will be shown for each of the methods, which were listed in a theoretical part. The teacher can adapt and make variations of them for his lessons.

Grammar games

Competitive games



Collocations with wide, narrow, and broad.


Intermediate to advanced


15-20 minutes


Three cards, with wide on one, narrow on the second and broad on the third


Prepare three large cards with wide on one, narrow on the second and broad on the third.

In class

1. Clear as much space as you can in your classroom so that students have access to all the walls and ask two students to act as secretaries at the board. Steak each of your card on one of the other three walls of the room. Ask the rest of the students to gather in the middle of the space.

2. Tell the students that you're going to read out sentences with a word missing. If they think that the right word for that sentence is wide they should rush over and touch the wide card. If they think the word should be narrow or broad they touch the respective card instead. Tell them that in some cases there are two right answers (they choose either).

3. Tell the secretaries at the board to write down the correct versions of the sentences in full as the game progresses.

4. Read out the first gapped sentence and have the students rush to what they think is the appropriate wall. Give the correct versions and make sure it goes up in the board. Continue with the second sentence etc.

5. At the end of the strenuous part ask the students to tale down the sentences in their books. A relief from running! ( If the students want a challenge they should get a partner and together write down as many sentences as they remember with their backs to the board before turning round to complete their notes. Or else have their partner to dictate the sentences with a gap for them to try to complete.)

Sentences to read out

They used a … angled lens


He looked at her with a … smile


The socialists won by a …. Margin


She is very … minded


He speaks the language with a … London accent


You were wrong what you said was … of the mark


You had a … escape


Of course they're … open to criticism


They went down the canal in a … boat


She opened her eyes …


The news was broadcast nation …


The path was three meters …


The light was so bright that she … her eyes



You can play this game with many sets of grammar exponents:

Forms of the article; a, the and zero article


Cognitive games

Spot the differences


Common mistakes




20-30 minutes


One copy of Late-comer A and Late-comer B for each student

This activity can be adapted for use with all levels

In class

1. Pair the students and give them the two texts. Ask them to spot all the differences they can between them. Tell them that there may be more than one pair of differences per pair of parallel sentences. Tell them one item in each pair of alternatives is correct.

2. They are to choose the correct form from each pair.

Late-comer A

Late-comer B

This women was often very late

This woman was often very late

She was late for meetings

She was late for meeting

She were late for dinners

She was late for dinners

She was late when she went to the cinema

She was late as she went to the cinema

One day she arrive for a meeting half an hour early

One day she arrived for meeting half ah hour early

Nobody could understand because she was early

Nobody couldn't understand why she was early

`Of course,' someone said, `clocks put back last night.'

`Of course,' someone say, `the clocks were put back last night.'

3. Ask them to dictate the correct text to you at the board. Write down exactly what they say so students have a chance to correct each other both in terms of grammar and in terms of their pronunciation. If a student pronounces `dis voman' for `this woman' then write up the wrong version. Only write it correctly when the student pronounces it right. Your task in this exercise is to allow the students to try out their hypotheses about sound and grammar without putting them right too soon and so reducing their energy and blocking their learning. Being too kind can be cognitively unkind.


To make this exercise more oral, pair the students and ask them to sit facing each other. Give Later-comer A to one student and Late-comer B to the other in each pair. They then have to do very detailed listening to each other's texts.

Feeling and grammar

Typical questions


Question formation-varied interrogatives


Beginner to elementary


20-30 minutes



In class

Ask the students to draw a quick sketch of a four-year-old they know well. Give them these typical questions such a person may ask, e.g. `Mummy, does the moon go for a wee-wee?' `Where did I come from?'. Ask each student to write half a dozen questions such a person might ask, writing them in speech bubbles on the drawing. Go round and help with the grammar.

Get the students to fill the board with their most interesting four-year-old questions.


This can be used with various question situations. The following examples work well:

Ask the students to imagine a court room-the prosecution barrister is questioning a defense witness. Tell the students to write a dozen questions the prosecution might ask.

What kind of questions might a woman going to a

foreign country want to ask a woman friend living in this

country about the man or the woman in the country?

And what might a man want to ask a man?

What kind of questions are you shocked to be asked in an English-speaking country and what questions are you surprised not to be asked?

Picture the past


Past simple, past perfect, future in the past


Lower intermediate


20-40 minutes




Ask three students to come out and help you demonstrate the exercise. Draw a picture on the board of something interesting you have done. Do not speak about it. Student A then writes a past simple sentence about it. Student B write about what had already happened before the picture action and student C about something that was going to happen, using the appropriate grammar.

I got up at eight a.m.

I've just got off the bus

I'm going to work today

Put the students in fours. Each draws a picture of a real past action of theirs. They pass their picture silently to a neighbor in the foursome who adds a past tense sentence. Pass the picture again and each adds a past perfect sentence. They pass again and each adds a was going to sentence. All this is done in silence with you going round helping and correcting.



Modals and present simple


Elementary to intermediate


30-40 minutes


One large sheet of paper per student

In class

Ask a student to draw a picture on the board of a person holding an umbrella. The umbrella looks like this.

Explain to the class that this `tulip-like' umbrella design is a new, experimental one.

Ask the students to work in small groups and brainstorm all the advantages and disadvantages of a new design. Ask them to use these sentence stems:

It/you can/can't…

It/you + present simple…

It/you will/won't…

It/you may/may not…

For example: `It is easy to control in a high wind', `You can see where you're going with this umbrella'

Give the students large sheets of paper and ask them to list the advantages and disadvantages in two columns.

Ask the students to move around the room and read each other's papers. Individually they mark each idea as `good', `bad' or `intriguing'.

Ask the student how many advantages they came up with and how many disadvantages. Ask the students to divide up into three groups according to which statement applies to them:

I thought mainly of advantages.

I thought of some of both.

I thought mainly of disadvantages.

Ask the three groups to come up with five to ten adjectives to describe their group state of mind and put these up n the board.

Round off the exercise by telling the class that when de Bono asked different groups of people to do this kind of exercise, it turned out that primary school children mostly saw advantages, business people had plenty of both while groups of teachers were the most negative.


Advantages the students offered:

In a hot country you can collect rain water.

It won't drip round the edges.

You can use it for carrying shopping.

It's not dangerous in a crowd.

It's an optimistic umbrella.

It's easy to hold if two people are walking together.

With this umbrella you'll look special.

It'll take less floor space to dry.

This umbrella makes people communicate. They can see each other.

You can paint this umbrella to look like a flower.

You'll get a free supply of ice if it hails.


Divide students into five equal groups. Each group will get one fairy tale to read. The stories are "The Ugly Duckling," "Snow White," "Hansel and Gretel," "Jack and the Beanstalk," and "The Three Little Pigs." Each group is responsible for collecting the following information:

* Who are the characters in the story?

* Where does the story take place?

* What are the major events of the story?

* Are there any magical or supernatural events? If so, what are they?

After the students read, discuss, and record the above information, split them into jigsaw groups. One person from each fairy tale assemble in a new group. In their new groups, students are each given three minutes to tell the other group members about the story they had read as well as the information they have collected. After that, the group has to create a poster and give a presentation that addressed two points:

1. What do all five stories have in common?

2. Using what you found in common, write your own definition for a fairy tale.

Debate Activities


This is a well known theatre exercise which is extremely effective for encouraging controlled but spontaneous interaction in ESL classes.


Begin by presenting a list of debate expressions such as those listed.


Model a discussion. Choose yourself as conductor and 4 other students to be conducted. First, the conductor presents a topic. He then selects a student and an expression for the continuation of the discussion.

Conductor: Elephants shouldn't be allowed into Bangkok. Student B "Furthermore"

Student B: Furthermore, the government should fine their owners.

Conductor: Student A "On the other hand"

Student A: On the other hand, people in Bangkok are very generous when they see elephants.

Conductor: Student C "For example".

Student C: For example, when they see elephants they feel compassion and give them food and money.

Conductor: Student D "You may have a point".

Student D: You may have a point. Nevertheless, the pollution and traffic are terrible for the elephants' health.


To reinforce the use of these expressions further, follow this activity by a debate or writing exercise

Project method Activity

№1. My Favourites. Children prepare at home material (press-cuttings, pictures) which illustrates their interests, hobbies. At the lesson on the lists of colour paper they design the album where every pupil tells about his favourite things and pastime (about favourite colour, sport, town, etc.)


№2. Picture poem. Children are suggested to draw picture - poem, so that its shape is concerned with its meaning.

Рiс. 2.

№3. Washing Line. Children draw different kinds of clothes, write the names on it and then hang them on the clothes-line with the help of the pegs.



Questioning Authority

Divide the class into small groups (4-6 students). Have each group make a list of ten unwritten rules that they seem to follow each day. Examples might be where they buy groceries, what time they get up in the morning, and what television programs they watch. Have the groups discuss why they follow these "rules" and what it would take to get them to break them. Alternative: Try the same sort of activity, this time having students list beliefs they accept without question-truisms like "Recessions are bad" or "It takes money to make money."

New Devices

Break students into groups of three. Have each group member draw a picture of someone doing something. (The ideal subject will be someone caught mid-movement.) After all the drawings are complete, have the students study them with the object of creating for each a device that will support the position shown in a steady state. Explain that the devices the students create can be made of paper, wood, plastic, or metal. (What the students will end up with are various forms of furniture, but they will have designed their creations without limiting themselves to their prior knowledge of furniture. The object of the exercise is to show the value of ambiguity in stimulating creativity.)

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