Prepositions in modern english
The role of endings in combination with prepositions in modern English. The noun in common case with different prepositions. The combining preposition of the English verb and corresponding equivalent one verb in the Russian language, its meaning.
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In modern English prepositions serve as a means for expressing the relations of nouns, pronouns, numerals or gerunds to the other words in a sentence. These relations in the Russian language are sent by means of case endings or case endings in combination with prepositions.
Prepositions play a great role in word-building, they are included in different word-combinations and expressions: e.g. at last наконец, at first сначала, at home дома, at night ночью, in vain напрасно, on foot пешком, for ever навсегда, by no means никоим образом, by the way кстати, etc.
On its shape the prepositions are divided on simple, complex and compound. The simple prepositions are those which are not dividable on componential parts. We refer here the most ancient English prepositions which are mostly monosyllabic, such as in, on, at, by, to, with, from, of etc. Simple prepositions can possess a varied number of semantic and contextual meanings.
Complex prepositions are those which were formed by means of word blending: e.g. inside - внутри, outside - снаружи, throughout через, upon на, into - в etc.
The Compound prepositions are those which mainly present a combination of noun, adjective, participle or adverb with simple preposition or conjunction, which are composed by united meaning. The Compound prepositions mainly have one meaning, corresponding to the meaning of a meaningful word falling into the compound of the preposition.
To the compound prepositions we pertain the following: because of из-за, instead of - вместо, by means of - посредством, as far as - дo, by force of - в силу, in spite of - несмотря на, in front of - перед, in accordance with - в соответствии с, contrary to - против, opposite to - против, as compared with no сравнению с, etc.
There is also a small group of prepositions, which have originated from participles and have saved the form of a participle: e.g. during - в течении; including включая; concerning, regarding - относительно, etc.
Prepositions can express a spatial, tense, causal, target and other kind of relations.
The English prepositions of, to, by, with (and sometimes for) in combination with noun in general case can be used in a sentence for expression of the relations, which in the Russian language are expressed by means of indirect cases without prepositions. When used in such kind of situations prepositions have no their own lexical meanings and they are not translated into Russian with independent words.
1. The noun in the common case with the preposition «of» renders the relationships which are corresponded in Russian to noun in genitive case, and, when used in such a meaning, it bears the function of attribute in a sentence e.g. " All the doors of the laboratories and classrooms were closed and locked - Все двери лабораторий и классов были закрыты и заперты.
«Corrosion of iron causes great economic losses. - Коррозия железа вызывает большие экономические потери.
2. The noun in common case with preposition «by» or «with» renders the relationships which are corresponded in Russian to the relationships the instrumental case, and, when used in such a meaning, executes the function of prepositional object in a sentence.
The noun with the preposition «by» denotes an acting person power, while the noun with the preposition «with» marks the instrument of the action: e.g. " The bases of all modern developments in chemistry were laid by the Russian scientist Mendeleyev - Основы всего современно развития химии были заложены русским ученым Менделеевым.
«The raging flames were driven by the wind - Ветер гнал бушующее пламя (букв.: Бушующее пламя было гонимо ветром)
«Pieces of paper are attracted by sealing wax rubbed with a cloth - Кусочки бумаги притягиваются сургучом, потертым матерней.
The noun in the form of the common case with preposition «to» demonstrate the relations, corresponding to the Russian language in the relations of the dative case, and in this case emerges in a sentence in the function of the prepositional object with the preposition «to»: e.g. "The name of Neptunium was given to the new chemical element No. 93. - Имя Нептуний было дано новому химическому элементу №93.
One and the same prepositions, when used in other semantical, contextual and syntactical functions, like any other simple prepositions, have a number of various meanings:
In combination with a noun in the form of the common case they can reflect the relations, corresponding to relations sent in the Russian language by means of indirect cases used together with prepositions. For instance, the preposition «by» has the following major meanings: beside, around, near, past, along, way, by means of, to, for, before, on, etc. and can be translated into Russian as: у, около, возле, мимо, вдоль, путем, посредством, к, за, до, по, на и др.: e.g.» Not was sitting by the window. - Он сидел у окна.
«Not will come back by 5 o'clock - Он вернется к пяти часам.
«Not took me by the hand - Он взял меня за руку.
«I go by your house every day - Я прохожу мимо вашего дома каждый день
«I know him only by name, I have never seen him.-Я знаю его только по имени, я его никогда не видел.
«This room is larger than that one by 4 meters - Эта комната больше той на 4 метра.
Since the simple English prepositions have some different meanings, one and the same English preposition can be translated into Russian by miscellaneous prepositions (but sometimes the former are not translated at all).
For example, the English preposition «in» has the following major meanings:
1) Place (answers to the question «in what place») e.g. Не is in the room. - Он в комнате.
Note that when answering to the question «to what place?» the preposition «into» must be used:
Cf.: Не came into the room. - Он вошел в комнату.
2) Time: in winter - зимой; In August - в августе; in an hour - через час, за час. E.g. I shall be back in an hour. - Я вернусь через час.
3) Denotation of circumstances and background:
E.g. Не was in great difficulty. - Он был в большом затруднении.
Cf.: Our ship was caught tn the storm - Наш пароход попал в бурю.
4) Denotation of the circle of existence and applying:
E.g. In our country the working people are in power, - В нашей стране у власти стоят трудящиеся,
5) Denotation of belonging to an organization, kind of activity and so like.
Cf.: to be in the army - быть в армии (=быть военным), to be in the Parliament - быть в парламенте (=быть членом парламента).
The simple Russian prepositions can also have some different meanings and, respectively, they are translated into English by means of different prepositions
For instance, we can translate the Russian preposition «на» with the help of different analogues of it in English:
· Книга на столе. - The book is on the table.
· Я увижу его на уроке. - I shall see him at the lesson.
· Летом я поеду на Кавказ. - In summer I shall go to the Caucasus.
· Я встретил его на улице. - I met him in the street.
The use of preposition can often be defined not by the word following just after the preposition, but by means of the preceding word. For example, some verbs require the special preposition after themselves. The latter connect the defining verb with nouns, pronouns, and other word categories.
The combining preposition of the English verb does not often coincide with the corresponding preposition combining the equivalent verb in the Russian language.
Some English adjectives and nouns can also be combined with the special prepositions which connect the former with the words followed after. For instance, the English adjectives superior to - лучше чего_л., inferior to - хуже чего_л equal to - равный чему_л., susceptible to - чувствительный, sure of - уверенный в, uncertain of - неуверенный в, respect for - уважение к, love for - любовь к, admiration for - восхищение чем_л., in answer to - в ответ на, etc.
We must take into account here that some English adjectives and nouns are combined with the special prepositions, one of the meaning of which is specific to these adjectives and nouns. For instance, the English nouns which denote humans' feelings are used with the preposition «for»
Some of the verbs which are used with prepositions in English can be translated into Russian with the corresponding verbs without prepositions: Compare for example, the following verbs: to wait for - ждать, to ask for - просить, to look for - искать, to listen to - слушать, to belong to - принадлежать, to aim at - иметь целью, to care for - интересоваться, любить; to explain to (somebody) - объяснять (кому_л.) etc. Configure:
E.g.:Не told them the Parliament had refused to listen to the working men.
Он сказал им, что парламент отказался выслушать рабочих.
E.g. Every eye was turned upon Bosinney; all waited for his answer.
Все смотрели на Босини; все ждали его ответа.
Some of the English verbs do not require the preposition after themselves, while they are translated into Russian with the corresponding verb with preposition following just after them. To this group we may refer the following English verbs: to answer - отвечать на, to climb - подниматься на, to cross - переходить через (реку, улицу, мост), to doubt - сомневаться в, to enter - входить в, to fight - сражаться с (против), to follow - следовать за, to join - вступать в, присоединиться к, to leave - уехать из, to need - нуждаться в, to play - играть в (на), to affect - воздействовать на, etc.
It should be borne in mind that the English verb «to leave» when used together with the preposition «for» corresponds to the Russian verb «уехать в»
Cf: Не left for Moscow. - Он уехал в Москву. Не left Moscow. - Он уехал из Москвы.
Having combined with different prepositions, the English verbs can change their meaning in accordance to the followed preposition. For example, to look after - присматривать, заботиться; to look at - смотреть на; to look for - искать; to look over - просматривать; to look to рассчитывать на, etc.
Cf.: As I was looking over the papers I came across this paragraph. (M. Twain) Просматривая газеты, я наткнулся на этот параграф…
Cf.: The governor had just given me the sack and I have four children looking to me for their bread. (B. Shaw)
Хозяин только что уволил меня, а у меня четверо детей на моем иждивении (букв. «рассчитывающих на мой хлеб»).
The preposition usually occupies the place before a noun, pronoun, numeral, or gerund. If a noun has determinatives, the preposition stands before the latter.
Having broken the magnet into pieces, we get complete magnets.
In the English sentences the preposition usually stands after the verb (postposition) or, if there is a direct object in a sentence, it follows after the latter.
What are the molecules cornposed of?
We use at in the following cases:
1. With times:
- at 5 o'clock
- at 11.45
- at midnight
- at lunch time
- at the week-end/at week-ends
- at Christmas/at Easter
- at the moment/at present
- at the same time
- at the age of
2. We use «at» in the following situations:
at the back/at the top (of the page)/at the bus-stop/at the
door/at the window/at the bottom (of the page)/at the end
of the street/at the front
- Who is that man standing at the bus-stop/at the door/at the window?
- Turn left at the traffic lights.
- If you leave the hotel, please leave your key at reception.
- I couldn't see very well because I was standing at the back.
3. We say at/on the corner of a street' but 'in the corner of a room':
- There is a telephone box at/on the corner of the street.
4. We say 'at the front/ at the back of a building/hall/cinema/group of people' etc.
- The garden is at the back of the house.
- Let's sit at the front (of the cinema), but 'in the front row'
5. We say that someone is 'at an event', for example, ' at a party/at a concert/at a conference/at a football match':
- Were there many people at die party/at the meeting?
6. We say ' at home/ at university/ at the seaside/ at a station/ at sea (on a voyage)/ at school/ at an airport/ at work'.
- I'll be at work until 5.30 (but: I'll be at home all evening.)
- We'll be arriving at 9.30. Can you meet us at the station.
7. We usually say 'at' when we say where an event takes place (for example: a concert, a film, a meeting, a sports event etc.):
- We went to a concert at the Royal Festival Hall.
- The meeting took place at the company's headquarters.
- 'Where were you last night?' 'At the cinema.'/'At die theatre.'
8. We say ' at someone's house':
- I was at Tom's house last night (or I was at Tom's last night.)
9. You can often use 'at' or 'in' with buildings. You can stay 'at a hotel' or 'in a hotel'; you can eat 'at a restaurant' or 'in a restaurant'
10. We can use 'at' when the town or village is a point on a journey:
- Do you know if this train stops at Nottingham?
- We stopped at a pretty village on the way to London.
11. We say 'arrive at' with some places (except for countries and towns) or events:
- What time did he arrive at school/at work/at the hotel/at the party?
12. We say 'at the end (of something)' = at the time when something ends. But we use 'in the end' when we say what the final result of a situation was). For example: at the end of the month/at the end of January/at the end of the film/at the end of the course/at the end of the match/at the end of the concert. But we cannot say 'in the end of something'.
The opposite of «at the end» is «at the beginning»: at the beginning of the concert/at the beginning of January.
13. We say 'to be surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished at/by something':
- Everybody was surprised/shocked at/by the news.
We say 'to be good/bad/excellent/brilliant/hopeless at (doing) something':
- I'm not very good at repairing things.
14. We say 'to laugh/smile at someone/something':
- I look stupid with this haircut. Everyone will laugh at me.
15. We say 'to look at someone/something (= took in the direction of):
- Why are you looking at Sue like that?
16. We say 'to have a look/stare/glance at smb. / smth.', 'to shout at someone (when you are angry)':
- He was very angry and started shouting at me.
But: shout to someone (so that they can bear you):
- He shouted to me from the other side of the street.
17. We say 'to point/aim something at someone/something':
- Don't point that knife at me! It's dangerous.
18. We say 'to point/aim something at someone/something
- Don't point that knife at me - It's dangerous.
19. We say 'to throw something at someone/something (in order to hit them)
- Someone threw an egg at the minister while he was speaking.
But: throw something to someone (for someone to catch):
- Ann shouted 'Catch!' and threw the keys to me from the window.
We say 'to look AFTER someone/something (= take care of)':
- She's very old: She needs someone to look after her.
The preposition «on» has the following meanings:
1. to have smth. on smb. ('to have evidence against smb.')
2. the fire went out on me ('the fire went out through no fault of mine')
3. we were on to what was happening ('we were aware of what was happening')
4. well in years ('rather old')
We use 'on':
1. with dates and days:
- on 12 March
- on Friday(s)
- on Christmas Day (but 'at Christmas')
- on Friday morning(s)
- on Sunday afternoons
- on Monday evening(s)
- on Saturday night(s) etc.
2. We use 'on' in the following situations: on the ceiling/on the wall/on the floor/on smb. nose/on a page 18
- Don't sit on the floor/on the ground/on the grass!
- Have you seen the notice on the notice-board?
- There's a report of the football match on page 7 of the newspaper.
- Don't sit on that chair. It's broken, (but 'sit in an armchair')
Note that we say: on the left/on the right (or on the left-/right-hand side)/ on the ground floor/on the first floor/on the second floor etc.
- In Britain we drive on the left. (or… on the left-hand side)
3. We use 'on' with small islands:
- Tom spent his holidays on a small island off the coast of Scotland.
4. We also say that a place is 'on the coast/on a river/on a road':
- London is on the river Thames.
5. We say that a place is 'on the way to another place':
- We stopped at a pretty village on the way to London.
6. We say 'on/at the corner) of a street' (but 'in the corner of a room'):
- There is a telephone box on/at the corner of the street.
7. We say 'on the front/on the back of a letter/piece of paper' etc.:
- Write your name on the back of this piece of paper.
8. We say 'on a farm':
- Have you ever worked on a farm?
9. We say 'to travel on foot':
- Did you come here by car or on foot?
10. We use 'on' for bicycles and public transport (buses, trains etc.):on my bicycle/on the bus/on the train/on a big ship.
11. We say 'get on/get off a bicycle, bus or train':
- Quick! Get on the train. It's ready to leave.
12. We say 'on time' = punctual, not late. If something happens on time, it happens at the time which was planned:
- The 11.45 train left on time. (= it left at 11.45)
- The conference was very well organized.
- Everything began and finished on time.
13. We say 'to be/to go on holiday/ on business/ on a trip/on a tour/ on an excursion/ on a cruise/ on an expedition'.
14. We say 'to be keen on something':
- We stayed at home because Ann wasn't very keen on going out in the rain.
15. We say 'to concentrate on something':
- Don't look out of the window. Concentrate on your work!
16. We say 'to depend on someone/something':
- What time will you arrive? I don't know. It depends on the traffic.
We must note here that we can leave out 'on' before question words «when/where/how» etc.:
- 'Are you going to buy it?' 'It depends (on) how much it is.'
17. We say 'to live on money/food':
- George's salary is very low. It isn't enough to live on.
18. We say 'to rely on someone/something':
- You can rely on Jack. He always keeps his promises.
19. We say 'to blame something on someone/something':
- Everybody blamed the accident on me.
20. We say 'to congratulate someone on (doing) something':
- When I heard that he had passed his examination, I phoned him to congratulate him on his success.
21. We say 'to spend (money) on something':
- How much money do you spend on food each week?
We must note here that we usually say 'spend (time) doing something':
- I spend a lot of time reading.
The preposition «in» has the following meanings: I. adv. (colloq.)
1. * for ('facing') (they are for trouble)
2. * with ('on intimate terms with') (they are with highly influential people)
II. n. (colloq.) to have an * with smb.
III. prep. * smb. to + inf. (it's not * me to lie; she doesn't have it * her to break her word)
We use the preposition «in» in the following cases:
1. We use 'in' for longer periods of time (for example: months/years/seasons):
- in April
- in 1968
- in (the) winter in the 18th century
- in the 1970s
- in the Middle Ages
We also say: «in the morning(s)/in the afternoon(s)/in the evening(s)»
But: on Friday morning
We use «'In' + a period of time» to show a time in the future:
- The train will be leaving in a few minutes. (= a few minutes from now)
- Jack's gone away. He'll be back in a week. (= a week from now)
- They are getting married in six months. (= six months from now)
We can also say 'in six months' time', 'in a week's time' etc.:
- They are getting married in six months' time.
We also use 'in' to say how long time it takes to do something:
- I learnt to drive in four weeks. (= it took me four weeks to learn)
2. We use 'in' to show space relations in the following situations:
in a room/in a building/in the water/in a row/in a line/in a garden/in a park/in the sea/in a queue/in a town/in a country/in a river:
- There's no one in the room/in the budding/in the shop.
- When we were in Italy, we spent a few days in Venice, (not 'at Venice')
- 'Robert lives in a small village in the mountains.
- She keeps her money in her bag/in her purse.
- When I go to the cinema, I prefer to sit in die from row.
- Have you read this article in the newspaper?
We must note that we say: «(to sit) in an armchair» but 'on a chair'/in the street/in a photograph/in a picture/in a mirror/in the sky
- 'Where did you meet Tom?' 'In the street.' (not 'on the street')
- Who is the woman in that photograph? (not 'on that photograph')
3. We say 'in the corner of a room', but 'at the corner (or on the corner) of a street':
- The television is in the corner of the room.
4. We say 'in the front/in the back of a car':
- I was sitting in the back (of the car) when we crashed.
5. We say 'in bed/in hospital/in prison:
- Tom's father is in hospital.
6. We can often use 'in' or 'at' with buildings. You can stay 'in a hotel' or 'at a hotel'; you can eat 'in a restaurant' or 'at a restaurant'. We use 'in' when we are thinking about the building itself:
- The rooms in Tom's house are very small.
- I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the cinema.
7. We usually say 'in' with towns and villages:
- Tom's parents live in Nottingham. (not 'at Nottingham')
We say 'arrive in a country/ town':
- When did he arrive in Britain/in London?
8. We use 'in' for cars and taxis: 'in my car/in a taxi'. We say 'get in(to)/get out of a car or taxi':
- He got into the car and drove off. (or He got in the car…)
9. We say 'in time' (for something/to do something) soon enough for something/soon enough to do something:
- Will you be home in time for dinner? (= soon enough for dinner)
- I've sent Jill her birthday present. I hope it arrives in time (for her birthday).
(= soon enough for her birthday).
- I must hurry. I want to get home in time to see the football match on television. (= soon enough to see the football match).
The opposite of 'in time' is 'too late':
- I got home too late to see the football match.
Note the expression 'just in time':
- We got to the station just in time to catch the train.
- A dog ran across the road in front of the car, but I managed to stop just in time (to avoid hitting the dog).
10. We say 'in the end' = finally. We use 'in the end' when we say what the final result of a situation was:
- We had a lot of problems with our car. In the end we sold it and bought another one.
- He got more and more angry. In the end he just walked
out of the room.
- Tom couldn't decide where to go for his holidays. He decided to go to Italy in the end.
11. We say 'a rise/an increase/a fall/a decrease in something:
- There has been an increase in road accidents recently.
But: We say 'there is an advantage in doing something':
- There are many advantages in living alone.
12. We say 'to be interested in something':
- Are you interested in art and architecture?
13. We say 'to believe in something':
- Do you believe in God? (= Do you believe that God exists?)
- I believe in saying what I think. (= I believe that it is a good thing to say what I think.)
We do not use 'at'/'on'/'in' in the following cases:
1. Before 'last' and 'next':
- I'll see you next Friday.
- They got married last March.
2. We say arrive home/go home/come home/get home etc. (with no preposition):
- When did he arrive home?
- I'm tired. Let's go home.
3. We do not use a preposition with these verbs: phone someone/discuss something/enter somewhere (= go into a place):
- Did you phone your father yesterday?
- We discussed many things at the meeting.
4. We say 'ask (someone) a question' (no preposition)
- After explaining of each theme, you must ask questions.
The place of prepositions in a sentence
The preposition usually occupies the place before a noun, pronoun, numeral, or gerund. If a noun has determinatives, the preposition stands before the latter.
E.g.: Having broken the magnet into pieces, we get complete magnets.
- Разбив магнит на куски, мы получаем полные магниты.
Cf.: Having broken the magnet into still shorter pieces, we still get complete magnets.
- Разбив магнит на еще более короткие куски, мы все же получаем полные магниты.
In the English sentences the preposition usually stands after the verb (postposition) or, if there is a direct object in a sentence, it follows after the latter. It happens in the following cases:
1. In interrogative sentences beginning with the pronouns «what, who (whom), which» or the adverb «where».
e.g. What are the molecules cornposed of?
Из чего состоят молекулы?
Who(m) was the law discovered by?
Кем был открыт закон?
Where have you come from?
Откуда вы пришли?
2. В In subordinate objective sentences which are introducted by the interrogative pronouns or the adverb «where», when the latters are used as the conjunctions.
E.g. We got to the station at eleven and asked where the eleven-five started from. Мы приехали на станцию в 11 и спросили, откуда (с какой платформы) отходит поезд, отправляющийся в 11.05.
3. In subordinate asydentic attributive clauses.
E.g. Не was the most extraordinary lad I ever came across.
Я никогда не встречал более удивительного парня.
букв. «Он был наиболее удивительный парень, с которым я когда-либо встречался».
E.g. The direction of a magnetic field is the direction the North Pole of the compass points in.
Направление магнитного поля есть направление, на которое указывает северный полюс компаса.
4. In subordinate attributive clauses whish are introduced by the relative pronoun «that».
E.g. Two essential parts that а dynamo consists of are the field magnet and the аarmature.
Две основные части, из которых состоит динамо, - это индуктор и якорь.
5. In the sentence, if the predicate is expressed by the verb in passive voice, requiring the preposition after it.
E.g. Не was laughed at. - Над ним смеялись.
6. In infinitivial constructions used in the function of attreibute.
E.g. Then we looked for the knife to open the tin with.
Затем мы искали нож, чтобы открыть (букв.: которым открыть) банку.
Cf.: You have never done one single thing in all your life: to be ashamed of.
- Вы не сделали ни одного поступка за всю вашу жизнь, за который вам было бы стыдно.
We must note here that if there are two verbs in a sentence, and the former are used with different prepositions, but related to one and the same noun, the latter after the first verb is usually omitted and used only after the second one.
E.g. A few electrons may readily be removed from, or added to an atom. Несколько электронов могут быть легко удалены из атома или добавлены к нему.
The English prepositions in their combination with different parts of speech is a complex section of grammar, which, like the phrasal verbs, is possible to be referred to the English lexicon. We shall consider the most widely used verbs in combination with corresponding prepositions. The English prepositions, as it is well known, serve to show the different relations between two parts of speech, which they link. That is why we may say that if a verb has several prepositions, so the meaning of the former will be changed in accordance to the specific use of the latter. The English prepositions, used in their combination with parts of speech, must be remembered by the foreign learners, for not to do such a mistake, as we see in the example below:
Instead of «choose between - выбирать из» to write «choose of» or» choose around», Instead of «cope with - справляться с» - to write «cope on»… etc.
To check up the right use of prepositions after a verb we may use the special bilinguals dictionaries, which are intended for foreign learners of English. The most known of them are: The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English and The Macmillan Advanced Learner's Dictionary.
There are some peculiarities of verbal prepositional constructions:
1. Many verbs that are used without an object are normally followed by a prepositional phrase. Some verbs take a particular preposition, for example: belong to, hint at, lead to, qualify for, sympathize with, consist of, hope for, listen to, refer to, happen to, insist on, pay for, relate to, etc.
2. With other verbs that are used without an object, the choice of a different preposition may alter the meaning of the clause. For example: agree on/with, appeal to/for, conform to/with, result from/in, think about/of, apologize for/to, care about/of, remind about/of, suffer rom/with, complain to smb. about/of, etc.
3. Some verbs have an object, but it is also followed by a preposition.
4. The semantic and contextual meaning of a word can change in respect to a preposition defining it.
As we have said above, the semantic and contextual meaning of a word can change in respect to a preposition defining it. We can obviously see it in the examples below:
· abbreviate to - сокращать до… (например, сокращать «colloquial» до «coll.»)
· absent yourself from - отлучаться, отклоняться от
· accuse smb of smth - обвинять кого-либо в чём-либо
· adapt to - приспособиться к
· add in\on - прибавлять, складывать
· admire smb for - восхищаться кем-либо за что-либо
· advise smb on\ - дать совет кому-либо по какому-либо вопросу
· advise smb to - посоветовать кому-либо сделать что-либо
· agree on\over\about - договориться, достичь согласия по какому-либо вопросу\agree to - договориться что-либо сделать
· aim (smth) at\agree with - соглашаться с
· apoligise to smb for smth - простить кого-либо за что-либо
· appear to (He appeared miss several classes - Оказалось, он пропустил несколько уроков; грамматич. констр. «appear to + verb»)
· apply to smb for - обращаться к кому-либо за чем-либо
· approve of - одобрять что-либо
· argue about - спорить о \argue for - выступать за что-либо, добиваться чего-либо (также в споре)\argue against - выступать против\argue with - спорить, ссориться с
· arrange for - договориться что-либо сделать \ arrange with - договориться с кем-либо
· arrest smb for smth - арестовать кого-либо за что-либо
· ask somebody (for something) - просить, спрашивать о чем-либо
· attach to - привязывать к
· ban smb from - запретить кому-либо что-либо делать
· bargain away - совершить сделку\bargain for\over - торговаться по поводу чго-либо\bargain with - торговаться с
· beat at\in - «побить» (рекорд), пересилить, перещеголять в чём-либо\beat down - унизить кого-либо, дать кому-либо почувствовать униженность, отсутствие к ним уважения\beat off - побороть, пересилить\beat up - причинить боль, нанеся удар(ы)
· beg smb for - выпрашивать у кого-либо что-либо
· begin by\with - начать с чего-либо
· believe in - верить в
· belong to - принадлежать кому-либо
· benefit from - извлекать пользу из
· blame for/on - обвинять в чём-либо
· break into - вламываться, разразиться
· boast of\about - хвастать о
· borrow from - заимствовать из
· bump into - натолкнуться на (также в образном значении «неожиданно повстречать»)
· burst into - разразиться, погрузиться в (burst into tears - разрыдаться)
· care about\for\of - заботиться о
· change for\in\to\into - обменять на
· charge at\for\in\with - обвинять в
· cheat smb out of - обманом лишить кого-либо чего-либо
· choose between - выбирать из
· collide with - сталкиваться с
· combine with - совмещать с
· comment on - комментировать по поводу чего-либо
· commit to - предать чему-либо (например, суду)
· communicate with\to - общаться с
· compare to\with - сравнивать с
· compensate for - выплатить компенсацию за
· compete against\with - соревноваться против\с
· complain to\about\of - жаловаться на
· compliment on - делать комплимент по поводу чего-либо
· concentrate on - сосредотачиваться на
· concerned about\with - озабоченный, обеспокоенный чем-либо, ~ with - участвующий в
· confess to - признаться в
· confide in - доверяться\~ to - доверить
· confront with - стать лицом к лицу с
· confuse with - путать с
· congratulate on - поздравлять с
· conjure up - вызывать (~ в воображении)
· consent to - согласиться сделать что-либо
· consider for - считать что-либо чем-либо, принимать что-либо за что-либо
· consist of - состоять из
· consult on\about - проконсультироваться по какому-либо вопросу
· contrast with\to - составлять контраст с, быть противопоставленным чему-либо
· contribute to - участвовать в
· convert into\to - превращать, обращать, преобразовывать с
· convict smb of smth - обвинять кого-либо в чём-либо
· convince of - убеждать кого-либо в чём-либо
· co-operate in - принимать совместное участие в каком-либо деле\with - работать вместе с
· cope with - справляться с
· correspond with - переписываться с
· count for - иметь какое-либо значение (~ little - иметь небольшое значение)
· cover in\with - покрывать чем-либо
· crash into - врезаться в
· criticise for - критиковать за
· cry about\for\over - плакать по, о
· cure of - лекарство, средство от
· date back to\from - датироваться чем-либо (каким-либо годом)
· deal in\with - справляться с чем-либо
· decide about\on сделать решение по какому-либо поводу,
· decide against - вынести отрицательное решение по поводу чего-либо
· decide between - выбрать среди
· declare war on - объявить войну кому-либо
· decrease in - упасть, снизиться (decrease in amount - снизиться в количестве)
· defend from\against - защищать от
· delight in\with - наслаждаться чем-либо
· demand from - требовать у\от кого-либо
· depart from - отступать от
· depend on\upon - зависеть от
· descend to - перейти к (descend to details - перейти к подробностям)
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