The development of information technologies in Ukraine and the UK

The telecommunication services in United Kingdom. The development of information technology: company "British Telecom", "O2", "T-Mobile", "Three", "Orange", "Vodafone" and others. The information technologies in Ukraine: the National Informatisation.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 31.05.2009
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English Language

On the theme: «The development of information technologies in

Ukraine and the UK »

Finished: st. gr. DG-K7-1




The development of information technology in the UK

United Kingdom is a world leader in the field of telecommunication services (approximately 5% of the world market). She spends annually on information technology amount adequate 4% of its GDP. The total revenue of companies operating in this market is in row 30

The greatest part of the British market is the information technology sector of mobile communications, which types of services is divided into wireless telephony and mobile Internet. Currently, for every 100 people in the UK, accounting for 110 young cell phones. The largest mobile operators in the country are the company «O2», «T-Mobile», «Three», «Orange», «Vodafone» and «Carphone Warehouse». All of them - international groups operating in several countries.

Single leader in the wired network continues to remain a national British telecommunications company «British Telecom».

United Kingdom is a world leader in the fastest growing large-band Internet access. This type of service enjoyed by 99% of the population of the country. Every three months the number of users increases approximately significant at the 300 thousand total, there are about 400 companies - providers of Internet access. The largest of them in this market are «BT», «NTL» and «Telewest».

One of the promising directions of development of Internet access is widespread adoption of wireless communications links using WI-FI (to connect to the network using a laptop computer with a specially built motherboard via radio). Virtually all of British airports, hotels, cafes, etc. have an access points to radio, and the number of users amounted to 32 persons for every 100 inhabitants Great Britain.

The British Government conducted a review process for potential IT sector and to prepare proposals for improving the vision of its development. According to analysts Council Technology Strategy (ITS), the country has a strong intellectual, human and productive resources. She took a leading position in technologies for data collection, transmission, storage, analysis and data protection in a network environment.

Urgent tasks are recognized - the strengthening of public support for NIOKR, as well as the development of national networks of technological exchange in the field of IT and security of cyberspace. The special role of the usual support-national companies, which already occupy a leading position or could become world leaders, as well as to stimulate the activity of branches of leading international corporations. Technologically-world leaders, the British information industry recognized «Autonomy», «BT», «BBC», «QinetiQ», «Misys», «Searchspace», «Vodafone», «IBM», «HP», «Motorola», «Siemens », « Ericsson (Marconi) ».

Accelerate innovative development of the industry to be based on the concentration of efforts of the state and the private sector on a working line NIOKR, with the greatest potential for effective com commercial realization. Among priorities of development experts provide multi-network of programmable devices, the information systems of interaction between enterprises in the «geographically independent» virtual space, smart devices, technology simulation the complex processes of information security, as well as improvement of digital communications infrastructure through convergence of networks fixed, mobile and broadband communications.

Among the priority areas - the development of distributed networks of sensors and programmable intelligent devices, embedded in various objects environments managed implemented computer systems that interact with the human-com in natural language or through remote reading psycho-physiological characteristics. It is assumed that such networks will be widely used in business planning systems, consumer electronics, complex environmental monitoring, office equipment, telemedicine systems, energy facilities and transport.

To ensure rapid development of technological capabilities in this area it is through increased public support for NIOKR to create user interfaces, network infrastructure, data storage systems, means of identification of users of personalized services, content and information integration-governmental platforms.

Increased attention is given to a system of cooperation of enterprises in a virtual environment on the basis of a unified pro-software and network technologies high reliability (the concept of «IEC»). The key conditions for successful development of virtual information services recognized by the implementation of effective information security and technology integration of distributed data represented, as well as the development of economic models and legal framework for cooperation in a network environment. Public spending on NIOKR on these topics in the order of 2 per year.

British experts are considering the development and the rational application of the tools of mathematical modeling as an important condition for improving the efficiency of the health system, financial institutions and transport complex. In connection with this planned for greater attention to developments in the field of high-performance computing resources, the system architecture of super-computers, algorithms and software. Highlights the increasing significance of means of mathematical modeling of physical, chemical and mechanical processes of democratic and economic systems. The annual budget for this purpose amounts to about 5.5

A promising direction of development of intelligent systems is recognized based on software agents, neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic techniques. Experts estimate that such technologies can be effectively used in systems of production and traffic, robotics, and the means of economic modeling.

In Britain, the important role of information technology security, in a decentralized network environment, based on the broad introduction of biometric identification of users. Their development requires the development of standardized tools to assess threats to information security and analysis of complex systems, as well as the establishment of effective means to prevent unauthorized access to wireless computer networks water.

The development of information technologies in Ukraine

In today's society information is an important and valuable resource, and the level of development is measured by the level of its informatisation. Therefore, all countries in the world are making great efforts to ensure the development of information sphere, the creation of an appropriate computer environment. In Ukraine, the concept of "computer technology" has long used both to denote the technical means, and the science of the principles of their construction and design.

The founder of IT in the Ukraine and the former Soviet Union became Viktor Mikhaylovich Glushkov (1923-1982), founder of the world-famous Institute of Cybernetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, now bearing his name.

The government and authorities to give serious attention to the development of the computer industry right after the Second World War. Leading scholars believed that a fundamental task for the national economy.

Until the early 1950's were only small productive opportunities, which specialize in the production of counting and accounting countable perforation machines. The electronic digital computer design only arise, and productive opportunities for this were close to zero.

The first major steps in developing the industrial base have been done are initially in the late 1950's, when the establishment of the first industrial designs of electronic counting machines were finished and given to the creation of M-20, "Ural-1", "Minsk-1 "which, together with their successors semiconductors (M-220," Ural-11-14 "," Minsk-22 "and" Minsk-32 "), established in 1960, were mainly in the USSR.

In the 1960's research and collected base was expanded. As a result of these measures, all research associated with the creation and launch of serial manufacture semiconductor electronic machinery, had been almost completed.

Efforts of many organizations, especially the Cyber Center, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, other teams of scientists and specialists in Ukraine, the creation of an information society development platform. Its design is to create a cum laude highly infrastructure.

In Ukraine, according to various expert estimates, over recent years have seen a constant growth of computer resources (by 15-20% annually).

In the Institutes of Informatics Office, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine obtained fundamental results in the theory of world-building a new intellectual and IT systems, in developing the principles of smart behavior cybernetic devices in the theory of the creation of complex human-machine systems.

A striking example of the use of information technologies in the sphere of culture is the establishment of Institute for Information, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine database of cultural heritage of the peoples of Europe.

One of the largest developments in recent years - the computer-thorns network of educational institutions and Science of Ukraine (URAN). It is designed NTUU «KPI» mainly by international grants, and is used widely in educational and scientific institutions. The system URAN provides its users the opportunity to quickly and securely share a variety of data, if necessary, to benefit from the Internet.

It should be on the issue of funding the National Informatisation Program. Funds in Ukraine on computerization, are insignificant. And this at a time when the industrialized countries have now a new era - the era of networked computerization. In this sphere of human activity United States, Japan, Great Britain, France, Germany and other countries are investing huge funding, very quickly return to their budgets.

The most disturbing feature of the computer market and the entire process of formatting information in Ukraine is a state of the industry software (software industry). In recent years, the share of the market sectors we have reduced. This situation negatively affects the pro-process of informatisation. The fact that a specific computer systems to a large extent (by some estimates - more than 80%) is developing software applications. That is success Informatisation depends largely on the power industry, from the programmers. Consequently, the share of software in the world market is constantly growing. The demand for programmers in the world market is very high. For example, in the United States, where the army of programmers has about 1 million 900 thousand people deficit these professionals in recent years amounted to 138 thousand annually.


After reviewing the development of science in two countries, I found he lived some similar and some distinctive characteristics in the appearance of computers.

First of all, I would say that in the first stages of the two countries were shoulders with each other.

The only progressive way to build on our internal research and collaboration with Western European companies to develop new generations of machines. Thus, we need to achieve world-class products, and we should have real base for further development together with leading companies of Europe.


Б.М.Малиновський “Історія обчислювальної техніки в особах”, Київ, 1995.

Stephen G. Nash “A History of Scientific Computing”, ACM Press History Series, New York, 1990.

Енциклопедія кібернетики, Київ, 1985.

The America House Pro-Quest Database: “Byte” Magazine, September, 1995.

William Aspray, Charles Babbage Institute Reprint Series in the History of Computing 7, Los Angeles, 1985.

D.J.Frailey “Computer Architecture” in Encyclopedia of Computer Science.

Stan Augarten “Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers”, New York, 1984.

Michael R. Williams “A History of Computing Technology”, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1985.

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