Linguistic Аspects of Black English
Bringing English language with the first settlers to America. The new combinations of English words, differences in pronunciation, in grammatical construction and especially in intonation. The new generation's occurrence and "Americanisms" in America.
|Рубрика||Иностранные языки и языкознание|
|Размер файла||9,5 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Grammatical difference between British and American English
In the early part of the seventeenth century English settlers began to bring their language to America, and another series of changes began to take place. The settlers borrowed words from Indian languages for such strange trees as the hickory and persimmon, such unfamiliar animals as raccoons and woodchucks. Later they borrowed other words from settlers from other countries - for instance, chowder and prairie from the French, scow and sleigh from the Dutch. They made new combinations of English words, such as backwoods and bullfrog, or gave old English words entirely new meanings, such as lumber (which in British English means approximately junk) and corn (which in British means any grain, especially wheat). Some of the new terms were needed, because there were new and un-English things to talk about. Others can be explained only on the general theory that languages are always changing, and American English is no exception.
Aside from the new vocabulary, differences in pronunciation, in grammatical construction, and especially in intonation developed. If the colonization had taken place a few centuries earlier, American might have become as different from English as French is from Italian. But the settlement occurred after the invention of printing, and continued through a period when the idea of educating everybody was making rapid progress. For a long time most of the books read in America came from England, and a surprising number of Americans read those books, in or out of school. Moreover, most of the colonists seem to have felt strong ties with England. In this they were unlike their Anglo-Saxon ancestors, who apparently made a clean break with their continental homes.
A good many Englishmen and some Americans used to condemn every difference that did develop, and as recently as a generation ago it was not unusual to hear all «Americanisms» condemned, even in America. It is now generally recognized in this country that we are not bound to the Queen's English, but have a full right to work out our own habits. Even a good many of the English now concede this, though some of them object strongly to the fact that Americanisms are now having an influence on British usage.
There are thousands of differences in detail between British and American English, and occasionally they crowd together enough to make some difficulty. If you read that a man, having trouble with his lorry, got out his spanner and lifted the bonnet to see what was the matter, you might not realize that the driver of the truck had taken out his wrench and lifted the hood. It is amusing to play with such differences, but the theory that the American language is now essentially different from English does not hold up. It is often very difficult to decide whether a book was written by an American or an English man. Even in speech it would be hard to prove that national differences are greater than some local differences in either country. On the whole, it now seems probable that the language habits of the two countries will grow more, rather than less, alike, although some differences will undoubtedly remain and others may develop.
It also seems probable that there will be narrow-minded and snobbish people in both countries for some time to come. But generally speaking, anybody who learnsto speak and write the standard English of his own country, and to regard that of the other country as a legitimate variety with certain interesting differences, will have little trouble wherever he goes.
Lexical differences of american variant highly extensive on the strength of multiple borrowing from spanish and indian languages, what was not in british english.
American variant British variant
Subway «метро» underground
the movies «кинотеатр» the cinema
shop «магазин» store
sidewalk «тротуар» pavement
line «очередь» queue
soccer «футбол» football
mailman «почтальон» postman
vacation «каникулы» holiday
corn «кукуруза» maize
fall «осень» autumn
Also claim attention differences in writing some words in american and british variants of language.
For instance, following:
American variant British variant
Grammatical differences of american variant consist in following:
In that events, when Britainians use Present Perfect, in Staffs can be used and Present Perfect, and Past Simple.
Take a shower/a bath instead of have a shower/a bath.
Shall is not used. In all persons is used by will.
Needn't (do) usually is not used. Accustomed form - don't need to (do).
After demand, insist, require etc should usually is NOT used. I demanded that he apologize (instead of I demanded that he should apologies in british variant).
6. to/in THE hospital instead of to/in hospital in BrE.
7. on the weekend/on weekend instead of at the weekend/at weekend.
8. on a street instead of in a street.
9. Different from or than instead of different to/from
10. Write is used with to or without the pretext.
11. Past participle of «got» is «gotten»
12. To burn, to spoil and other verbs, which can be regular or irregular in the british variant, in the american variant ALWAYS regular.
13. Past Perfect, as a rule, is not used completely.
Murphy Raymond. English Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Орлов Г.А. Современный английский язык в Австралии. - Москва, «Высшая школа», 1978.
Варианты полинациональных литературных языков - Киев, «Наукова думка», 1981.
Швейцер А.Д. Американский вариант литературного английского языка: пути формирования и современный статус. // Вопросы языкознания, 1995, №6, стр. 3-17.
Г.Б. Антрушина, О.В. Афанасьева. Лексикология английского языка. - М. Изд. Дрофа. 1999
F.R. Palmer. Semantics. A new outline. - M.V. Sh. 1982.
Александрова С.Я. Семантический анализ сложноподчиненных предложений с придаточными, вводимыми союзами as и as thougt // Вопросы грамматической структуры предложения и текста в английском языке: Сб. науч. тр. - М., 1985. - Вып.247. - С. 86-96.
The Origin of Black English. Development of Pidgin and Creole. Differences of Black English and Standard English, British English and British Black English. African American Vernacular English and its use in teaching process. Linguistic Aspects.
дипломная работа [64,6 K], добавлен 02.11.2008
The history and reasons for the formation of american english, its status as the multinational language. Its grammatical and lexical-semantic features. Differences in American and English options in the grammar parts of speech, pronunciation and spelling.
курсовая работа [34,8 K], добавлен 08.03.2015
Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Some examples of content and structural words. Two very important suprasegmental aspects of English pronunciation. Basic types of intonation and their differences from Armenian intonation on the other.
реферат [25,4 K], добавлен 09.07.2015
British English as a standard of pronunciation in Great Britain. Cockney as an example of a broad accent of British English. Black British as one of the most widespread dialects, differences in pronunciation between British and American English.
контрольная работа [38,3 K], добавлен 01.04.2010
Diversity of dialects of the Old English period. Analysis of dialectal words of Northern English in the modern language. Differences between dialects and Standard language; investigation of differences between their grammar, pronunciation and spelling.
курсовая работа [124,4 K], добавлен 07.11.2015
Intonation in English: approaches, definitions, functions. Components of intonation and the structure of intonation group. The phonological aspect of intonation. Pronunciation and intonation achievement factors. Intonation as a text - organizing means.
курсовая работа [160,0 K], добавлен 15.04.2012
The historical background of the spread of English and different varieties of the language. Differences between British English and other accents and to distinguish their peculiarities. Lexical, phonological, grammar differences of the English language.
курсовая работа [70,0 K], добавлен 26.06.2015
Lexical and grammatical differences between American English and British English. Sound system, voiced and unvoiced consonants, the American R. Americans are Ruining English. American English is very corrupting. A language that doesn’t change is dead.
дипломная работа [52,2 K], добавлен 21.07.2009
Linguistic situation in old english and middle english period. Old literature in the period of anglo-saxon ethnic extension. Changing conditions in the period of standardisation of the english language. The rise and origins of standard english.
курсовая работа [98,8 K], добавлен 05.06.2011
Features of Northern English dialects in old and modern English periods. Characteristic of Yorkshire and Northumberland dialects. A dialect as a form of a language that is spoken in a particular area and has its own words, grammar and pronunciation.
курсовая работа [210,9 K], добавлен 19.10.2015