Development of small business in Japan
The system of the state support of small business in Japan. Four Japan centers of carrying out of a policy stimulation of small enterprises. The basic mechanisms of financial support of small business in Japan. Role small business in economy of Japan.
|Рубрика||Иностранные языки и языкознание|
|Размер файла||7,0 K|
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DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL BUSSINESS IN JAPAN
During the modern period of transition from a planned economy to a market economy special value gets development of small business.
Whether the company refers to small business depends on the Authorized capital and number of employees.
In Japan companies with no more than 300 employees and with no more than 100 million yens turnover are considered as small business.
World experience testifies, that at becoming market relations especially requires in state to support small business.
The system of the state support of small business in Japan is extremely advanced. In Japan for support of small business it is annually allocated about 180 billion yens one year.
In Japan there are 4 centers of carrying out of a policy stimulation of small enterprises. They are:
- the central government;
- local authorities;
- large business;
- independent associations of the enterprises.
The central and local authorities encourage becoming and development of the companies of small business by means of credit guarantees, tax privileges, grantings of subsidy and loans.
Large business and independent association of the enterprises render the technical and consulting help, computer service, a professional training.
Loans on preferential terms are allocated for realization of the projects connected to development of new technology and new kinds of production.
The basic mechanisms of financial support of small business in Japan are:
· soft loans (if the usual loan can be received under 4-8 % " the soft loan " means half of this interest rate for use of the credit);
· stimulation of cooperative activity.
So, there was a following structure of small business in Japan. The following forms of business refer to small enterprises in Japan:
1. legal persons their share in small business makes 20 % on them work 1,7 million person;
2. individual private enterprises - 48 %-4,1 million person;
3. family business - 32 % - 2,7 million person.
Now in Japan the number of small enterprises makes 99 % from the general number of the enterprises. Their share in gross national product - about 55 % (about 3 bln. dollars), in capital investments - about 40 %, and their share in export of all Japanese production makes today 15 %.
Japanese recognize that small enterprises are very powerful regulator of economy. On a share of small business it is necessary more than 62 % of wholesale and 78,5 % of retail commodity circulation.
Small business plays the important role in economy of Japan. The enterprises of small business bring the powerful contribution to development of national economy of Japan, raising its flexibility, provide social stability and well-being of wide layers of the population.
So, it is necessary to note, that in Japan the advanced system of the state support which is constantly improved was generated. The huge role in expansion of financial opportunities of small business in Japan is played by system of the state guarantees under the credits given to small enterprises by private banks. As a whole the Japanese model of functioning and development of small business can be considered almost exemplary, and the Japanese system of support of business is already recognized as one of the most universal and mature in the world.
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