Elite egality - who are the recipients of texts in automotive brand press
Automotive brand press recipient and reader category, which plays an important role in branding, the process of building and establishing the brand’s image. Suitable formulation of reader address and its impact on increase of the gained clients count.
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УДК 070.23: 81 '276
Elite egality - who are the recipients of texts in automotive brand press
Rzeszow University al. Rejtana
Deliberations held in the article are of linguistic character. In view of the specific of material basis, which is brand press, they exceed over the strictly understood scope of synchronic linguistic. That is because the subject is situated within linguistic press studies and is an example of connecting instruments proper for this field with marketing research. The direct object of analysis is automotive brand press recipient/reader category, which plays an important role in branding, the process of building and establishing the brand's positive image. Suitable formulation of reader address is a planned element of branding and has a directly proportional impact on increase of the gained clients count.
Key words: creating brand's image, brand press, recipient, perlocution.
ЕЛІТНА РІВНІСТЬ: ДЛЯ КОГО СТВОРЕНІ ТЕКСТИ ВИДАНЬ АВТОМОБІЛЬНИХ БРЕНДІВ
Роздуми, представлені у статті, мають мовознавчий характер. З огляду на специфі-ку галузевої преси вони виходять, однак, за рамки вузькозрозумілої сфери синхронної лінгвістики. Тема перебуває в рамках мовознавчого пресознавства і є прикладом поєд-нання інструментів, властивих цій галузі з маркетинговими дослідженнями. Безпосе-реднім предметом аналізу є категорія одержувача/читача транспортної галузевої преси, яка відіграє істотну роль в брендингу, тобто процесі побудови і фіксації позитивного зображення марки. Відповідне формування читацької аудиторії є запланованим елемен-том брендингу і має прямо пропорційний вплив на число здобутих клієнтів.
Ключові слова: створення іміджу бренду, прес-бренд, реципієнт, перлокуція.
Considerations taken in the article have linguistic character. Because of the specific of material basis, which is brand press (free quarterlies issued for customers of Peugeot brand), they exceed over the strictly understood scope of synchronic linguistic. That is because the subject is situated within linguistic press studies and is an example of connecting instruments proper for this field with marketing research. The direct object of analysis is automotive brand press' recipient/reader category, which plays an important role in branding, the process of building and establishing the brand's positive image. Suitable formulation of reader's address is a planned element of branding and has a directly proportional impact on increase of the gained clients count. Brand press has though above all a marketing function, being an important channel for getting to potential clients of newly produced car models.
It should be reserved, that this kind of periodic are not a specific only of the mentioned brand, but a practise of various automotive concerns (and also other brands, e. g. cyclist or yacht). For analysis of this kind of press I have devoted 7 texts published in Polish and foreign scientific centres, describing magazines of VW, Audi, Peugeot and Subaru brands. In print is currently English - language text with pragmalingustic remarks about automotive brand press (University of Lwow, Faculty of Journalism).
Authors of texts published in analysed quarterlies are publicists «engaged, building together with recipient a common world and creating a specified vision of this world: from the recipient's point of view [...], in compliance with recipient expectations, so accessibly, malleably and suggestively, with pretended participation of recipient [...], using linguistic means known to recipient [...]» [8: 332].
The title of the article needs explaining, how do I understand oxymoronical expression: elite egality? Elite is already mentioned recipient address - limited accessibility of magazine, but also elite is the character of promoted cars. Creators of each brand endorse though by the category of luxury and personalization of cars (purchaser can choose colour, standard, nearly all elements of interior on his own). On the other side however, this elite (besides the cases of craftsmanship manufacturing of some car model in manufactories) is subjected to kind of promotion, thanks to what paradoxically it can become egalitarian (I pay attention to it in the text being currently in print, on commonness in automotive brand press). brand press reader image
I answer the question: Who are the recipients of texts? (asked in the title) with the words of song written by contemporary Polish singer Katarzyna Nosowska: «To the Knights, to the Nobility, to the Bourgeoisie». The source of song is album called Hey published in 2012. I take the syntactic construction To the Knights, to the Nobility, to the Bourgeoisie, styled as Old Polish manifesto, for a metaphor of contemporary brand press recipients' category. This expressions contains though important for this category lexical determinants. Preposition to repeated in it three times was used primarily in the function of `pointing out act recipient' accordingly to the definition contained in Great Dictionary of Polish Language. As a context equivalent to mentioned definitional aspect (in total, dictionary contains 9 functions of this lexem) given is exactly the expression «Manifesto to civilians» [6: 152].
Due to arranging in one row all names of three states (knights, nobility and bourgeoise) updated was another function of preposition to, which is `indicating belonging to some collection' [6: 152], in this case to the collection of manifesto's recipients. So despite the social variety, representatives of listed states create recipients community in reference to expression directed to them. At this point it is worth to excerpt the dictionary definition of noun manifesto that means `appeal, usually written, directed to the citizens with a call for some action'[6: 545]. The features of styled as old manifesto syntax construction, that are listed above, can be directly transposed onto the subject of analyses held by me. In this case, the equivalent of written appeal is in this case the brand press, state variety is contemporary target groups of car showrooms' clients, whereas calling for action is the perlocution consisted in analysed press texts, which purpose is making impact on recipient and convincing him to buy promoted product.
No matter the used methodology, contemporary researchers of linguistic communicates are aware, that everything is recorded in the lexical resource, or is currently being recorded in it. Recording world in language is a constant process, lasting unstoppably, so permanent. Statements spoken, written and recorded (this I understand as firstly spoken) become this way specific - because generically literal - documentation of people's acts, behaviours, beliefs and thoughts. Reconstruction of various - colloquial, literary, scientific, politics, individual etc. - images of world embedded in various genres and stylistic variants of texts is the matter of research in diachrony and synchrony of language. Research of linguistic image of world for years have undiminished interest of polish linguists. Intensification of analyses based on JOS (Linguistic Image of World) methodology happened in the 90. Important place beneath them has two scientific centres, schools of Lublin and Wroclaw. Numerous source literature was published, which consist of original and edited monographs as well as articles of theoretical and analytic character. Jerzy Bartminski's works are in this case fundamental. Long - because consisting of 619 bibliographic addresses - list of publications of both this author, as well as other researchers, the reader can find in e. g. monograph called Linguistic Basis of Worlds Image . Changeable feature of JOS analyses is often their inter- and transdisciplinary character, which example is connecting methodology from the field of psycho-, socio-, neuro- and/or ethnolinguistic, or cultural anthropology. Thanks to that, scientific publications are a representation of close to me, contemporary tendency of wide understanding of humanity as a discipline related to the sciences that have human as a social being and his creations, including culture and language, but also technology, as a matter of research.
According to the declaration that I made in summary forerunning the presented article, its problematic is situated in the limits of linguistic press studies and is an example of connecting instruments proper for this field with marketing research. The matter of perlocution, signalised earlier, is integrally bonded with contemporary media, because of which it becomes almost immanent, naturally specific for media. Reader, auditor, listener is undergoing mechanisms of persuasion and/or manipulation in a way seemingly non- caused by the action of outer reason. In the currently printed text called Tactile Aspect of Communication in Brand Press of Audi and Peugeot I recalled the opinion of Malgorzata Kita and Iwona Loewe expressed about media's language, by the way in the introduction of monograph edited by them under this title. Because of the on-point-ness of the expression and at the same time limited access of the publication for Ukraian reader I allow myself to quote this excerpt once again:
«Nowadays in the globalised part of the world unimaginable are the areas of communication lacking of mass media, and this, in turn, must mean expansion of rhetorical style. Currently it would be considered naive, to say that media serves informing societies, it is though commonly assumed, that media information is interpreted information. Today's human cannot imagine a day without impressiveness as persuasion, propaganda, manipulation in texts, and even demagogy and populism, and without being common with the key techniques of this phenomenon he cannot safely exist» [5: 11].
Recipient's category is a basis of all displays of communication, because a communicate is always directed for recipient, it is created with him on mind. Recipient is a constitutive ingredient of fundamental theories of speech acts - Btihler's, Jakobson's, Austin's. Roman Jakobson separated the following elements in the model of speech act: sender, recipient, communicate, code, communicational channel and context. Basing on this model he specified the following function of language: denotative (cognitive, reference, directed for context, so reality), emotive (expressive concentrated on sender), conative (impressive, directed to recipient), fatic directed to channel, methalinguistic directed to code and poetic directed to aesthetic of communicate [7: 27]. Even though to each language's function is attached a direction for specific ingredient of speech act, the condition for existence of communicate is its sending and receiving, while both this functions can be realised by one person. Brand press' articles arise therefore with recipient on mind, who after Michal Glowinski can be called «specific reader representing socially defined audience» of press or also the «virtual addressee, being an integral element of work, assumed partner of subject in the process of communication integrated in work. Such recipient is not tantamount to specific person reading the text, is a collection of roles determined by this text, which demand from reader some type of lecture, orders him specified methods of interpreting significative material, directing the process of substantiation» [3: 22]. The definition of literature work recipient, formulated in the 80., I have recalled in reference to brand press reader, in order to indicate the features f this category universal for various kinds and genres of statements, and also still actual despite the creation of new channels of passing information.
Example material for observations held by me comes from Polish - language issues of automotive brand press with marketing-advertising character. These are published between 2014-2016 issues of «Peugeot Experience Magazine. Peugeot Brand's Magazine», published since 2016 in new graphic layout as «Experience Magazine. Magazine of Peugeot Brand in Poland», issued according to the seasons: winter, spring, summer, autumn. Analysed magazine is an important element of marketing policy of PSA concern, which produces e.g. Peugeot brand's cars. The expression of it is the structure of periodic, which constant column is a detailed description of new car model and/or its parts. While introducing new model of Peugeot into the market, brand's creators precisely define target group of car purchasers and also the channels of getting to potential clients. Target is specified due to various criteria, e.g.: family, profession and interests. In turn, in the transmission channels of branding are included e.g.: generally available press, brand press, Internet, advertising brochures, large format adverts displayed in the city space.
To whom, therefore, and how are addressed the texts published in Peugeot Brand's press? Collected example material shows variety of recipients address, which in the magazine's texts gains concreteness from general to detailed terms, accordingly to earlier mentioned target groups: family, professions and interests. In the column From Editor of «Peugeot Experience Magazine» published are letters from readers to redaction, containing classic addressative phrases with honourable character: Dear Readers written with capital letters due to polite or emotional rule of Polish spelling. In reference to this press genre, magazine's redactors use rules of classic letter-writing. Here is an extract from Peugeot Poland PR Manager Dorota Kozlowska letter from issue Summer 2016 of «Peugeot Experience Magazine»:
«Dear Readers, [...] And when you assume, that it is enough emotions, it is time to calm down, willingly in fantastically insulated from needless sounds interior, with favourite music. We invite you to its world. The world of sounds. Sounds and silence. Acoustics and design. You will be introduced in it by Peugeot Fractal and the cherry on top will be conversation with Andrzej Smolik, composer and producer. Conversation about music, creation and cars of course. [...] We give into Your hands «Peugeot Experience Magazine» in new graphic layout. Experience, read, watch. I hope You will like it» (EM: 4).
Quoted expression has vividly impressive character, because it contains representative determinants of conativity, to which are included above all forms of vocative and imperative. In the analysed texts these are mentioned above addressative phrases, as well as verb forms in imperative: Experience, read, watch. Writing pronouns related to recipient with capital letter in written expression is in Polish language the sign of respect. In the presented text these are forms of personal pronoun of second person in plural you -Yours and You and relating to the same category possessive pronoun Yours. The way of turning to readers using second person forms is acquiescent with Polish correctness norms, but still it is considered less polite than phrases in third person in plural. It concerns though above all constructions with noun panstwo [Mr and Mrs; ann. by translator] meaning `Mr and Mrs or ladies and getleman' [4: 746]. Formula: Dear Mr and Mrs Readers would oblige sender therefore to use more polite, but also more official construction: niech Panstwo doswiadczajq, czytajq, oglqdajq [experience, read, watch; ann. by translator]. The objective of brand press - as an element of strategy of creating brand's image - is a kind of interpersonal communication based on building emotional bond with reader. Non-helping here is a distance that comes out of savoir-vivre rules, that is the reason of skipping the nounpanstwo and using second person phrases.
For building interpersonal bond between brand communicate senders and readers of this kind of press serves also using forms of personal pronoun us and relative possessive pronoun our. Both these lexems are the display of inclusive us, which is used for creating the commonness of beliefs between automotive magazines' readers and their creators. This kind of linguistic mechanism is an effective way of convincing readers to own beliefs a allowance in argumentation [2: 223-229]. Peugeot brand's creators have the awareness of usefulness of building community bond with reader and/or possible buyer of car, an example for what are two excerpts from analysed magazine, quoted below:
1. Fragment of Joanna Heidtman expression - psychologist, coach and adviser: «Internet of everything It means, that we get used to the fact that «everything is computer». Device, which is not connected to others, we start considering as non-useful or restrictive. It's hard to say, if the multifunctional created in us the need for multitasking, or was it the reverse. But no matter what was in this case first, this trend is currently very strong in western civilisation. We live in the reality of «here and now», but also «immediately», which is ... simultaneously. We drive by car and already prepare for work, talk or reserve a room at a hotel, in order not to wait later at the reception. For this such devices are necessary - including car - that allows us be «in the command centre» of our matters and in time that is chosen by us» (EM:21).
2. Statement of Dominik Batorski, Internet sociologist:«The world got faster - we need a constant access o information and contact with other people. New technologies not only make our lives easier, but also have impact on the way we behave. They contributed e.g. in the change of the way of organising and coordinating common actions, meetings and journeys. The other day we had to plan everything and arrange meetings very precisely, now we coordinate it on the run, using phones or communicators. We dynamically adjust plans of the drive to the situation on the road. Time and place of meetings don't have to be precisely defined - thanks to mobile connectivity they can be precised and renegotiated many times. Instead of being slaves to calendar, we want to have control over our time and freedom in using it. Technologies allow us to plan our time in a dynamic way, while keeping the freedom of choice. That is why their meaning in our life and transport will be in future even bigger» (EM: 21).
Not accidental is multiple repeating forms of personal pronoun us (in us, to us, because of us) and possessive pronouns our and ours in both quotes. Repetition is though an effective rhetoric mean with also subliminal action. Similar function in both statements is played by accumulation of verbs in first person of plural. At this point it is worth to set in a co-linear row verbal constructions distinguished in quoted excerpts, because they create together a specific signum temporis:
Re. 1. we got used to; we start considering; we live in the reality of «here and now»; We drive by car and already prepare for work, talk or reserve a room at a hotel;
Re. 2. we need a constant access o information and contact with other people; we behave; w coordinate us on the run, we dynamically adjust; we want to have control and freedom.
In further parts of magazine takes place the precising of reader's category as a recipient of published texts. Most common act of precising is lexem driver in the general meaning of a `person driving a car'. This noun appears in various syntax constructions , in which values important for Peugeot brand are accented, above all safety and comfort of drive. These are some numerous examples:
«Driver will be enabled to open the door without the necessity of getting out of the car». (EM: 6)
«In driver's eyesight appeared a clear display presenting most important information and communicates connected with driving and car functions». (EM: 30);
«Back behind the steering wheel. There driver for sure will appreciate the perfect visibility, provided by higher position behind the wheel». (EM: 14);
«Peugeot I-Cockpit is amazingly ergonomic solution, which driver can use intuitionally and naturally, taking joy from the ride». (EM: 31);
Semantic role of the driver can be implied basing on the context, e. g. young rebel, which is an intersemiotic reference with sociologic character, established also in cinematography (James Dean silhouette). Here is an adequate quote from analysed brand press:
«Peugeot 208 GTI is a perfect car for young rebels. And where such «lion cubs» would present themselves better than in front of equally rebellious graffiti?» (EM: 53).
Graffiti is an uncontrolled or currently the more often controlled and conscious element of contemporary city space (artistic murals). Beside another recipient address - young rebels - the fragment quoted above is though a kind of concretisation of my article's title manifesto to the bourgeoisie.
Another textual update of recipient's category are motorization enthusiasts, though people specially interested in, passionate about motorization:
«We would feel true egoists, if we try to keep this car only for us. That is why instead of just testing, we drove matte Peugeot 208 GTI to meet other motorization enthusiasts, to find out, how others see it». (EM: 51)
The asset of promoted car models can also be the big packing space of trunk and convenience during family journey. The target group are in this case drivers who have families and such information is emphasised in press statements:
«Capacious trunk and comfortable interior make it the perfect car for both family, as well as people who led an active lifestyle». (EM: 41)
Peugeot's Brand Creators take care, that the texts published in «Experience Magazine» are addressed to representatives of various jobs. It has its justification and is included in the strategy of creating brand, because: «More and more often work accompanies us also during journey» (EM: 19). In the collected material basis a couple groups of target purchasers can be distinguished, the channel of reaching whom is brand press:
1. Criterion of interests:
«Aditionally tennis fans from all over the world will get an ability to check their skills in extraordinary games». (EM: 6);
«Peugeot 908 with body no. 5 is an amazing treat for race cars collectors and participants of races of historic cars». (EM: 8);
«In the interior of electrical cars there are such conditions, that audio systems could gain audiophile features [...] It will be almost perfect situation, audiophil's dream - well designed interior». (EM: 25).
2. Criterion of profession:
«New Peugeot Expert fits perfectly into the needs of city entrepreneurs who seek the hard compromise between carrying capacity and compact dimensions». (EM:7);
« Welcome to the world of business». (EM: 18);
«Connection with the world is the basis for contemporary business people, that is why the interior of new Peugeot van was designed in order to serve the driver as a mobile office». (EM: 7);
«Board system is also equipped with virtual reality goggles Samsung Gear VR. Thanks to them e.g. an architect is able to see the visualization of project or construction localisation without moving away from the car seat». (EM: 20);
«Peugeot 205 T16 Group 8 is a rally legend of motorsport, desired by admirers of cars all over the world». (EM: 8);
«Le Bistrot du Lion [Lion's Bistro, Peugeot's foodtruck, ann. G.F.] not really opens, but spreads out for its guests, separating for four parts: restaurant, cafe, kitchen and station for DJ. Lion's Bistro can though feed its guests not only with exquisite dishes, but also serve freshest music trends» (PEM: 29).
Textual realisations of recipient's category that I have presented are the effect of work of specialists in creating and establishing Peugeot brand's positive image on the contemporary automotive market. The direct purpose of formulating recipient addresses - as determinants of language communicates' impressive function - is building an emotional bond with brand press reader and as a consequence gaining purchasers for promoted car models. The lexical material analysed here is a confirmation of rhetoric style's contemporary expansion.
Explanation of used abbreviations:
PEM - «Peugeot Experience Magazine», Summer 2015 EM - «Experience Magazine», Summer 2016.
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