International cooperation in the field of environmental management and implementation of global environmental projects
The development of world environmental regulation mechanisms is being studied. The state of introduction of modern resource-saving and non-waste technologies is shown, the place of strengthening mechanisms of economic cooperation of states is determined.
|Рубрика||Международные отношения и мировая экономика|
|Размер файла||18,9 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Регіональна економіка та економіка природокористування
International Cooperation in the field of Environmental Management and Implementation of Global Environmental Projects
Olena Strishenez - Doctor of Economics, professor, head of department of Environmental Economics and economic theory of Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University;
Daryna ZaKharchuk - an undergraduate of 5 course of the specialty «Economy» of Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
The article examines the development of the global mechanisms of natural resources regulation. It displays the status of the implementation of modern resource-saving and technology-waste, as well determination by the place of strengthening mechanisms of economic cooperation of all countries in the field of ecology, the use of the positive experience of nature management and nature conservation; it analyzes the main aspects of the international ecological safety, and orientations of the world community by means of which it is possible to find effective ways of solving pressing global and regional environmental problems, areas of strengthening international cooperation in the field of environmental management.
Key words: greening production, economic stimulus, resource saving technologies, financial security, a system of certification, market mechanisms, ecological-economic system transformation, conversion, environmental projects.
Олена Стрішенець, Дарія Захарчук. Міжнародне співробітництво у сфері природокористування та реалізації глобальних екологічних проектів. У статті досліджено розвиток світових механізмів регулювання природокористування. Показано стан запровадження сучасних ресурсозберігальних та безвідходних технологій, визначено місце зміцнення механізмів економічного співробітництва всіх держав у сфері екології, використання позитивного досвіду природокористування й охорони природи. Проаналізовано основні аспекти міжнародної екологічної безпеки та орієнтацій світового співтовариства на пошук ефективних способів розв'язання нагальних глобальних і регіональних екологічних проблем. Запропоновано напрями посилення міжнародного співробітництва у сфері природокористування.
Ключові слова: екологізація виробництва, економічний стимул, ресурсоощадливі технології, фінансове забезпечення, муніципалітет, система сертифікації, ринкові механізми, еколого-економічна система, трансформаційні перетворення, екологічні проекти
Стаття надійшла до редакції 11.05.2017 р.
Елена Стришенец, Дария Захарчук. Международное сотрудничество в сфере природопользования и реализации глобальных экологических проектов. В статье исследуется развитие мировых механизмов регулирования природопользованием. Показывается состояние внедрения современных ресурсосберегающих и безотходных технологий, определяется место укрепление механизмов экономического сотрудничества всех государств в сфере экологии, использования положительного опыта природопользования и охраны природы. Анализируются основные аспекты международной экологической безопасности и ориентаций мирового сообщества на поиск эффективных путей решения насущных глобальных и региональных экологических проблем. Предлагаются направления усиления международного сотрудничества в сфере природопользования.
Ключевые слова: экологизация производства, экономический стимул, ресурсосберегающими технологии, финансовое обеспечение, муниципалитет, система сертификации, рыночные механизмы, эколого-экономическая система, трансформационные преобразования, экологические проекты.
environmental economic cooperation resource
Statement of Research Problem and its Importance. The contemporary economic situation in Ukraine is at such a stage in which environmental and economic benefits are correlated between themselves. Nowadays Ukraine needs a stable economic growth, by structural changes in the national economy and greening the public production on account of the introduction of resource-saving and waste technologies. But the present directions of economic growth indicate about the fact that there is a small level of productivity of the state mechanism of environmental regulation.
This is explained by the irregularity between the important needs of the eco-economic development of the territory and imperfection of the present methods and forms of control, protection of the environment and the lack of effective economic incentives for appropriate environmental management .
Analyses of the Problem. There is a necessity in relevant and thorough study and analysis of the forms and methods of regulation of nature management and environmental protection in the developed countries of the world. Among the well-known foreign theoretical research and native scientists we can highlight such as M. Medouz, H. Daly, V. Viesnin, M. Reimers, A. Fedorishcheva, L. Miller, R. Ivanukh, V. Trygobchuk, P. Oldak, Yu. Tunytsia.
Summary of Basic Material Investigations and Substantiation of Scientific Results. The modern practice of nature management and environmental activities was demonstrated by the low efficiency of state regulation in this sphere. Primarily it is connected with the lack of economic, legal, political, and social mechanisms of rational use of nature and the low level of its introduction in practice management. Analysis of modern research gives grounds to conclude that the most significant obstacles for the implementation of the existing legislation is the low level of funding of environmental programs, lack of research in this field, as well as the unsatisfactory level of scientific development resource saving technologies, the neglect of domestic and foreign best practices .
The main sources of financing for major international environmental projects have become revenue from taxation of different types of economic environmental dangerous activities. These funds are appropriate to accumulate on the accounts of the special international funds. In particular, there are proposals to impose the special eco tax on states gross domestic product, income from foreign trade, fishing in the open seas, investment activities under certain conditions, as well as different types and sources of pollution of the seas and oceans, the consumption of limited, rare or exhausted natural resources.
The practice of entrepreneurship and world experience confirms the possibility of ecological-economic goals with the use of such regulatory mechanisms as: 1) direct government regulation (regulatory, administrative and regulatory and incentive measures, direct regulation, etc.); 2) stimulus through the use of market mechanisms; 3) mixed arrangements that combine the above approaches. Apart from these a clear mechanism acts for financial support of this regulation (internal accumulation, the funds of budgetary funds, domestic and foreign eco-investments, loans, target guarantor, etc.). Great importance also is given to the environmental NGO's activity, eco-culture, education, education and enlightenment.
The use of market mechanisms in the environmental activity now is gaining increasing importance. These mechanisms cover environmental subsidies, loans, and taxes related to the setting of emissions and discharges of harmful substances. They provide a purposeful accumulation of certain financial funds for the public accounts or in special environmental funds and their rational distribution and intended use.
In foreign countries there is a considerable arsenal of economic instruments and means of regulation. They are quite efficient and diverse. As a consequence, many of the economically developed countries of the world have built considerable experience in the use of different economic methods and tools. Regulation of the process of greening of entrepreneurship at the macro and micro entities levels .
Now a special urgency takes question about the introduction of a global tax on the emission of harmful gases. According to American environmentalists, this event will stabilize emissions of CO2 until 2040, and ensure their complete cessation to 2100 A. D. Herewith the projected size of the mentioned tax will constitute from 700 billion up to 18 trillion dollars for the period up to the middle of the XXI century. Such funds would be enough to address the most urgent environmental problems in the modern world.
Government regulation of the environment has a significant impact on economic activity and technical development of almost all manufacturing industries. As the foundation we should take the environmental protection management system of the United States, which provides three levels: the national environmental agency, established in 1970, the central states agency and local environmental agencies. The main body of the federal government is environmental, which coordinates the activities of all federal ministries and agencies in the country and performs mainly regulatory functions: regulation of the quality of the environment with respect to all industries, including the nuclear production, through the development of relevant standards, the overall coordination of the federal environmental activities, evaluating the effectiveness of different measures in the field of environmental protection. Concerning the structure of the environmental agency, which contributes to the completeness of the coverage and complexity of solving problematic issues in the field of environmental management of the United States, it relies on special units of surveillance of dangerous objects of the environment; select a special team units for emergency situations; structuring, which involves the formation of units: preventing pollution, measuring the impact of health, control over execution of the legislation .
In Japan, one of the priority issues is the protection of the environment. Japan began to shape legislation in the field of the environment back in the early 70-ies of the XX century. The basic law regarding the struggle against pollution, which was adopted in 1964, was legal and methodological base for further formation of legislation in the field of environmental protection. Mechanism of environmental protection in Japan is the widespread use of advanced technologies and the latest achievements in the field of it security, spread of program-target management, active participation in the solution of global environmental problems. Management body that deals with issues of the environment, is the management of environmental issues, it was founded in 1971 as the Ministry, which carries out the planning of the main directions of the state policy on the protection of the environment, the development of projects of environmental laws, standards, regulations, coordinating all environmental activities. Japan has developed the world's most stringent hygiene standards of water quality standards introduced demanding planting of new buildings, shading, obstacles to radio waves, is control over the production of CFCs.
Today our country is at a stage of development of the new management strategy environmental management and environmental protection. Now, the environmental consequences are obstacles for future economic development. Such research is closely related to policy and management.
In France the control over protection of water is based on the law passed in 1964. By this law 6 of basin administrations operate in the country. In the UK according to the law on water resources (1973) 10 regional water committees control water. In the Netherlands in accordance with the law of the pollution of surface waters, industrial enterprises and municipalities are required to have a license to discharge waste. According to the estimates of the German Environmental Agency in the field of environmental training and advanced training of specialists, professional environmental interests are grouped according to the degree of their priority for those who are studying, thus: recycling waste; environmental law; water and wastewater; protection of soil; energy conservation; environmental enterprises; regional environmental planning (environmental program); ecological expertise.
The composition of the state standards are imposed environmental quality standards water environment, ecological safety, environmental expertise. In many countries with regard to environmental issues there is a formed system of certification productions and certain types of products. According to estimates of the International Monetary Fund, in these countries, consumption of natural resources per unit of finished products annually reduced on average 1,25 % that causes significant environmental effect, since under such conditions, environmentally sound production is economically profitable .
This process contributes to the state financial and economic policy of stimulus-related activity of producers and businesses with an effective system of environmental regulation, which combines administrative and legislative instruments of the economic, regulatory, and market mechanisms.
All highly developed countries have identified a significant need for not only the theoretical grounding, as well as in the implementation of practical steps in formation and financing of environmental policy, which enables high quality of saving the natural environment, the rational use of real and potential of natural resources, the further support of the ecological balance in nature, and to ensure the economic development of society. Today Ukraine has permanent environmental problems such as acid rain, destruction of the ozone screen, global warming, accumulation of waste, particularly toxic and radiation, reducing of the biological potential of the society. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 with its vast medical- biological consequences caused in Ukraine the situation that comes close to the level of a global environmental catastrophe.
Thus, social and ecological-economic integrative of Ukraine must necessarily take into account the international experience of the mechanisms of regulation of the environmental management system by improving and bringing into line with international legal, normative and methodical and institutional base of environmental management and environmental safety . In our time is extremely important is the increase of budget funding and investing in innovative applications of environmentally sound production.
The introduction of market-based environmental regulators should be carried out not only by the administrative pressure, but also forming favorable conditions for entrepreneurship, business the subjects would be economically profitable compliance with environmental requirements, achieve environmental and economic goals. Thus the state-regulatory mechanism of greening business clearly needs an appropriate legal, financial and economic, organizational and information support.
International practice of nature indicates that the economic methods of environmental regulation are the most effective. Economic mechanism (regulation) of environmental management in general is intended for proper management of rational natural resources usage and environmental regulation. In order to solve the problem of the environment, most often special environmental taxes are used. In many countries of the world such things are taxed: the emissions and discharges of pollutants; wastes of production and consumption; imported goods that lead to environmental pollution (oil, pesticides that were in use) .
Difficulties associated with the introduction of the mechanism of paid nature, coincided with a difficult socio-economic conditions of the transitional period. Because of the modern terms of transformations in society and activating processes of greening production, the extremely large role belongs to the state- regulatory mechanism and the publication of its effective financial and economic support. This involves the formation of a comprehensive national strategy for environmentally sound production, which has integrated with socio-economic innovation and investment policy of the state, improving the system of natural resources usage and environmental protection .
Expanding and strengthening the mechanisms of economic cooperation of all states in the field of the environment, the spread of positive experience of nature management and nature protection is the guarantor of international ecological safety, orientation of the world community to find effective ways of solving pressing global and regional environmental problems. In this regard, our state must provide its own environmental interests in foreign economic activity, create effective tools to achieve international parity in solving cross-border transfer of harmful substances, industrial emissions and discharges, stimulate foreign investment on environmental goals, and thoroughly carry out its international commitments to environmental issues. The system, which is associated with long-term socio-economic crisis combined with ecological crisis.
Conclusions and Prospects for Further Research. Experience shows that international organizations need to urgently improve the environment management system in their countries, to apply effective economic mechanism of rational use of nature, and to introduce legal-legal mechanism compliance with environmental safety in all sectors of economic activity.
As projected up to 2030 the developing countries will pollute the atmosphere more than Japan, Western Europe and the United States together. For proper environmental solutions, the administration has established the foundations of the independent information, or has identified the responsible specialists. In highly developed countries, environmental regulation system is very flexible, and has significant benefits of economic levers and tools, and that they should be the main guideline for Ukraine .
In our opinion, it is necessary to resolve the issue of the protection of the environment at sites of military defense industrial complex, which is unavailable for the appropriate supervision and control that leads to violations of environmental legislation, pollution of surface and ground waters with oil products, the destruction of natural landscapes and poor recovery of unusable land.
The main types of economic instruments of environmental regulation are:
insurance activities according to their nature; risk of business activities; ecological and economic consequences of entrepreneurial activity;
sanctions - fines for violations of environmental laws;
certificates - the rights to emissions; rights regarding pollution - purchase and sale; market permissions; the rights to the eco-oriented activity;
compensatory payments to recipients by: improving the quality of the environment through technological upgrading; achievements in the field of the rational use of natural resources; saving (achievements) the optimal condition of the natural environment;
price-price eco-oriented extension programming sectors;
taxes - which focused on positive motivation for environmentally activity
fees for: emissions (discharges) of pollutants into the atmosphere, water sources, soil; warehousing (disposal), harmful substances in natural landscapes; physical types of pollution;
loans- include: preferred (to purchase eco-technology);
The successful implementation of environmental projects is dependent on the form of ownership of the initiator of the project, which causes the selection of the sources of its funding, needs to find new reserves, future use of monetary, technical, managerial and scientific sources on the basis of the current methods of management plans, namely:
Increase the level of general environmental awareness;
Improvement of natural retaining state and the increase of environmental protection;
Achieve a strong position of the natural environment;
Connection of systems of ecological concepts and improvement programs of environmental management;
The suspension of the loss of biological and landscape variety and organization of ecological systems;
Improvement of territorial environmentally network.
In accordance with the modern terms of transformations in society and activating processes of greening production, an extremely large role belongs to the state- regulating mechanism and areas of its effectively financial and economic support. This involves the formation of a complex of national strategies for environmentally sound production, which must integrate with socio-economic innovation and investment policy of the state, improving the management system and natural resources usage.
For proper environmental solutions, the administration has established the foundations of the independent information, or has identified the responsible specialists. In highly developed countries, environmental regulation system is very flexible, and has significant benefits of economic levers and tools, and that they should be the main guideline for Ukraine.
Sources and Literature
1. Vasyuta O. A. Problems Environmental Strategy of Ukraine in the global dimension / O. A. Vasyuta. - Ternopil Gal-Print, 2001. - S. 227-228.
2. Hawrylyshyn B. D. Route guidance in the future. The most effective Society / B. D. Hawrylyshyn. - Kiev : Osnovy, 2002. - 217 p.
3. Geyets V. Lessons and prospects of market reforms and long-term economic growth in Ukraine / Valeriy Heyets // Economics. - 2004. - No2. - P. 3-25.
4. Pavlov K. V. Application of valuation metrics and fuzzy logic in assessing the level of environmental and safety Nature / K. V. Pavlov // Structural changes in the economy of nature: the theoretical foundations and practical aspects : [col. monograms.] / under total. Ed. Dr. Sc. Sciences, prof. O. M. Strishenets. - Luck : Tower-Print, 2016. - P. 46-63.
5. Pavlov K. V. State and prospects of investment Lutsk / K. V. Pavlov // Scientific Herald Volyn National University im. L. Ukrayinky. - Seriya «Ekonmichni science». - 2011, № 22 (№ 219) .- S.25-30.
6. On the Concept of the National Program of Legal Approximation Ukraine to the European Union: Law of Ukraine vid21.II.2002 r. - No 228-IV // Governmental courier. - 2002. - No 236. - P. 5.
7. Strishenez O. M. Factors influence macroeconomic and microeconomic nature of the ecological safety of enterprises / O. M. Strishenez // Prospects of Ukraine's economy: theory, methodology, practice materials twentieth Intern. nauk. and practical. Conf. (25-26 May 2015) / ed. Ed. L. G. Lipych. - Luck : Tower-Press, 2015. - Р. 38-39.
8. Strishenez O. M. Economic theory [navch.posib. for students. HI. teach. bookmark.] / O. M. Strishenez, L.V. Elisha , V. I. Lischuk. - Lutsk : EUNU. Ukrainian Lesya, 2014. - 240 p.
Размещено на Allbest.ru
Forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region. History of establishment Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), speciality of membership, scope of work and structure.
реферат [366,7 K], добавлен 16.01.2012
Organisation of the Islamic. Committee of Permanent Representatives. Conference International Islamic Court of Justice. Independent Permanent Commission on Human Rights. Cooperation with Islamic and other Organizations. Peaceful Settlement of Disputes.
реферат [22,2 K], добавлен 21.03.2013
The essence of an environmental problem. Features of global problems. Family, poverty, war and peace problems. Culture and moral crisis. Global problems is invitation to the human mind. Moral and philosophical priorities in relationship with the nature.
реферат [41,3 K], добавлен 25.04.2014
Regulation of International Trade under WTO rules: objectives, functions, principles, structure, decision-making procedure. Issues on market access: tariffs, safeguards, balance-of-payments provisions. Significance of liberalization of trade in services.
курс лекций [149,5 K], добавлен 04.06.2011
Russian Federation Political and Economic relations. Justice and home affairs. German-Russian strategic partnership. The role of economy in bilateral relations. Regular meetings make for progress in cooperation: Visa facilitations, Trade relations.
реферат [26,3 K], добавлен 24.01.2013
Политика России в международных экономических отношениях. Содействие развитию национальной экономики в глобализованном мире.Россия выступает за расширение сотрудничества в целях обеспечения экологической безопасности и по борьбе с изменениями климата.
статья [14,9 K], добавлен 07.01.2011
Currency is any product that is able to carry cash as a means of exchange in the international market. The initiative on Euro, Dollar, Yuan Uncertainties is Scenarios on the Future of the World International Monetary System. The main world currency.
реферат [798,3 K], добавлен 06.04.2015
История фондовых индексов и методы их расчета. Международные фондовые индексы: Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI); Dow Jones Global Indexes; FTSE All – World Index Series; FTSE Global Stock Market Sectors. Фондовые индексы США и России.
курсовая работа [37,1 K], добавлен 31.05.2009
Characteristic of growth and development of Brazil and Russian Federation. Dynamics of growth and development. Gross value added by economic activity. Brazilian export of primary and manufactured goods. Export structure. Consumption side of GDP structure.
реферат [778,3 K], добавлен 20.09.2012
Natural gas is one of the most important energy resources. His role in an international trade sector. The main obstacle for extending the global gas trading. The primary factors for its developing. The problem of "The curse of natural resources".
эссе [11,4 K], добавлен 12.06.2012