Diplomatic relations between Ukraine and India. Bilateral treaties and agreements. The Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation. Technical, cultural cooperation. Renewal of bilateral political dialogue between Ukraine and India at the level of top officials.
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- Bilateral treaties and agreements
- Trade relations
- Technical cooperation
- Cultural cooperation
Bilateral treaties and agreements
Diplomatic relations between Ukraine and India were established as early as in the 1960s -1970s in the times of the former USSR era when Ukraine, together with other ex-Soviet republics, was providing economic and military aid to the Republic of India that had obtained its independence shortly before. According to the experts' estimation in the days of the Soviet Union Ukraine's contribution to India amounted to approximately 30% of the total Soviet Union aid package while in some sectors - metallurgy, energy sector, heavy engineering, arms procurement (in particular, delivery of transport planes, combatant ships etc) - Ukraine's share was much bigger. The country played its significant role in developing Indian space programs. First Indian space artificial satellites were assembled by the world-known “Pivdenmash" missile plant in the city of Dnipropetrovsk.
The Republic of India recognized Ukraine's state independence on December 26, 1991 and the Protocols on the Establishment of Diplomatic and Consular Relations between Ukraine and India were signed in Kyiv on January 17, 1992.
The Embassy of the Republic of India started its work in Kyiv on May 7, 1992 and Ukrainian Embassy in New Delhi was opened in 1993.
The Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation, signed in March 1992, laid the basis for further intensification of bilateral relations.
A range of reciprocal visits of Ukrainian and Indian high-ranking officials took place after diplomatic relations between the two countries were established. In 1992-1993 there was an exchange of official visits on the level of Presidents. In 1992 Indian Defense Minister arrived in Ukraine and Ukrainian Foreign Minister paid a visit to India in 1994. A number of important treaties were signed as a result of those visits.
In 1995-2001 a number of meetings between Ukrainian and Indian leaders took place in the third countries mostly during the sessions of the UN General Assembly.
A new stage in Ukrainian-Indian relations began in 2001. It has become possible because the leadership of both countries became firmly convinced in the necessity of further comprehensive development of mutually beneficial relations. Ukraine and India are the countries that traditionally share similar vision on a majority of important issues of modern life. Besides, they have a lot in common regarding their ancient and modern history.
The state visit of the Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma to India on October 2-5, 2002 has undoubtedly become the crucial event in the Ukrainian-Indian relations. The contacts between the two states have essentially intensified since then. The visit has become a turning point in the last decade Ukrainian-Indian bilateral relations and was evaluated by the Ukrainian President as a real “breakthrough".
Renewal of bilateral political dialogue between Ukraine and India at the level of top officials, beginning of a new stage in Ukraine-India relations as well as defining new perspectives in intensifying mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukraine and India in political, trade and economic, military, scientific and humanitarian spheres have become a key political outcome of the Ukrainian President official visit to India.
Another important result of the Ukraine's President visit to India was the decision to put political consultations between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine and India, meetings of the Interstate Ukraine-India Commission on Economic, Trade, Industrial, Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, meetings of the Joint Business Council as well as meetings of Ukraine-India Committee on Cooperation in Science and Technology on a systematic and regular basis.
A range of Agreements on Cooperation in Economic, Legal, Trade and Tourism spheres were signed. Contacts between space agencies of both nations were also renewed. Regular flights between Kyiv and Delhi have intensified the exchange of business delegations.
The official visit of Anatoliy Zlenko, Ukraine's Minister for Foreign Affairs, to India in January 2003 was aimed at consolidating the agreements achieved after the state visit of the Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma to India in October 2002.
Ukraine-India inter-parliamentary relations commenced during the visit of Volodymyr Lytvyn, Speaker of the Verkovna Rada of Ukraine, to India on 1-4 December 2003. It was the first visit of the Ukrainian top-parliamentary official to India.
During the same period of time Indian Defense and Steel Ministers have paid official visits to Ukraine. Official visits of A. Kalam, President of India, and N. Singh, Minister for Foreign Affairs to Ukraine, are also being planned.
Dynamic character of Ukraine-India bilateral political relations indicates that they have reached a qualitatively new level.
Trade and economic relations between Ukraine and India have intensified in recent years as well. During 2001-2003 there was observed a sustained development of bilateral trade relations between Ukraine and India with exports growing by 56%.
Growth index of the trade turnover ($348.4 mln) for the first 7 months in 2004 is even more dynamic and is higher by 85.5% in comparison with the same period in 2003. These figures almost reflect the trade turnover between Ukraine and India for the whole 2003 year. For the first time in the history of Ukraine-India relations the volume of goods exchange is expected to exceed $500,000 mln in 2004. The leading positions in the Ukrainian export are occupied by metallurgical, machine-building, chemical and energy products. The sale of metallurgical goods in 2003 added $96.7 mln to the Ukrainian budget and made 47.7% of total export volume. The maximum amount of goods that Ukraine traditionally imports from India (more than 40% of the general import volume in 2003) is pharmaceutical products.
Ukrainian enterprises producing metallurgical equipment have been working on the Indian market for many years already. These are such joint stock companies (JSC) as “Novokramatorskyi machine-building plant", “Azovmash" (the city of Mariupol) that supply equipment for oxygen converter manufacturing and “Ukrindustry” consortium that has won tenders for conducting coke batteries' reconstruction at the metallurgical plants in the cities of Rourkela and Bokaro and is participating in the tender at the Bhilai metallurgical group of enterprises.
For years JSC “Turboatom” (city of Kharkiv) has been successfully working with the Indian power generating industry. Having won a number of tenders, “Turboatom” carries out the contracts delivering 4 generating turbines for Indian “Kaiga” and “Radjastan” nuclear power stations.
The Joint venture of JSC “Ukrhydromech" (city of Kremenchuh) and Indian company “Om Metals & Minerals Ltd. ” has won the tender on water-engineering system equipment delivery for the hydro electric power station “Kamenh".
Ukrainian enterprises have good prospects for participating in a number of projects in Indian mining, oil and gas industries, etc.
Quite successful is cooperation between Ukraine and India in scientific and technological spheres. Within the framework of joint cooperation program Ukrainian and Indian scientists work over the range of the research projects in the fields of astrophysics, material and new material sciences, physics of semi-conductors, biotechnologies, chemistry, tubular cells etc. The Days of Ukrainian science are due to be held in Delhi in late 2004. More than 500 representatives of Indian youth arrive in Ukraine for studies every year.
Today we can observe that Ukraine and India have started a new stage of cooperation in all spheres.
Ukraine and India have had trade and diplomatic relations since the 1960s when Ukraine was a part of the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, India and an independent Ukraine established diplomatic relations in January 1992. Embassies were soon set up in both countries and a treaty on friendship and co-operation was signed, in 1992, between the two countries to give a boost to bilateral trade. Today Ukraine is the second largest partner from the CIS, involved in trade relations with India.
Since1992 Ukraine and India have signed, atleast 17 bilateral agreements. These include agreements on Cooperation in Science and Technology, Foreign Office Consultation, Cooperation in Space Research, Avoidance of Double Taxation and Promotion and Protection of Investments. Several high powered delegations from both countries have taken part in talks to help inform and educate each other and thus increase trade value.
To improve trade relations between the two countries, in 1999 an Avoidance of Double Taxation Treaty and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion agreement was signed by both countries. More recently, that is in 2001, an extremely important agreement for Promotion and Protection of Investment has also been signed. Joint Business Councils and Joint Buisness Forums have been set up by the Chambers of Commerce of both countries to help interaction and to build better and stronger economic ties at the private sector level. In March 2000, India-Ukraine JBC was signed.
Since 2001, regular sessions of Ukrainian-Indian Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological, Industrial and Cultural cooperation have been held to find joint solutions to issues which could arise in the process of co-operation between the two sides. This in turn helps to plan and develop the trade and economic relations between the two countries.
"Enterprise India 2004", an exhibition, was held in July 2004 in Kyiv by the CII. Here small and medium enterprises displayed hand tools, bicycle and auto parts. In the recent past, there have been many commercial and trade delegations from India to Ukraine, from sectors as varied as gem and jewellery (Gem and Jewellery Export Promotion Council), agriculture (FICCI), wool and woollen products (Wool and Woollen Export Promotion Council), to herbals segment of pharmaceuticals (PHARMEXCIL) etc. The Mission in association with the Chambers of Commerce and Industry in Kyiv have made arrangements for organising the exhibitions and the buyer-seller meetings.
In 2005, when the Presidents of India and Ukraine met in Kiev, it was mutually decided that by the year 2010 that bilateral trade between the two countries should reach the 5 billion US dollar mark. The bilateral trade between India and Ukraine received a strong impetus because of this meeting of the two presidents and also because of the two high powered trade delegations which visited Ukraine in 2006.
Trade relations have never been better between the two countries and this is the time to address those issues which cause an impediment in our trade relations. One such issue, is the signing of the Treaty of Marine Navigation. Lack of this treaty causes a lot of problems to arise in shipping between India and Ukraine. Also, to make trade and investment more attractive, certain reforms in banking and the financial sector and transparency in taxing is advisable.
To establish and develop a relationship between the Indian and Ukrainian businessmen, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry “India - CIS" plays an extremely active role. They arrange meetings between representatives of both countries, be they from state agencies or the business milieu.
India Ukraine trade relations have been developing at a very fast pace. There has been a three-fold increase in the India Ukraine trade during 2003-2005 and it has exceeded US$ 1 billion. Ukraine imports from India have doubled and stand at US$ 3,214 million in 2006, while Ukraine exports to India have increased by 3.6 times and stands at US$ 7,369 million in 2006. The total turnover in India Ukraine trade during 2005-2006 has exceeded US$ 1.2 billion. The main items being imported by Ukraine from India are:
Ores and minerals
Tea, coffee, and spices
Silk and jute
The main items imported by India from Ukraine are:
Both the Ukraine and Indian governments take part in the sessions of the Ukraine Indian Inter - Governmental Commission which hold the Joint Business Council Meeting of Ukraine-India. This has given a major boost to India Ukraine trade relations. After Russia, Ukraine is India's second largest trading partner in the CIS. Ukraine is not a new member in the Indian industry as its enterprises are actively involved and form the backbone of Indian power sector and heavy industries among others.
There are such joint stock companies as 'Ukrindustry' that has won contracts for conducting coke battery reconstruction at the plants of metallurgy in Rourkela and Bokaro. There are also Azovmash and Novokramatorskyi machine building plants that supply oxygen converter manufacturing equipment.
India Ukraine trade relations has also been successful in increasing cooperation between the two countries in technology and scientific field. Today it can be observed that India Ukraine trade relations have reached a new stage with both the countries increasing cooperation in new spheres.
Trade and economic cooperation between Ukraine and India has been developing at a rapid pace. The trade turnover between the two countries during period of 2003 - 2008 has increased by more than four times and exceeded one and a half billion USD (1655 million USD in 2008).
Accordingly to data of the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine for 2008, as compare with the preceding year, export from Ukraine to India has increased by 35% and reached 1005,6 bln. USD. Import from India to Ukraine has increased by 39% to a sum of 649,9 million USD, with positive trade balance for Ukraine 355.6 million USD.
Dynamic of the Development of Trade between Ukraine and India
Ukrainian-Indian cooperation in the sphere of science and technology has rich of events history.
The Intergovernmental Agreement on Cooperation in the fields of Science and Technology was signed in 1992. The current bilateral collaboration between our countries is based mainly on the Fourth Intergovernmental Program for the period 2008-2010. It encompasses various projects in the spheres: material science, theoretical physics, nanoelectronics, information technology, biotechnology, biomedical technology, geology, as well as establishment of joint ventures, research laboratories, centres etc. In this legal framework our countries to the benefit of both sides exercise active scientific and research exchange.
The Agreement on Scientific Cooperation between the National Academy of Science of Ukraine and Indian National Science Academy was signed in 2003. According to this agreement Ukrainian and Indian scientists have opportunity to organize workshops, symposia and joint projects, to exchange of research information, to adopt the new scientific methods and deliver the lectures.
The exhibitions “Materials Science and Related Problems” (Hyderabad, March 2003) and Days of Science and Technologies of Ukraine (New Delhi, December 2004) demonstrated the achievements of Ukrainian research institutions, higher education establishments and design bureaus, their advanced scientific exploratory developments and state-of-the-art technologies, as well as the outstanding potential of mutually beneficial cooperation with India in the field of science and technology.
There are a number of contacts between the two countries in the sphere of information technologies. Most of them took place during international conferences and exhibitions like “IndiaSoft” 2004, 2005.
Regarding great scientific potential of our country the Indian Side is interested in deepening bilateral cooperation with Ukraine to create joint enterprises and to export Indian IT-products in Ukraine.
The most useful for Ukraine could be Indian experience of development of the IT-technologies and information industry.
In the beginning of 2006 international Laboratory for Electron Beam Technologies has been jointly established by Ukrainian and Indian specialists in Hyderabad. This important event is a considerable contribution to the relationship between the two countries.
Also the Programme of Cooperation between the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India and the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in the Field of Biotechnology was approved and signed in August, 2006.
The Fifth Meeting of the Ukrainian-Indian Joint Committee for Science and Technology was held in Kyiv in October 2007. The Ukrainian and Indian delegations were led by Professor Andriy Gurzhiy, First Deputy Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine, and Doctor T. Ramasami, Secretary, Departments of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. The result of this meeting was signing the list of joint Ukrainian-Indian scientific and technical projects for the period of 2008-2010.
Collaboration between Ukraine and India on the space exploration in peaceful purposes started with the agreement singed in 1994.
The visits to Ukraine of the delegations of Indian Space Research Organization in September 2002 and in July 2003 and the visits to India of the delegations of the National Space Agency of Ukraine in September 2002 and in July 2003 were the important steps in identifying of the spheres of mutual interest in space research.
The major steps in this sphere were opened in June, 2005 during the visit of President Abdul Kalam to Ukraine. The two countries singed the Framework Agreement Between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Republic of India on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, which came into force in February, 2006. Presidents Yushchenko and Kalam charged National Space Agency of Ukraine and Indian Space Research Organization with development of long-term space area cooperation program.
In September 2007 the delegations of the National Space Agency of Ukraine visited India with the aim of participation in the 58th International Space Congress and meeting with the delegations of Indian Space Research Organization. During the meeting the Sides agreed to create joint working group for preparing the new Joint Action Plan.
As the result of above visit in November 2007 the delegation of Indian Space Research Organization visited Ukraine and in June 2008 the delegation of the National Space Agency of Ukraine visited India.
Under the Agreement signed between India and Ukraine in May 1992, the Joint S&T Committee meets annually to discuss implementation of projects,holding of exhibitions and cooperation in scientific research. The Committee last met in Kiev in October 2007 and approved 11 S&T projects for implementation. Days of Ukrainian Science and Technology were held in New Delhi in December2004. National Space Agency of Ukraine and ISRO have ongoing cooperation in the space sector. Ukraine has a very strong IT Sector. Many offshore call centers have been successful. Aptech Ltd from Mumbai has signed an Agreement in May 2004 with International Institute of Personnel Management (the biggest IT training center in Ukraine) to organize IT programmes for schools and institutions in Ukraine. Bio-technology is the latest sector where companies such as Biocon, Genome etc. are cooperating with each other. It also supplies turbines for thermal, hydel and nuclear power plants.
In 2005, then President A P J Abdul Kalam expressed interest in strengthening co-operation with Ukraine in the field of space research during a speech given to Indians in Ukraine. He and members of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) later visited the Ukrainian space agency Yuzhnoye, one of the largest rocket manufacturing units in the world.
India and the Ukraine have agreed to frame an inter-governmental commission on military technical cooperation, after talks at AeroIndia 2009 in Bangalore. The result would be a broad set of umbrella agreements that would define key requirements like security, technology transfer, and support, opening the way to defense projects with Ukrainian firms. India already has a framework of this type in place with Russia, is reportedly negotiating one with France, and arguably needs one with the United States.
The Ukraine has a substantial defense industry left as a legacy from the Soviet Union, and some products like the BTR-3E1/3U have become export successes. India is certainly aware of the T-80UD “Al-Khalid” tank developed for Pakistan, whose rapid and successful fielding resulted in a rush effort to add T-90S tanks to the Indian Army's fleet. The Ukraine needs more of those orders in order to modernize and maintain its defense industrial base, which is vital to the country's continued security.
India has a different problem, which it shares with the Ukraine: sets of Soviet/Russian-made equipment that must be maintained and upgraded, despite poor cooperation from Russian firms. Reports indicate that Ukrainian expertise will be sought for programs aimed at modernizing Indian armor, MiG, Antonov, Tupolev and Ilyushin aircraft; and Mil and Kamov helicopters. Missiles, radars, and weapons cooperation are also reportedly under discussion.
It's worthy of note that all of these potential areas are also areas of Israeli expertise, and Israeli cooperation with India has grown apace on that basis. What Israel lacks, and the Ukraine offers, is original manufacturing capabilities for Russian equipment designs, and for many of the associated parts that would be used as spares.
Since 1957, thousands of young Indians annually arrive to Ukraine for studies in Ukrainian universities, academies and institutes. Traditionally, Indians are eager to study in Ukraine. Especially, Ukrainian medical and technical higher educational institutions are very popular among them due to the high level qualification and low costs.
More than 1000 Indians are studying in Ukrainian higher education establishments in Kiev, Vinnitsa, Lugansk, Odessa, Ternopil, Harkiv and other cities every year.
Ukrainian side is interested in studying Indian experience in information technology, as well as traditions, languages, culture and history of India.
Cooperation in the field of education between our countries is realized on the basis of Intergovernmental Agreement on Cooperation in the spheres of Culture, Arts, Education, Tourism, Sports and Mass Media signed in 1992 and also in accordance with agreements signed between Ukrainian and Indian universities, colleges and schools.
In April, 2004 the Ukrainian delegation headed by the First deputy Minister of education and science of Ukraine A. Gurjii went to India and has possibility to visit Dj. Neru University, Delhi University, Indian Institute of Technology and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
The first visit of representatives of Kyiv Institute of International Relations was held in autumn 2004. At the same time the first IT-Training Centre was set up by Indian „Aptech Ltd. ” and Ukrainian Transport University in Kyiv.
The Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of India on Cooperation in the Field of Education is ready to sign by the two sides.
During the visit President Abdul Kalam to Ukraine in June, 2005 he had possibility to speak with Ukrainian and Indian students and their teachers. He proposed to create a joint Program of cooperation between Kiev's National University and leading Indian Universities to provide exchange of teachers, scientists and of course students.
The present trends of Ukrainian-Indian cooperation in the sphere of education permit to look with confidence in the future. The special attention should be in creating favourable conditions for training qualified personnel in both countries as well as in development of interaction between our universities and other educational institutions.
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