History of the city Smolensk

Smolensk is the key city of the diamond capital of Russia, the necklace of the Russian state, the city of Russian glory, with a huge number of attractions located on seven hills. The mention of the city in the Russian chronicles; date of its foundation.

Рубрика История и исторические личности
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Язык английский
Дата добавления 10.03.2019
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History of the city Smolensk

Tyazhelova E.S.

Hero City, key-city diamond capital of Russia, the necklace of the Russian state, a city of Russian glory, with a huge number of attractions spread out on seven hills: it all - Smolensk. The first mention of the city is found in the very first Russian chronicles. Smolensk was founded in 863godu. He formed it as a breeding center of one of the branches of the eastern Slavs. Smolensk is located in the upper reaches of the Dnieper River, which is deeply cut into the Smolensk Uplands. Dnipro crosses the city from east to west and divides it into two parts, a relatively symmetrical in nature surface. The steep slopes of the coasts, which are cut by an extensive network of gullies, give the city a unique view of steeply sloping, mountainous terrain. city chronicle russian

He is one of the oldest cities in Russia that have preserved an amazing cultural and architectural wealth. He is older than Moscow, the same age as Kiev and Novgorod. History here reminds himself that earthen defensive rampart, the ancient temple, the fortress tower. These buildings and monuments have witnessed the formation and development of Smolensk and Russia. On the ancient history of Smolensk as evidenced by mounds of ten kilometers from the city, near the village Nest.

In the XII century, Smolensk is the capital of the independent Grand Duchy of Smolensk. The city then lived about 40 thousand people. Since 1404 Smolensk joined the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and in 1514 he joined the Moscow State. In the XVII century the city became part of the Polish state. In 1667 he returned to Russia, Smolensk.

During Otchestvennoy War of 1812 Battle of Smolensk was in the vicinity of the city, in which the French army lost more than 20 thousand people, and the city was badly damaged and was heavily damaged. But even more destruction Smolensk suffered during the Nazi occupation, then it was destroyed 93% of the housing stock of the city and damaged many monuments of architecture.

After World War II the city was included among the 15 cities in the USSR, which were subject to priority recovery. Like a phoenix from the ashes rose from the ruins of Smolensk. Soon, the industrial output exceeded pre-war level and continued to grow with each passing day.

In commemoration of the inhabitants of the city of Smolensk was awarded the title of the Hero City. This high rank he wears with honor.

By the middle of the XX century Smolensk transformed into industrially developed city.

Smolensk has a favorable geographical position as it is situated on the paths from Moscow to Belarus, Baltic States, the countries of Central and Western Europe. City of Smolensk - a wharf on the Dnieper, the airport, the site of railway lines and roads.

Smolensk is an important economic and industrial city in central Russia. In today's Smolensk developed machine building, chemical, light and food industries. Leading enterprises of light industry - flax, knitting, hosiery, shoe factory, flax and others.

The largest enterprises of the food industry are meat-packing plant, distillery and brewery, 2 dairy, pasta factory. Construction materials industry is represented by plants of reinforced concrete structures, brick, wood and others.

The city of Smolensk is located 463 objects of cultural heritage (monuments of history and culture). By the number of monuments of pre-Mongolian architecture Smolensk is on the third place after Kiev and Novgorod. Near Smolensk, in the cluster is the largest in Europe, a pagan cemetery. remains of a large settlement and burial mound preserved here.

Numerous monuments of the city have found a bright reflection of events, turning to Russia: the war with Poland in the 17th century, the War of 1812, the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945. This is - a monument to the defenders of Smolensk in the Battle 4 - August 5, 1812, a monument with eagles, monument Sophia shelf, a monument to MI Kutuzov, busts of heroes of the Patriotic War of 1812.

In the 60 years erected a memorial to commemorate the victims of fascist terror in the Barrow of Immortality Readovka park in memory of the heroes square lit the eternal flame, a bronze bust on the grave of Mikhail Yegorov hoisted the flag of victory over the Reichstag, is a memorial cemetery.

Highly examples of monumental art is a monument to our fellow countrymen - the composer Mikhail Glinka, sculptor AR Von Bock, Michael Isakovskogo poet, the poet Alexander Tvardovsky and his literary hero Vasily Terkin, sculptor, People's Artist of Russia AG Sergeev, architect Fyodor The horse - the author of the Smolensk fortress wall, sculptor O. Komov.

In the city of the busts of the poet Alexander Pushkin, the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the prominent sculptor Sergei Konenkov, aircraft Semyon Lavochkin, Maria Ulyanova public figure, the Hero of Russia Andrei Alexandrovich Panov writer Honorary Citizen of the city of Smolensk Boris L. Vasilyev.

Currently, Smolensk - a city of museums and libraries, scientific and educational institutions, theaters; the city has the creative department of the Union of Russia: writers, painters, composers, architects, journalists, theater makers, designers and Culture Foundation.

Smolensk was among the first cities in Russia, where there was a public theater. It offers modern audiences Smolensk State Drama Theatre named after AS Griboyedov, Smolensk Chamber Theater, Puppet Theater, the theater-studio "Dialog", folk theater drama House of Educators.

In Smolensk there are union and departmental Palaces and Houses of Culture Palace of Culture Palace of Culture House of Railwaymen and educators.

In Smolensk, working 38 municipal institutions and enterprises of Culture and supplementary education for children: Cultural Center, Cultural Center "Zadneprovye" House of Culture Nest neighborhood, "Sort", pos. Pleasant View, "Charm", the Planetarium, 2 cinemas, the central park of culture and recreation "Garden Lopatinsky" Centralized Library System, 2 children's music schools, 5 art schools, art school.

Smolensk has an extensive network of libraries. In the central part of the city are located Regional Universal Library, Regional Youth Library, Regional Children's Library.

Smolensk - rare Russian city that boasts the presence of three temples built before the middle of the XIII century, and the Cathedral, which is visible from almost anywhere in the city, as well as other objects of Orthodox architecture, reflecting the church ISTO Smolensk.

Temples pre-Mongol period of Smolensk is not just ancient buildings - it witnesses a period of maximum flourishing city. In the XII century in Russia there was no other city that could compete with Smolensk in terms of the construction of temples. They were built more than 30. To date, three have survived: Peter and Paul (1146), St. John the Divine (1173) and Archangel Michael (1194). All the temples prince.

Smolensk, like Rome and Moscow, is located on the "seven hills". Vydelit among them the Cathedral Hill is not difficult - it is decorated with the highest (70 m.) And the majestic building of Smolensk - the Holy Dormition Cathedral. This is one of the attractions of the city, which is required to attend all the tourists.

The most famous churches and monasteries of Smolensk

Grad on the Dnieper, in spite of the heavy and tough times, it has always been a stronghold of orthodoxy. It was in Smolensk were saved a huge amount of people, the saints, to perform the feat of confession and martyrdom. And here is the pearl of not only land in Smolensk, but the whole country - the icon of the Holy Mother. Today in the town of Monastery 3, 19 existing parishes and as many churches, each of which has its own history. Cover them all in one short article - an impossible task, so we present you the most famous churches and monasteries of Smolensk.

Active holidays in Smolensk - a holiday in the city stadium, for example, "Spartak", "Wings of the Soviets", etc. Also, the city has the Ice Palace, the Hippodrome, several swimming pools -. "Dnepr", "wave", "Change". In addition, in Smolensk, you can play a game of bowling in the entertainment center "Centrifuge", as well as in tennis - sports complex "Olympus". In addition, in Smolensk common and extreme sports - so you can visit the skatepark Smolensk, where you can go skateboarding, rollerbleydom and other sports. In Smolensk also extended cycling.

Urban public transport in Smolensk presented trolleybuses, buses, trams and taxis. Works of urban transport in the early morning (5: 30-6: 00) to late evening (23:00).

The most affordable form of public transport, covering all areas of the city - it's taxis. Car Timeout virtually any route is from 5 to 10 minutes. In the evening hours this time increases up to 15-20 minutes.

In Smolensk, today there are 4 tram and trolleybus routes 3. Payment by public transport made the conductor. The average cost of one trip on public transport is 14 rubles.


1. http://nasledie.smoladmin.ru

2. http://rufact.org/wiki/Смоленск

3. http://guide.travel.ru/russia/smolens_region/smolensk

4. http://www.visitsmolensk.ru/chto-posmotret/dostoprimechatelnosti/cerkvi

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