History of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is a multi cultural country, which is situated in the heart of the Eurasia continent. The main stages of formation and development of statehood in the territory, the first settlements. Outstanding representatives and their activities.
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Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Kazakhstan is a multi cultural country, which is situated in the heart of the Eurasia continent - between Russia in the north and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and China in the South.
Historically it was inhabited by Kazakhs that divided themselves into three main Hordes - Great, Middle and Little, all living in different parts of the present Kazakhstan and separated from each other by hundreds of kilometres of dry steppe. Nowadays people know their tribe and the Horde that they belong to, but they are not isolated from each other or the rest of the world.
It has its rich history that makes the country - glorious Khans, bright philosophers, great thinkers, poets… most of them were neglected and forgotten together with the language during the Soviet times (1936-1991).
In this part I will tell you about some of our greatest people, those, who made the history of the country. Those, who wanted that the Kazakh people were independent and free.
Here are some of them: «It is true when they say that it is necessary to look in the past in order to understand the present and to see the outlines of the future. Our generation has the honorable right and obligation to learn and safely keep for the future generations everything that was safely brought to us by the time through the old ages. We present the portrait gallery of great thinkers of Kazakh steppe, as they contemplated the grandeur of their people, the zest for independence that has roots in the centuries old depth of history, by their philosophic proceedings, by the depth and strength of their thinking, by their great deeds, painful and intense findings.
We should note that they were the golden fund of the nation, outstanding scientists, philosophers, state and public figures, who lived on the territory of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan in VIII-XIX centuries, with their priceless input into national and world science, culture and politics».
Mohammed Abulkhair Gazi Bakhadur Khan, direct descendent of Chingyzkhan in 15th generation, started his genealogy from one of the progenitors of Kazakh state - Khan Zhanibek, to be more exact from one of his sons - Osek.
The name of this Kazakh Khan was not mentioned during the Soviet times. The attitude to him was vividly expressed by Zhambyl (Kazakh national poet), comparing him to a «jackal that roams in the steppe looking for prey». In his famous poem «The Grand Law» he wrote:
Allah's laws, Abylai's laws
Bloody Nikolay's* laws
* - Nikolay - Russian tsar reigning in XIX-XX century
In year 1680 at the reign of Khan Tauke, who managed to stop the feud between the tribes and to find the effective form of managing the Kazakh state, there was approved the council of Bi's.
Names of the three great sons, contemporaries of Khan Tauke, three glorious wise men - Tole Bi, Kazybek Bi, Aiteke Bi - became symbols of Kazakh people.
According to the legend Kazybek bi was born in 1667 in the vicinity of Karatau and Ulytau in the lower reaches of Syrdaria. His father's name was Keldibek, grandfather - Shanzhar, great grandfather - Bulbul, and mother - Tokmeyil. Eloquence and wisdom was inherited by Kazybek from his grandfather and great grandfather.
He was the first child of the six in his family. When he was 13 he was already good at oratory, and differed from other children by his commitment and outstanding wit. That is why when he was still young he became Tauke Khan's and Abylay Khan's advisor.
One of the three great bi's, who played huge part in the destiny of the Kazakh people, was Aiteke biy that was heading the Young zhuz before Abulkhair Khan. There is not much written information about his life and activities. Still there are many things that seem unclear and disputable in his biography (dates of birth and death, place of burial. According to one of the versions, Aiteke biy was born near the mountain Kaz-bibi (nowadays Samarkand region). He was from the kin Tarakty, tribe Alim, grandson of Kokand khan Akshy and famous Samarkand emir - batyr Zhalantas - bakhadur, who timely received good education in Bukhara.
Today the world reveals Kazakhstan as it was hidden behind the «Iron curtain» so many years and nobody thought of us as of anything significant. Though Kazakhstan is one of the richest countries with mineral resources and economical potential.
The book will be available for sale later as I am still working on its translation, but I am sure you will find out a lot of new facts about my country.
«The Great Thinkers of the Kazakh Steppe» by Erkebulan Dzhelbuldin was written in 2000-2001 and it was not published as a book yet. It was one of his last wishes that his unpublished books were presented to the people, and I decided to translate them and introduce them to a wider reader audience.
continent history settlement
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