The Soviet Union in Mirovom community at the end XX age
Analysis of major trends in world development in the second half of the 80's - early 90-ies, in the context of studying global problemh humanity and their possible solutions in the double pole of the world. Socio-economic situation in the Soviet Union.
|Рубрика||История и исторические личности|
|Размер файла||27,4 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
THE SOVIET UNION In MIROVOM COMMUNITY At THE end XX AGE. THE DISINTERATION USSR And FORMATION C.I.S. (1985-1991 gg.)
The Main trends of the world development in the second half 80-h - begin 90-h years. The Global problems mankind and possibility of their decision in "double-pole" world. The Changes to soviet external politician. The Disinteration of the socialist system. The Soviet-american relations and their importance for судеб world. The Idea "общеевропейского of the building"; the problems to her(its) realization. The Economic ascent and интеграционные processes in 80-e years in the world.
Social-economic and political situation in USSR in medium 80-h gg. Need of the realignment. Searching for of the ways of the public development. The Development to theories and politicians of the realignment. M.S. Gorbachev as political leader.
The Attempts of the decision social-economic problems: reorganization authoritarian-bureaucratic managerial system. The Contradictions and difficulties in realization social-economic politicians. The Reasons of her(its) collapse. The most Further deepenning the crisis.
The Reform of the political system. Cancelling the censorship, publicity. Public-political motion. The Dismissal KPSS. The system многопартийной Formation. The Transformations in the field of enlightenments, sciences, cultures. The Results and lessons to democratizations society.
Public-political changes to country of the East Europe. The New situation in Europe and world. The End "cold war".
The Totals of the realignment USSR. The Intensification межнациональных relations. The Groth centrifugal trend in multinational state. Output from composition USSR Lithuanias, Latvias, Estonia. The Failure of the attempts of the renovation union state - a making the alliance of the sovereign republics.
The Events of the August 19-21 1991 in Moscow. The Disinteration USSR and formation C.I.S..
The Purposes: comprehend the trends of the world development in 80-e - begin 90-h gg.; understand the essence of the realignment in USSR and her(its) influence upon fates soviet state and international situation.
After study of the subject 18 students must know:
qualitative differences of the world development in 1980-e - begin 1990-h gg. from preceding period;
position in USSR to medium 1980-h gg. and purposes of the realignment;
main trends of the realignment and her(its) results;
consequences of the realignment for soviet society and for international development;
purposes, contents and consequences august event 1991 for судеб USSR;
reasons of the disinteration USSR and his(its) influence upon fates of the socialism;
consequences of the disinteration USSR for world community;
main notions and history terms.
1980-e - begin 1990-h gg. - a period to world history, which was charaterized by the large changes to international relations, social-economic and political development. The new ascent of the economy existed In капиталистических state. The realignment became On this background central event in USSR.
At April 1985 on Plenum CK KPSS as strategic purpose new soviet managament with M.S at the head. Gorbachevym and society as a whole was провозглашен course on speedup social-economic development of the country, democratization and publicity. More clearly purposes of the realignment were determined on январском (1987.) The Plenum CK KPSS. This - "renovation of all sides to lifes our society, giving socialism the most modern forms to public body, most full opening the creative potential socialist building".
New internal and внешнеполитический course soviet managament has greatly changed the position in society and in the world. As a result of realization in external politician of the ideas of the new political thinking from country "locked" SOVIET UNION became quickly to change in country broad contact.
However противоречивость and inconsequence politicians soviet managament, complex social-economic and political situation in society have finally brought the country to else more deep crisis. The August events 1991 were terminated by disinteration of the SOVIET UNION and discharge of the president M.S. Gorbacheva from the authorities.
The Disinteration USSR has brought about creation C.I.S. and wreckage of the world system of the socialism.
THE PLAN of the STUDY of the SUBJECT 18:
18.1. The World in 80-h - begin 90-h years. "New political thinking" and external policy USSR.
18.2. Need of the realignment in USSR. The Reforms 1985-1991 gg.: the main trends, totals and consequences.
18.3. The Problems межнациональных relations and national-state construction. The Disinteration USSR and formation C.I.S..
18.1. The Study given question follows to begin with determinations main trend world development in the second half 80-h - begin 90-h years. С than was bound ascent of the economy капиталистических countries to medium 80-h years? В than was expressed deepenning economic and political integration of the countries of the West? Bring the concrete examples.
Hereinafter reveal the problems of the development of the world socialist system in this period. Why socialist countries have not been able be comprised of new stage NTR? What role has played in this administrative-command system? В than was concretely expressed deepenning economic and social-political crisis in socialist country, as from the second half 70-h gg.? What events 80-h gg. were due to this crisis? What the most sharp global problems have got up before mankind?
Possible was their decision in condition "double-pole" world? What consequences for economy USA and USSR had an arms race? That has forced soviet managament to go on proclamation "new political thinking". Reveal the contents of this notion. That meant деидеологизация interstate relations? That was made for making the system to international safety at the end 80-h - begin 90-h gg.?
What important change have occurred in soviet-american relations? That you known about agreement on nucleus disarmament, reached between USSR and USA? What importance they had? As it was reflected realization to ideas "new political thinking" on situations in country Central and YUgo-East Europe?
What formed the fate SEV and OVD? В than was expressed new policy USSR in respect of countries "third world" and regional conflict? What influence rendered change in the world and soviet external politician on development внутриполитической to situations in country?
18.2. Characterize social-economic and political position, established in USSR to medium 80-h gg. As, on Your glance, objective and subjective reasons of the realignment?
Hereinafter tell about undertaking the reforms in SOVIET UNIONS. As were it originally determined purposes реформирования soviet society? That presented itself concept of the speedup social-economic development of the country? When has headed for realignment and in than was concluded her(its) изначальный sense? Understand the reasons of the following adjustment of the course of the transformations. What role in this has played XIX All-union conference KPSS (1988)? HXVSH convention KPSS (1990)? Characterize the main contents of the economic reform. Think, why as a whole she has failled? As this was reflected at a rate of lifes of the people?
The most Most important part of the realignment USSR was a reform of the political system. Explain, than was caused need of her(its) undertaking? As the main stages of the realization of the reform of the political system in USSR? В than was expressed inconsistent nature of the process of the political transformations? Reveal their main results. В than essence to democratizations society? That meant the policy "publicity"? Explain, what is a legal state? the civil society? When and with what purpose post president was incorporated in USSR? Who became first (and the last) by soviet president? Cancelling 6-y article had What importance to Constitutions USSR?
Analysing consequences of the political transformations in USSR, pay attention to contents of the term "political плюрализм". Bring the concrete examples to activations to activity public-political organization in 1988 - 1990 gg. As there were particularities of the system многопартийной rebirth in our country? Who You know from russian democrat, stood beside headwaters political and economic reforms USSR at the end 80-h years? What the position in society trade union changed? BJIКСM? The Creative organization and alliance? Cerkvi? What processes occurred inwardly KPSS?
The Result complex and inconsistent processes, occurred in soviet society at the end 80-х-начале 90-h years, become events of the August 19-21 1991? What resonance they have caused in society? As there were their consequences?
18.3. Characterizing givenned question, show, what errors in politician Soviet state have brought about crisis межнациональных relations in 80-e years? What events become manifestation of this crisis? Characterize the actions (political, social-economic) on permit межнациональных problems, undertaken by managament of the country. Insofar efficient they were?
1990 - a year "parade sovereignty of" former soviet union republics. В than sense of this phenomena? What from republics has declared about its independence first? В than importance and as consequences of the proclamation of the sovereignty to Russia? That was made for prevention of the decay state? Pay attention to work on making the project of the new Union agreement. Characterize the results of the referendum about conservation of the Alliance SSR (the March 1991.).
As, on Your glance, the main reasons of the disinteration USSR? What role in fate of the Alliance have played the events of the August 1991? As You suppose, was disinteration USSR inevitable?
QUESTIONS FOR SELF-VERIFICATION
1.As there were reasons, spurred managament USSR to go on all-round реформирование economic and political system in the second half 80-h years?
2.In what years in USSR was realized policy of the realignment?
3.As the main contents political and economic reforms in USSR in 1985 - 1991 gg.?
4.As, on Your glance, positive results of the realignment? В than were shown negative consequences перестроечных processes in USSR?
5. What measures were undertaken soviet manualч of the conservation of the Alliance?
6.When and in connection with what event USSR has stopped its existence?
7 As, on Your glance, reasons of the disinteration USSR?
8.As the main trends of the world development in 80-h - begin 90-h gg.? What important change have occurred in external politician USSR? Than they were caused? What consequences had for country and the world as a whole?
9.Than was charaterized by the economic development USSR in 1990 - 1991 gg.?
10.As contents financial politicians in USSR in 1985-1991 gg.? В than essence of the money reform 1991?
1.M.S. Gorbachev - an initiator of the realignment.
2.The Realignment in USSR: contents and consequences.
3.The Economic transformations in USSR (1985-1991 gg.): reasons, contents, totals.
4.Financial policy in USSR in 1985-1991 gg.
5. The Money reform 1991 in USSR and her(its) totals.
6.The Reform of the political system soviet society (1985-1991 gg.): reasons, contents, totals.
7.Possible has saved USSR?
8. "New political thinking" and external policy USSR.
9.The Problems межнациональных relations in USSR at years of the realignment.
Advisable literature to abstract
1. Bokarev YU.P. The Rouble on galley proof of the ruin (about financial politician in USSR period of the realignment //Russian rouble. Two ages to histories. HIH-HH vv. M., 1994.
2. Volkogonov D.A. Seven chieftains. Kn. 2-I. M., 1995.
3. Gorbachev M.S. The Life and reforms. In 2 kn. M., 1995.
4. Gorbachev - Elicin: 1500 days of the political opposition. M., 1992.
5. The History fates of the radical economic reform. To 10-летию begin realignments. M., 1995.
6. The History to modern Russia. 1985-1994. /Под ред. V. V. ZHuravleva. M., 1995.
7. The Realignment. Ten years after (the April 1985 - an April 1995). M., 1995.
8. Pihoya R.G. The SOVIET UNION: History authorities. 1945-1991. M., 1998.
9. Russia in foreign economic relations: lessons to histories and contemporaneity. M., 1993.
10. Smyrna V.S. The Economic reasons of the ruin of the socialism in USSR // Domestic history. 2002. 6. S. 91-110.
11. Sogrin V.V. The Political history to modern Russia. 1985-1994: from Gorbacheva before Elicina. M., 1994.
12. The Alliance possible was save: Blanching book: the Documents and facts about politician M.S. Gorbacheva on реформированию and conservation multinational state. M., 1995.
PRACTICAL WORK to subject 18
The SOVIET UNION in мировом community at the end HH age.
The Disinteration USSR and formation C.I.S. (1985-1991 gg.)
I. READ DOCUMENTS And ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. M.S. Gorbachev about reason begin realignments (from appearance on Minskom tractor plant on February 26 1991.)
Only at first thought can seem that all were then orderly. Already at the end 70-h - begin 80-h gg. became clear that so further do business it is impossible. The Increase to capacity of the labour decreased in two times, but afterwards дошел before zero. On unit of the national incom we spent in contrast with developed country of the electric powers, fuel, metal in one and a half-two times more. While there were inexhaustible facility, good conjuncture on oil, inexhaustible labor facility - выкручивались to account this. Afterwards labor resource became to come short that concerns natural - for they happened to to go in необжитые regions, producing enormous expenseses. As it is spoken, carefree life ended.
Dobavlyu and the other reasons. Our economy overbusy branch to heavy industry, too little enterprises produce goods of the public consumption. This was a most militarized economy in the world and the most enormous expenseses on the defence. If else recall that occurred in political process - nobody could not and word truthful to say: it is necessary something do on enterprise, in region, republic. Nobody did not interest the opinion a worker class, peasantry, intellectualses.
2. A. Cipko, employee of the device CK KPSS in the second half 1980-h years, about идеологической "kitchen of" realignment Gorbachev as politician, as pragmaticses, then, at the beginning initially realignments, in 1986-1988 did not think in earnest about care with worn down rail socialist razvitiya. He dreamed, either as all реформисты - czech, hungarian, polish - only about renovation of the socialism, he dreamed to realize the daydream of the prague springtime, he dreamed of "socialism with human person". Gorbachev certainly was a pupil and follower Alexander Dubcheka.
3. From item of the doctor of the history sciences A.I. Utkina "First president"...In Gorbacheve have manifested themselves best line of the national nature: width showers, natural curiosity, irrepressible thirst to lifes, hate to routine, stoical perception to lifes, endless patience, доверчивость, emotion, receptivity to new, contempt to the form in peak to longing to essences. And they matched with phenomenal energy, beautiful human pride and intuitive longing to perfection.
The Starry hour Gorbacheva became the period, when, on the one hand, else acted the hard site device of country control, but with other - a country and the world in немом amazing staked out "communist number one", which one for other called in question former dogmy. In these splendid 1985-1987 he, seemed, saddled the horse to histories, read the delight in eye moscow highbrow and saw the delight in crowd refusing itself to believe Zapada. If to we shall arrive марсиане, that meets their will be from the Land Gorbachev, convinced the readers the most popular american journal.
But foresight, so generously rewarded this person, отыгралось on the other. It has inspired him exorbitant gordynyu. He, in its already nearly inhuman conceit, began to go with firm ground of the realities on зыбкую quagmire speculative illusion. Two illusions have closed his(its) mental horizon: soviet economic science knows the wonder-working recipes; west and незападный world essence united intellectual-moral space with the total interest.
The History, speak, teaches only that that she ничему does not teach. No, she teaches that that good sense of no no change, and that fatal to change his(its) phantom of the type "new political thinking" and realignments unbeknownst what in unknown that.
4. M.S. Gorbachev about error in economic politician 1985-1986 (1993.)
In economy, following formed stereotype, we have begun with reforms of heavy industry, machine building. Pravilinee was begin with agriculture, with light and food industry that is to say with that that gave quick and demonstrative return for people, has consolidated the social basis of the realignment. The Word, in row of the events, having got up on way of the reforms, we have inexact chosen the sequence of the measures on her(its) realization.
5. From appearances on meeting, denoted 10-летию begin realignments (1 March 1995.)
The Academician L.I .Абалкин: Ten years back neither country, nor party, nor managament in its majority did not get ready to radical reform. The People did not hear, did not perceive the word "market". His(its) it is impossible was pronounce aloud without accompaniment corresponding to epithet: "socialist", "planned" and etc.
The Academician O.T. The Piligrimage: Collapse aging system can spontaneous, quickly. But new to, regrettably, spontaneous can not if, certainly, we no want to reject itself on 1-2 ages back and repeat the way вызревания modern capitalism with initial steps. Social инженерия (i.e. conscious influence on process of the transition and corresponding to powerful instruments) has not operated neither in step of realignments, nor in step of radical reforms. So supervision for move scolded public transformations turned out to be lost.
6. The Professor V. Kuvaldin about result of the questioning the russian population, denoted event 1985-1991 gg. (the February 1995.)
The Block is opened by question: "At April 1995 is performed ten years with begin realignments. As you suppose, it is necessary was her(its) begin?" Answerring this question, Russia split fifty-fifty. 40% have said "yes", 45% - "no", 15% were obstructed with answer.
That has got get fat (more then 40-percent superiority positive estimation on negative) support россиян and remained in their memories as undoubted achievement of the realignment? First of all, liquidation of the totalitarian heritage in internal and external politician.
As before solely высок rating горбачевской external politicians. And today suppressing majority россиян support such steps, as conclusion of the soviet troopses from Afghanistan (+93%), cessation "cold war", arms race, oppositions USSR and West (+82%). Even liquidation сталинской to empires, granting country East Europe of the possibility itself choose the way its political and economic development is understood and greeted (+60%).
So have high valued the contemporaries final liquidation GULAGA: return from reference Andreya Saharova, liberation political concluded (+80%), rehabilitation of the victims сталинских repression (+78%).
Removing forbid on critic of the high executives (+57%), expansion to publicity and freedom of speech (+48%), democratization choice, possibility выдвижения several candidacies (+58%), cessation of the muffling west radio station (+50%), expansion of the possibilities выезда soviet people for border and въезда foreigner (+52%) remained in grateful memory contemporary.. Does Not cause the objections a reinforcement influences церкви on public life (+40%).
With unconcealed approval recall the first steps of the economic reform: election of the leaders labor group (+61%), expansion to economic independance enterprise (+61%), begin legislative registration of the right quotient to property (+44%).
The People will pay tribute effort on реформированию union state: expansion to economic independance of the republics (+29%), granting republic political sovereignty in composition USSR (+23%). They greet the appearance alongside with KPSS other political party and motion, generation многопартийности (+22%).
The Ithaca, practically general approval has got the absolute majority of the most most important projects горбачевского period (17 from 30 ).
There is pages In histories of the realignment, attitude to which not so uniquely. The Speech goes: 1) about destruction of the former forms to lifes and 2) about it is not enough thought-out and prepared novation (This:) permit mass-meeting and strikes (+12%), begin conversions to military industry (+7%) and formation society "Memory" and other national-patriotic organization (+6%), openning critiques in seal идей Marksa, Engelisa, Lenin (-2%), forming the different currents inwardly KPSS, begin her(its) schism (-2%), entering the job titles president USSR and union republics (+1 The Confession co-operative society (+5%) соседствует with неприятием of the commercial banks (-11%).
In offered author questionnaire there is belongings, which have caused the unconditional reprobation rossiyan..: use to armies in fight with supporter of state independence in Lithuania, load;embark;stevedore and others (-66%), павловская money reform (-65%), renaming city, streets, enterprise, institutions (-40%), антиалкогольная campaign (-34%), removing forbid on erotic publishing, films, shows (-19%).
Accepting results of the realignment, many consider that they are reached too by high price. Approving direction of the motion, they suppose that to was necessary better choose the landmarks, velocity and route. The having Felt taste of the liberty, not спешат with realization of the personal responsibility for occurring.
7. From recollection of the former president USA George Bush and adviser on national safety Brenta Skaukrofta about event, in accordance with disinteration USSR (1991.)
B. Skaukroft: Neudavshiysya upheaval (the end of the August 1991) has accelerated the disinteration Soviet authorities in the centre... He also became the signal to growing of the influence of the union republics, to ascent Elicina on political arena...
Dzh. The Bush:...The Main by subject дебатов to inwardly administrations remained the question that we want to see in Russia and in former republic USSR and as better use vastly выросшее influence reformer there while we can do this... I personally considered that ideal variant was diffusing of the SOVIET UNION, when appeared different state, but nor one of they did not dispose such terrible power, what was beside SOVIET UNION.
B. Skaukroft: Subsequent to agreement on creation Commonwealth Independent state, reached December 8, Elicin zealously worked on termination of the disinteration of the SOVIET UNION...
The Ithaca, all ended. Really, has occurred that, about than I never could expect that this will occur in my lifes...My first reaction on final lowering of the soviet flag on Flint was a feeling to pride for that role, which we have played in achievement this. We persistently worked on that to promote the SOVIET UNION in this direction moreover so as this has not brought about blast in Moscow... We have pitched in quest of the favourable output from this great drama...
We unexpectedly turned out to be in unique situation... we were a single country, costing beside pinnacle of power in the world.
8. Oppozicionnaya russian press about economic problem of the period of the realignment (from item K.K. Cikunova (Kuzimich) "Russia and the market")...The First stage of the realignment possible to name the period of the initial accumulation capital. When nave sinks, with it тащат all that gets under hand, and than подороже, so much the better.... Began вымывание goods, devaluation of the rouble, but after resolutions 1987 about joint with foreigner enterprise and Law general lowerring our shop regiment began about кооперации 1988. International gamble has taken the unencountered amounts.
The Second stage of the realignment began since 1989 and is characterized by seizure of the land and production. Appeared the legislative acts about property, about lease, about the land, about small enterprise, about join-stock companies, about неправительственных (ostensibly) international fuel-energy assotiation, about concern, exchange and other funds and etc.
The Third stage appears since 1992 - a stage, obviously, joining TNK and совпроизводства.
Main and main law - a Law about property, taken effect with 1 July 1990.
The Law about property in USSR bolts three types to property: private, collective and state. The Red thread through all types of the property passes the idea of the share embedding in unlimited amount (st. 7, p. Z). The Social position is defined by thickness karmana.... The Collective property so is disguised in law that it is difficult to guess, for who she is intended finally... However in st.12 is clearly stipulated that position "collective owner" is defined by his(its) money contribution to enterprise. If contribution 100 roubles, that corresponding to and social weight of the workman, but if 3 миллиарда - and all as as one should.
Or the other secret. The Minister of finance could not answer the deputy, what real living wage in USSR. In USA this - 12 thous. dollars. In Switzerlands - 16 thousand. Even for слаборазвитых countries of the Africa and Asia UNO have installed (on 1 January 1990) прожиточный level in 1000 dollars per annum, below which must be not lowered nor one family. If and when government on objective reason can not provide such families, that UNO renders him help through their own public funds. The Objective reason in international right are considered wars, epidemics, natural disasters. If objective reasons no, that guilty government, and it carries get fat international liability. He can refuse in international confidence, accuse of breach of the human rights, declare the boycott.
2.Political and economic reforms 1985-1991 gg.
The Groth negative trend in society has brought about that that country in medium 80-h years turned out to be on galley proof of the serious economic crisis. The Position in country has put(deliver)ed the society before need of the radical realignment of all sides to lifes.
First hardly invisibly, then all сильнее become be marked new phenomenas, processes, доселе little predictable. Started to speak of priority общечеловеческих valuables. Ended nearly десятилетний period of stay of the soviet troopses in Afghanistan, began the revising of the relations to this war. The Mass-meetings, demonstrations, incendiary speech, strikes. Meeting the leader of the country with president and leader of the other countries. Creation first informal organization. The flags взвиваются In national republic with national symbology. The agreement is Concluded about destruction integer class of the nucleus weapon - a rockets to average range.
Publicity is Proclaimed. The Press is gradually polarized. Party managament one for other abandon the people, decennial event found beside the authorities. Stops muffling west radio station. In everyday life enter such notions, as "free election", "многопартийность", "human right", "freedom of speech". Painfilly goes searching for of the ways of the ascent of the economy of the country. Become deserted the shops, stop the enterprises, appears the unemployment.
1.Общественно-political life of the country /1985-1991 gg./
At March 1985 on внеочередном plenum CK Secretary generals CK KPSS was elected by M.S. Gorbachev. The Initial period to activity new managament was charaterized by the attempt to modernize the socialism. This was shown in decisions april (1985.) The Plenum CK KPSS, XXVII convention KPSS (1986), XIX партконференции (1988.).
XIX партконференция was voiced for reform of the political system in USSR, which essence was concluded in that to completely unmount the totalitarian political mode, restore the полновластие of folk; radically reconstruct the soviet multinational state, form and provide the warranties многопартийности and political плюрализма.
The Strategic purpose of the realignment of the political system was shown shaping legal state and civil society, where will is provided верховенство law and equality all before law, where is guaranteed right and liberties each person, where person and state will emerge the equal subject of the right.
At March 1989 for the first time free election took place in USSR. On I and II Convention public deputy has occurred the registration an депутатских faction. III Convention public deputy USSR (1990) for the first time in histories of the country entered the job title of the President USSR as chapters executive authorities, him was elected by M.S. Gorbachev. The Convention has cancealled 6-yu item to Constitutions, which legislative bolted the managing role KPSS in Soviet state. Cancelling 6-ouch item promoted the activations to activity new political party. The First, оппозиционной KPSS party has proclaimed itself "Democratic alliance" at May 1988 On the first stage of the realignment (first three years of the realignment) by the most most important element to political life became constantly enlarged publicity. In 1990 she has got the legal base - a SUPREME SOVIET USSR has taken the law about seal and other mass media.
The Essential element to public life become election new organ of power in republic. In 1989-90 gg. republics have taken the declarations about its sovereignty, about верховенстве republican laws on union, about entering the job titles president. At March 1990 supreme authority authorities - a Convention public deputy has elected россияне. Since May 1990 Chairman of the SUPREME SOVIET to Russia became Elicin B.N. the June 12 1991 in Russia passed the всенародные an election first President - Elicina B.N.
The Springtime-summer 1991 in located near residence of the President USSR New-Ogareve passed the counsels of the chapters of the republics. There was is signed agreement "9+1", which adjusted the relations between the centre and republic. Signing the agreement was marked for August 20. However, attempt of the coup d'etat , undertaking group of the vips on August 19, has changed the situation. Practically, all republics have declared about its independance and independence.
V Extraordinary convention public deputy USSR (the September 1991) has declared the connecting period for shaping the new system of the state relations. The Supreme authorities became the SUPREME SOVIET USSR, which a part was formed from representatives of the republics. There was is created State Advice USSR, consisting of President and high executives of the republics.
At December 1991 in Minske were met leaders to Russia, Ukraines and Belarus. They have declared about cessation of the action of the Union agreement 1922, about creation Commonwealth Independent State (C.I.S.), in which entered 11 former union republics. (without load;embark;stevedore and Baltic state). The President M.S. Gorbachev has retired. USSR has stopped its existence.
On april (1985.) The Plenum CK KPSS, but then on XXVI convention to parties course was brought forth in 1986 on speedup social-economic development, which has failled. New in itself reform was brought forth absolutely In 1992. Essence of the economic reform - a transition from command-administrative to controlled market economies.
She expected :
1.Разгосударствление economy and liquidation монополизма.
2.Многообразие property categories and equality them before law.
3.Преодоление estranging toilling from facilities production and result of the labour.
4.Основным regulator to economic life must be a market, supply and demand, state develops and provides the realization large, strategic problems, selecting for this facility from budget.
5.Изменение priority in development of the economy, which must be oriented on person (on production not for the sake of production, but production for the sake of person) Realization economic reform.
At the beginning initially second half 80-h gg. were proclaimed different ways of the output from crisis. On II convention public deputy USSR at the end 1989 government has offered its program of the transition to "planned-market economies", calculated for 6 years. On the first stage (1991-1992) must was be realized complex of the emergency measures. It Was Expected use both директивные methods control, and economic levers, role which gradually was to increase. On втором stage (1993-1995) leading place was conducted economic method manual.
Aside from governmental, was a row of the alternative programs, including program межрегиональной депутатской of the group, which offered more radical measures : speed transition to market economies, for normalization consumer market and provision social защищенности toilling was offered create two sectors on market:
1.ввести cards and provide all necessary minimum of the products and goods on more low prices.
2.ввести free market (the commercial prices), which must was gradually enlarge.
The Convention public deputy USSR has confirmed the governmental program. However, already soon became clear that she does not act. The Position on consumer market усложнилось. In established situation government has urgently proceed with preparation integer package bill for the reason accelerate transition to controlled market economies.
On the third session of the SUPREME SOVIET USSR government has emerged with new program of the realization of the economic reforms (the lecturer N.I. Ryzhkov), in which appeared sharp increasing of the prices on products (on bread in 3 times) and on industrial goods with partial compensation.
the July 31 1990 took place meeting the President USSR M.S. Gorbacheva with Chairman of the SUPREME SOVIET RSFSR B.N. Elicinym, on which was reached agreement about development of the alternative program. Is created commission under the direction of academician S.S. SHatalina and G.YA. YAvlinskogo. The Commission has prepared общесоюзную "Program 500 days".
В than her(its) essence?
As first step was provided stabilization financial-money system. Herewith, the price on the centerpieces and goods was planned save on unchangeable level and only on measure of the stabilizations of the rouble they must were "be released" on group goods at conservation of the supervision on the prices on the other goods. The Authors of the program have clearly entered on period, what measures must be realized during each of them. This enabled to realize constant supervision for performing the program. In her were also studied carefullied questions разгосударствления and privatization of the economy, structured realignment facilities, foreign economic activity and exchange politicians, social protection of the population and etc.
At the beginning initially September 1990 session of the SUPREME SOVIET RSFSR has as a whole approved "Program 500 days" and has defined her(its) nachalo-1 September 1990 Then this program was stated on SUPREME SOVIETS USSR. Simultaneously, there was заслушан reports N.I. Ryzhkova about governmental program. Discussion has not brought about acceptance neither that, nor other program. On offer M.S. Gorbacheva was worked out united /компромиссная/ program though these program conceptual were not compatible.
the October 19 1990 SUPREME SOVIET USSR has confirmed the new variant of the program, got name "Main trends on stabilizations public facilities and transition to market economies". She carried total, not concrete nature, did not indicate the periods of the realization of the concrete measures. The Presidential program practically blocked "Program 500 days", has generated the conflict between the Centre and Russia.
More happy circumstanceses ed After suppression of the august putsch 1991 for turning to the market. At October 1991 on X convention public deputy RSFSR President to Russia B.N. Elicin has declared about realization of the program of the reforms, including либерализацию prices, privatization enterprise, making the happy circumstanceses for enterprise. However time was lost, and reforms have begun be realized with greater complications.
3. The External policy USSR 1985-1991 gg. With beginning of the realignment in external politician USSR have occurred serious change. In her(its) base легла philosophical-political concept, got name of the new political thinking.
This concept came from thesis about multiform, but interdependent and holistic world. In system interconnected state all global problems: nucleus disarmament, ecologies, medicine and etc possible solve only together, coming from confession:
but) of the priority общечеловеческих valuables before class, b) of the transition from confrontation to dialogue, as the main form of the international relations, in) деидеологизации international relations, g) of the strict respect of the right of each folk on free choice of its fate, d) of the understanding to impossibility of the military decision interstate dispute and importance of searching for of the balance interest.
In Statement M.S. Gorbacheva from January 15 1986, in signed by him Deliyskoy declarations /ноябрь 1986 /, in appearance on XXVII convention KPSS was emphasized confession by soviet manual of the priority общечеловеческих valuables on class, adherence to new political decision, peace permit conflict, disarmament.
The New deal external politicians, including to its ally in East Europe, has brought about wreckage communist mode in Hollow, Hungaries, Czechoslovakias, GDR, Rumynii, Bulgaria, to association of the Germany, to disinteration of the organizations "Varshavskogo Agreement" and Advice Economic Vzaimopomoschi. The most Most important event become: output of the soviet troopses from East Europe, and from Afghanistan.
Central стержнем soviet external politicians continued to remain the soviet-american relations. Several meetings M.S took place For these years. Gorbacheva with president USA R. Reagan and Dzh. Bushem. The agreement was signed In 1987 about liquidations of the rockets average and smaller range. Summer 1991 was signed agreement on significant reduction of the strategic offensive armses. New initiative were changed Through several months parties in the field of disarmaments.
At March 1989, during visit M.S. Gorbacheva in PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA were normalized soviet-chinese relations. At the beginning initially 1991 during war in Persian bay USSR along with country world community has convicted the actions Iraq. Summer 1991 for the first time on annual meeting leader to seeds of the leadinging countries of the world was invited and soviet President. At October 1991 USSR participated in functioning(working) the international conference on adjusting the position on the NEAR EAST. After liquidation at December 1991 USSR began the process of the diplomatic confession of the former soviet republics country world community. USSR has broken open ice to international confrontation, has emerged the leader of the global realignment of the international relations, meaning completion "cold war."
The world political and economic situation on the beginning of the twentieth century. The formation of the alliances between the European states as one of the most important causes of World War One. Nationalism and it's place in the world conflict.
статья [12,6 K], добавлен 13.03.2014
The history of Russian-American relations and treaties. Rise of the British Colonies against the economic oppression of the British as the start of diplomatic relations between Russia and the USA. The collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War.
контрольная работа [14,1 K], добавлен 07.05.2011
The totalitarian regime of control by the Soviet Union: destruction of the moral code of society, changing the mindset of people. The destruction of people during the Great Terror of Stalin's regime. The concept of "blind ideology" and "national fear."
реферат [17,5 K], добавлен 09.05.2013
History is Philosophy teaching by examples. Renaissance, French Revolution and the First World War are important events in the development of the world history. French Revolution is freedom of speech. The First World War is show of the chemical weapons.
реферат [21,6 K], добавлен 14.12.2011
The Historical Background of Cold War. The Historical Context. Causes and Interpretations. The Cold War Chronology. The War Years. The Truman Doctrine. The Marshall Plan. The Role of Cold War in American History and Diplomacy.
дипломная работа [53,5 K], добавлен 24.05.2003
The most important centers of the Belarusian national revival. Development of public libraries in Byelorussia. Value Hlebtsevicha as a great researcher of library science, his contribution to development of network of free libraries in Byelorussia.
статья [8,2 K], добавлен 14.10.2009
Features of the socio-political situation of the Kazakh people after the October Revolution of 1917. The creation of KazASSR in 1920, its internal structure of the state system, main stages of development and the economic and industrial achievements.
презентация [1,2 M], добавлен 01.03.2016
Biographical information about the life of Soviet and Azerbaijani state, party and political figure Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev. Becoming a political career and work as Russian President Vladimir Putin. Angela Dorothea Merkel is a German politician.
реферат [24,6 K], добавлен 20.10.2014
The Spanish Empire as one of the largest empires in world history and the first of global extent. Seaborne trade. Broken Spain and England's relations. The main reasons of war. Some main facts about the Spanish Armada. The first colony of England.
творческая работа [8,9 M], добавлен 13.01.2016
Imperialism has helped countries to build better technology, increase trade, and has helped to build powerful militaries. During 19th century America played an important role in the development of military technologies. Militarism led to the World War I.
контрольная работа [20,2 K], добавлен 26.01.2012