Regional issues in Kazakhstan: a viewpoint how to solve them
Analysis of the problems of the regional economy in Kazakhstan, development of recommendations to improve the situation. Proposed economic mechanism to stimulate the development of territories. Introducing of the effective model of corporate economy.
|Рубрика||Экономика и экономическая теория|
|Размер файла||24,2 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Regional issues in Kazakhstan: a viewpoint how to solve them
Nurasheva K., Lutfullaeva R.
The purpose of research - analysis of the problems of the regional economy in Kazakhstan, development of recommendations to improve the situation. The study is based on the use of statistics, sampling the necessary information, the system analysis.
It has been shown that the development of territories is constrained by weak leverage of local governments on the regional economy. Many socio-economic problems can be solved at the level of local authorities without the intervention of national governments.
These problems in the article are characteristic of many post-Soviet countries. Featured experience and recommendations of the authors may be useful for countries with developing economies.
Marked goals of the first and second order to achieve sustainable development of the territories. It changes with the exploitation of natural resources, capital investment lead to scientific and technological progress, the development of personality. They are designed to meet human needs.
Proposed economic mechanism to stimulate the development of territories, it is recommended at the local level to carry out marketing researches of the internal market, the market launch of municipal securities, to introduce a model of corporate economy.
Local authorities are more advisable to enlist the support of the population, must be a positive resolution of problems.
Keywords: regional economy, sustainable development, economic mechanism.
The economic crisis of the global economy has exacerbated the problem of sustainable development of regional systems, the functioning of which is highly dependent on the state of international financial parameters (exchange rates, stock market dynamics, the life cycle of a particular industry). Under these circumstances, some regions of Kazakhstan faced with significant socio-economic problems due to declining prices for export mineral resources, depending on the financial inflows from the state budget. Therefore, it is necessary to achieve sustainable development of the regions.
Sustainable development (English sustainable development.) - It is economic and social change in which the exploitation of natural resources, the use of the investment, scientific and technological progress, the development of the individual and institutional change consistent with each other. They strengthen the current and future potential to meet human needs. Policy for sustainable development of the regions must be solved on the basis of objective, efficient models, criteria and the development of mechanisms that take into account the unevenness and asymmetry in the development of the regions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS OF RESEARCH
Analytical tools used in the regional economy, is divided into two classes: 1) methods of regional economic analysis; 2) mathematical models. In the first method for the allocation of the main objects and aspects of the analysis considered the scheme of functioning of the regional economy (including three interconnected blocks, "economy", "people", "natural environment") and the scheme of economic relations in the region in the national and global economy. The unit of the regional unit "economy" is largely dependent on the organization of the national economic system. For example, in Russia market economy changed the nature and strength of the connections between the elements of a regional economic mechanism and the external environment (the federal regulatory system, the economies of other regions and world markets). In Kazakhstan, the picture is different: with the acquisition strengthened the independence of the internal and inter-regional relations, formed a new international relations with different countries, regions relations with the republican structures are added to a new level as a logical chain managers.
I must say, the content and structure of the regional statistics does not sufficiently reflect the underlying market processes in the economy, to enable experts to study the real state of affairs and to make forecasts. Despite this, the authors used various tools of regional analysis - Data statistical compilations "Regions of Kazakhstan", articles and reviews about the experience of regional development abroad, sampling methods necessary information, data grouping, logical analysis. To study the problems of the sampling methods used its grouping, analysis, comparison of the number of periods. Methods of research allowed to see an objective picture of regional development, to highlight the experience of solving problems on the example of one of the regions.
THE SYSTEM OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION
How was the sustainable development system in the world can be seen from the table . Sustainable regional development is, above all, the stability of operation of the regional socio-economic system in the conditions of influence of various factors, including the possible threats. We believe that the stability of the region's development should also include the possibility of removing the competitive advantage of the situation.
Table - The main stages of the regional dimension of sustainable development
The first United Nations Conference on Human Settlements
Adoption of the Declaration, which sets out the basic features and solutions to implement an effective policy of human settlements development, taking into account local conditions, historical and cultural heritage, in compliance with the rights and needs of the most vulnerable groups of the population
WHO has proposed a project "Healthy Cities"
By the project during its existence joined more than a thousand cities around the world, supporting the idea of a healthy lifestyle in an urban environment
Publication of the European Commission "Green Paper", dedicated to environmental issues
The main sources of pollution were recognized European cities, the decision indicated the problem was handled by the local authorities, the measures proposed landscaping
June 1990, Toronto (Canada
International seminar on "Human settlements and sustainable development"
In 1992 he published the works of the seminar entitled "Sustainable Cities", which highlights results of the analysis of the environment in urban areas the major regions of the world in the 80s. XIX century
World Congress of local authorities for a sustainable future
It founded the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, which includes representatives of more than 200 cities from 42 countries. Today it is one of the largest international organizations, which represents the interests of local authorities, which allows it to work together to solve environmental problems, social protection, sustainable development of region
European conference on sustainable cities
Adopted Charter of European cities "Next to sustainability", which was signed by representatives of 120 cities. The main goal of the campaign - to develop local environmental actions aimed at the sustainable and dynamic development of cities
Second Conference on the Sustainable Development of small and large European cities
The first results of the program. More than 240 cities supported the campaign "European Cities for Sustainability" and signed the Charter
corporate regional economy
For example, in the case of devaluation of national currency signs of a regional system can enhance stability through rapid creation and revitalization of the import-substituting industries. Negative business amendments in the Tax Code can be turned into a competitive advantage through the active support of small business, operating under the simplified system of taxation.
Invert the negative factors in the competitive advantages can also be through a mechanism of risk insurance: for example, the oil companies can insure against a possible drop in oil prices by acquiring the stock market futures or options that will sell oil at a fixed minimum price. In this case, the region's oil company loses the current level of profitability, but growing level of stability of their own development and sustainable development of economy and social sphere of the region (will not be layoffs, no income taxes to the regional budget, etc.).
The transition to sustainable development requires, in our view, to eliminate such negative trends, such as: low income of some part of the population; a large proportion of self-employed; increase in consumer prices and inflation; slow growth of industrial output; low competitiveness of some domestic goods. Currently, the inefficient use of internal reserves and resources in some regions due to both insufficiently objective assessment of the economic potential of the regions, and a mismatch of modern control measures interests of long-term development of territories.
Putting it possible to implement the idea of ??sustainable development in the regions, we assume the possibility of evolutionary development of territories on the basis of the existing data on the time of organizational and economic mechanisms of management. Perhaps the emergence of a fundamentally new organizational systems within the information society. But, first of all, you must determine the goals of sustainable development. This approach is appropriate in the framework of strengthening the independence of the regions, find ways to reconcile the interests of the market and a socially oriented economy.
The objectives of the first order are targets for the well-being of people, consumption (private and public), public health, education, culture, housing, etc. The achievement of these goals contributes to the development of production, objectives in the field of mining and processing industry, agriculture, energy, construction industry, etc.
Actions to ensure that the resources of industry and technology (search for and development of mineral resources, exploration and exploitation of water, land, forest and other resources) meet the objectives of the second order. We think that the scheme set out objectives in the interests of regional development, regardless of the degree of capitalization or the socialization of the economy.
Implementing sustainable development ideology implies, in our view, the implementation of many specific functions caused social orientation, environmental restrictions and special expertise. Therefore, it should be defined "niche", which will operate the organization, oriented not for profit and the choice of profitable activities (eg, markets or restaurants), and to perform the functions of certain regional communities and the full responsibility to the people for their performance.
Therefore the structure of regional authorities should actively create a more small and medium-sized businesses that use of tax incentives, subsidies, economic incentives mechanism; up companies, a new type of business structure, other non-profit organizations for the implementation of regional programs.
It is advisable to start the mechanism of self-regulation, to design an integrated structure of vertical and horizontal type, the subjects of the various forms of farming, industry clusters, financial flows. The vertical structure of relationships leading place taxes at all levels in the structure of the horizontal relations - supply contracts, outsourcing, partnership, etc.
What is the position of the regions?
It should be noted that the new trends in the global world, to strengthen the role of the information society are changing our lives. Power becomes dependent on information. Of course, the capital remains the most important component of the production. At the same time gradually becomes expensive raw materials, precious and rare natural resource. Experts predict that in the future the time will be more valuable resource than talented employees.
Mobility and the global economy leads to the fact that in Kazakhstan, as well as worldwide, the workforce is increasingly characterized by the diversity of languages, cultures and value systems increase the maturity of civil society, increasing influence of NGOs. More effective are new factors: medicine, strong educational system, the development of science. Formed competent bureaucracy. In this situation, search for innovation leaders and managers of local power structures becomes element of success.
According to experts, the economic density is calculated as the amount of gross value added per unit area of ??the country, in Kazakhstan amounted to 40.4 thousand. USD., Which is considerably inferior to countries such as Hungary (1 466 thousand. Dollars.), Poland (1322 th USD.)., Russia (US $ 75.5 thousand..) . In this regard, for the regions is extremely relevant concentration of economic and human resources in economically advanced regions and favorable for the life of climatic zones, creation of conditions for the economic activity of market participants and the formation of internal economic space, integrated into the world economy.
For example, in such a densely populated region of the country as the South Kazakhstan Region (SKR), where 15.7% of the population during the years of independence of the region's GRP increased by 163 times, investment in fixed assets increased by 225 times. The unemployment rate fell from 12% to 5.7. According to the number of small and medium-sized businesses the region ranks first in the country [3, 4]. These achievements were the result of the implementation of state and regional programs, as well as a systematic approach to problem solving.
For all the country's area is of strategic importance, the unique advantages of the region - is a qualified labor potential, rich reserves of barite, coal, iron and polymetallic ores, uranium, phosphorus, bentonite clays, vermiculite, talc, limestone, granite, marble, gypsum and quartz sand. In the region operate 156 subsoil users, of which 13 - enterprises with foreign participation involved in uranium mining, gold, granite, gypsum and other raw materials [5
Benefits and preferences provided by the Roadmap business-2020, the State program of forced industrial-innovative development program "Agribusiness-2020", "Road Map bznesa 2020," Performance 2020 "and a number of other, permitted only in 2013 to create in the region about eight thousand new jobs. Still about two thousand industrial zone will create "Ont?stіk".
At the same time, the level of innovation activity of enterprises in the region of 7%, while in the country more than 11%. There has been a decline in the business community's interest in cluster development, small-scale production predominates in the agricultural sector, some plots of 2-3 hectares. Output is seen to create high-tech industries, to invest in the manufacturing sector. Here, the initiative should take up local authorities.
Regions of Kazakhstan has a strong uneven socio-economic development. Four regions - metropolitan areas of Almaty and Astana, Atyrau and Karaganda regions of sixteen provide about 50% of GDP. The share of the gross regional product of Mangystau region is 6.6% of the GDP of the country. In these regions, the main focus investment and other resources of the economy. At the same time, strengthening the non-uniformity of territorial development is a worldwide trend. 
What controls lead to success?
Experience of successful development of a number of countries shows that it is in terms of territorial concentration of production, capital and human resources in highly urbanized areas. Thus, in the present circumstances and location of the space ceases to be a minor factor in public policy and become an important vector of social and economic development of the country. Factors such as the growth of cities and agglomerations, increased mobility of the population, the development of trade and services, which served in the past two decades, the catalysts of progress in developed countries, is currently acting as the driving forces for developing countries.
Today, the development of territories is constrained by weak leverage of local governments on the economy. Meanwhile, many socio-economic problems can be solved at the level of local authorities without the intervention of national governments.
1. First you need to define indicators in regions that correspond to the indicators of global competitiveness, according to which Kazakhstan is positioning itself in the world. This allows you to monitor the situation in the regions and the country will reach higher positions in the world ranking of competitiveness. In the areas it would be appropriate to calculate the internal indicators such as demand for basic consumer goods, import and export, labor market efficiency by reducing the self-employed, the degree of development of new enterprise technologies, commercialization of research, competitiveness of local businesses, the cost of business structures. research and etc. for example, the question arises: what kind of indicator it is necessary to monitor the region to Kazakhstan improved its position on the indicator of "development of the financial market?".
2. Today, domestic entrepreneurs often do not conduct market research on the market of the goods, do not see effective ways to reduce costs, in addition to the establishment of low-wage employees and reduce staff. The fact that no one was seriously studying the demand, evidenced by the fact that shops, markets are filled with goods, some of which are unlikely to ever find the consumer. Unfortunately, some of our business to the pursuit of profit brings because every border of little use or goods that we could produce ourselves.
3. If we want to improve our lives, we should not invest money in the construction of the next toyhany (on this indicator area ranked first), and in the real economy. It may be said that we have no money for large-scale production. Yes, the individual entrepreneur can not. But we can come together to create an association, a partnership for the implementation of a specific project. Today, all rely on a budget, want to win the tender. Meanwhile, it is possible to combine private capital or to form a structure in the framework of public-private partnership. The local authority may take the initiative and professionalism in this. Interested private business people as possible by running the market municipal securities. This experience has been in the East Kazakhstan and Atyrau oblasts, Astana and Almaty cities. Securities available for investment projects of major breakthrough of great social importance for the region. Municipal securities can be provided tax strength of the local budget, as well as means of interested business structures. They should be attractive to the public, which serves as a "small investors" (shareholders and stakeholders), and subsequently receives dividends. It should be noted that the non-working population in the housekeeper money in Kazakhstan make up according to experts, about $ 150-200 million..
4. The development of the territory would contribute to the creation of the corporate economy. Involvement of the population in their capacity as shareholders, shareholders, co-owners of enterprises to invest socially important projects for the region to mobilize the population free cash. They will receive dividends and increase their revenues. Today, people have nowhere to invest, except for the deposit to the bank to put (deposits over the past year in South Kazakhstan increased by 17%). People's IPO attractive, but it is more suited to firms and households with higher incomes and the financing of local public projects clearer and dearer, they see firsthand how the construction of the object. The idea is that every inhabitant of the region is the co-owner of what is on the territory, on the principles of equal and joint ownership. To dispose of the property and manage the contract are hired managers and specialists. Primary interests are, the population needs of the region.
5. Indicator for any territory - is the cost of living. In addition to the Providing modern communal facilities and benefits, it serves as an important indicator. However, according to last year, half of the country's regions have a real income per capita is below average. Of course, the situation is improving active employment measures, which are conducted by the Ministry of Health and Social Development.
However, hidden unemployment and informal employment are taking place. Examination of the structure and composition of the self-employed as an example of SKO (Statistics 514 thousand. pers.) has shown that this category of people has virtually no retirement savings. Basically, it works the piece, where the payment without a permanent job guarantees and social benefits. In the future they will create problems to the state in terms of social protection.
For many years there was a migration from the countryside to the cities. Former villagers make inefficient and poor stratum of the population, which generally leads to a reduction in the quality of economic space in the region. A person is considered self-employed if there is income. If you have income, you have to pay tax. However, the number of payers of income tax from natural persons and the number of employees in Kazakhstan are not the same away. Для точного учета необходимо ввести всеобщее декларирование доходов и расходов. Government tasked in 2018 to cover the pension system, 40% of self-employed. Good intentions, decrease poverty. This is necessary to reduce the size of the shadow economy and the adoption of measures to reduce hidden unemployment.
6. The strategic objective of the local administration - show how the region compares favorably against other entities. Therefore we need systematization of "growth points" (the real economy, clusters, venture capital, risk of new business structures, etc..). Local authorities should no longer enlist the support of the population. informing the public good delivered in Kazakhstan that is done or decided Akim, but the approval of the population support is not required, go to the top ready-made solutions.
In addition, you need a positive resolution of problems. Most workers / performers of regional bodies engaged in responding to the current, sometimes crises. Monitoring is carried out rarely. Today, careful observation of actual developments. It should be made aware of what the local government carries out reforms and that it will give to the population. The estimate of the final result of the regional management should be reached on the social standards of budget sufficiency for 1 person.
Breakthrough areas in regional development in the future are:
· Promote a territorial concentration of resources in the "points / growth poles', economically promising and favorable for living areas;
· stimulating the development and controlled urbanization and agglomeration in order to implement in the major cities of scale of production and the formation of the foundations of an innovative economy;
· Efficient use of resource potential of each region, its competitive advantages, the formation of appropriate specialization of regions in the national division of labor;
· The linkage between long-term placement of engineering infrastructure (transport, energy and water supply) with the placement of the productive forces and the resettlement of the population;
* modeling of the optimal scheme of resettlement of the population and location of community facilities aimed at increasing the inflow of unemployed people in promising regions and to ensure equal access of people to the state-guaranteed social services, especially in rural and remote areas.
Kazakhstan, like many countries in the world, is looking for forms and methods of rational connection interests of the state and its territorial entities . The issue of formation of local self-government as a potentially powerful mechanism for municipal development in Kazakhstan only begun to realize the scientific community and the authorities as a significant. Since the scope of local government is an integral part of today's economic reforms, reforms in this area should be directed primarily to the need for effective regional economy. Regional economy should provide a self-sufficient level of welfare of people living in territorial units.
1. Skotarenko OV The problem of sustainable development in Russia and abroad. Messenger Bauman, Volume 14, №1, 2011, s.34-37. http://vestnik.mstu.edu.ru/v14_1_n43/articles/06_skotar.pdf
2. The population of the world. Accommodation and migration. Urban and rural population
4. On the socio-economic development of the South-Kazakhstan region. Akim report for 2015. The newspaper "Southern Kazakhstan", 14 February 2016.
5. Economic analysis and development priorities of the South Kazakhstan region. Shymkent, "Nurly Beyene", 2013. - 256s.
6. Socio-economic development of the South-Kazakhstan region. Shymkent, 2016 - 73c. www.ontustik.stat.kz
7. Regions of Kazakhstan. Internet resource Statistics Committee of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. www.stat.gov.kz.
8. Target scheme for spatial development of the country until 2020. The Republic of Kazakhstan President's Decree of 21 July 2011 № 118.
Размещено на Allbest.ru
A variety of economy of Kazakhstan, introduction of the international technical, financial, business standards, the introduction to the WTO. The measures planned in the new Tax code. Corporation surtax. Surtax reform. Economic growth and development.
реферат [27,2 K], добавлен 26.02.2012
Evolutionary and revolutionary ways of development of mankind. Most appreciable for mankind by stages of development of a civilization. The disclosing of secret of genome of the man. Recession in an economy and in morality in Russia. Decision of problems.
статья [12,1 K], добавлен 12.04.2012
Short and long run macroeconomic model. Saving and Investment in Italy, small open economy. Government expenditure and saving scatterplot. Loanable market equilibrium in closed economy in the USA. Okun’s Law in the USA and Italy, keynesian cross.
курсовая работа [1,6 M], добавлен 20.11.2013
Concept and program of transitive economy, foreign experience of transition. Strategic reference points of long-term economic development. Direction of the transition to an innovative community-oriented type of development. Features of transitive economy.
курсовая работа [29,4 K], добавлен 09.06.2012
Socio-economic and geographical description of the United states of America. Analysis of volumes of export and import of the USA. Development and state of agroindustrial complex, industry and sphere of services as basic sectors of economy of the USA.
курсовая работа [264,5 K], добавлен 06.06.2014
The first stage of market reforms in Kazakhstan is from 1992 to 1997. The second phase is in 1998 after the adoption of the Strategy "Kazakhstan-2030". The agricultural, education sectors. The material and technical foundation of the medical institutions.
презентация [455,3 K], добавлен 15.05.2012
Issues about housing prices formation process. Analytical model of housing prices. Definition a type of relationship between the set of independent variables and housing prices. The graph of real housing prices of all Russian regions during the period.
курсовая работа [1,6 M], добавлен 23.09.2016
The stock market and economic growth: theoretical and analytical questions. Analysis of the mechanism of the financial market on the efficient allocation of resources in the economy and to define the specific role of stock market prices in the process.
дипломная работа [5,3 M], добавлен 07.07.2013
Investments as an economic category, and their role in the development of macro- and microeconomics. Classification of investments and their structure. Investment activity and policy in Kazakhstan: trends and priorities. Foreign investment by industry.
курсовая работа [38,8 K], добавлен 05.05.2014
The major structural elements of economic safety of a national economy branches. The structural analysis of economic activity. Share of wages in ВВП, of productivity of Russia and western countries. The essence of the economic taxes and their purpose.
статья [166,3 K], добавлен 12.04.2012