Preconditions of non-standard employment in the eu and ukraine: comparative analysis
Comparative analysis of non-standard forms of employment in the EU and Ukraine. Legal regulation of labor relations on the basis of differentiation. Non-standard types of employment, such as temporary management, casual work, ICT-based mobile work.
|Рубрика||Экономика и экономическая теория|
|Размер файла||39,3 K|
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Demand for temporary workers as certifying Hausman (2001), depending on the size of companies, territorial location, seasonality of production, presence of trade unions, employee benefits system . Kanter showed that under the influence of evolutionary changes in socio-labor issues inherent in industrial society, a system of lifetime employment has changed complex contracts none of them include full and permanent employment . Handy has listed consistent renewal of contracts concluded for a fixed term in theories of organization and shamrock .
Native authors look for non-standard employment equally. E.g. Biziukova  wrote that there are two types of labor trajectories that lead workers need to start working in unusual conditions: 1) downward mobility of labor, which is due to various causes subjective and 2) external factors. Subjective reasons include declining inability, unwillingness, indifference to rising skills that would help him/her to get the knowledge necessary to obtain decent work. The external include: business decline or knowledge application, family circumstances, lack of demand for narrow and specific skills, so on. This type of labor trajectory depends on certain life situations, which causes a person to agree to work in unfavorable conditions. The second type of trajectory can be described as adaptive mobility as the main criterion for the movement of workers as their high capacity for adaptation and conscious rejection of traditional values and legitimate labor standards. The second type includes workers who have employment opportunities at standard conditions of employment, but make their choice in favor of non-standard forms of employment deliberately, believing that it maximizes their profits. Zhadan noted , non-standard employment is reflected in the wider (non-standard conditions) and narrow interpretations (non-standard employment contract). Theoretical approach to the definition of standards is constantly changing depending on the particular socio-economic development. Postindustrial economy led to the formation of theoretical concepts of dual labor market «peripheral jobs» and «contract fringe».
The demand for new goods and services is innovation in the form of new technical, technological, organizational and administrative decisions as a characteristic of the informational economy, which defines demand for innovative employment. Such employment provides innovative type of workers, who are skilled, proactive, creative, working on international standards with the use of ICT, enterprising, high adaptive capacity broad outlook, likely to produce innovation and able to implement them in life [26-27].
Studying different models of innovation and employment, we should take into account such aspects as the type of national system of innovation. We can distinguish the following main types of national innovation systems: market (US and UK); Intercompany (Japan); Social Democratic (Scandinavian countries); Integration European (Germany, France, the Netherlands and Italy). Based on these innovative systems we can build relevant national employment models. The division is rather arbitrary; as any country can be attributed to a specific model has not in all respects. Thus, German model of innovative employment for some parameters are close to the European mainland, and the other close to the Japanese model. Formation of Japanese employment model of innovation is closely linked to the formal labor market institutions, as well as with informal institutions, values, non-corporate ideals. They define pattern attitude of the company's staff, high staff loyalty to the company, «quality circles», dependent on wages and seniority premiums are increasing, and the orientation of the labor market and intra-oriented social partners in cooperation.
If we compare the development of innovative type of employment in OECD countries, CEE and CIS, for the latter characterized by the following processes: high rate of job destruction and creation of new type of the private sector. Moreover, if the share of traditional flexible forms of employment (work for futures contracts and in part-time work and self-employment) remains fairly stable employment growth is based on «unearned» contracts or work performed without a contract. In the CEE countries in recent years an increasing number of fixed-term employment contracts, but their share is lower than in the EU countries (10%). So, the growth of the informal part of flexible employment in many CEE is .
Considering the Strategy for Sustainable Development «Ukraine-2020» can be seen the following trends. The main factors of the innovative transformation of employment is a multi-labor competition of employers and legal forms of cooperation; constructive trust between the social partners; deepening division of labor to the old and new technologies; specialization of scientific engineering and technological capabilities with access to relevant global staff certification; optimization of financial mechanisms to attract invention and rationalization; effective support for business innovation; activity of social innovations; national model of public policy innovation transformation of employment; investment appeal of human capital development and its implementation into the new forms of employment. It is assumed that most likely social innovations in employment in the future will be :
public-private partnerships to create jobs;
innovative forms of employment flexibility combined with social technologies of surveillance, recording and registration status, employment conditions and safety;
spread of outsourcing and staff leasing, outstaffing;
modernization of social dialogue in triangle «state - business - trade unions» in a broader format of «state - business - society»;
transition from the social support policy to active employment policy;
comprehensive continuous professional orientation program;
innovative technology transit youth into the labor market;
promotion of social and professional rehabilitation of unemployed;
programs the active involvement of economically inactive population;
voucher technologies in vocational training;
stimulation of professional and territorial mobility;
creation of innovative jobs, i.e. telecommunications based on the online communications, modernized home-based work and co-working.
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