Theoretical aspects of innovation policy enterprise
The basic concept of innovation policy of Ukraine. Developing a theoretical model of innovation as a business enterprise market economy. Proving that innovation policy is not possible without creating a financial base and support of foreign countries.
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1. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INNOVATION POLICY ENTERPRISE
Relevance of the topic lies in the global economy innovations were the most important factor of social reproduction, which determines the level of competitiveness of national economy and ensure sustainable economic growth.
The purpose of the course work is to develop recommendations for improving the state innovation policy in Ukraine in the context of an innovative model of the national economy.
Objectives: to explore the development and improvement of innovative policy of Ukraine, to develop a theoretical model of innovation as a business enterprise market economy, to prove that innovation policy is not possible without creating a financial base and support of foreign countries.
1.1 Basic concept of innovation policy
One characteristic of market economy policies - Food - aims to develop new products and technology, fields and methods of distribution, the strategy aims to create innovation. Either strategy of the company - based on the use of scientific and technological achievements in the organization, equipment and technology, that this strategy is aimed at power companies with complex innovation. Therefore, we can provide a definition of innovation policy of the firm.
Strategy innovation (or innovation policy) will combine the objectives of technical policy and investment policy and is aimed at introducing new technologies and products. Innovative policy firm focused on achieving future results through innovative process (stage research, the introduction of innovations in production and use of a new product in the market environment).
Develop innovative policy affects both conceptual and business, and organizational and procedural aspects of strategic business development and therefore implements its function through the general and functional management. [24, p.. 39]
Need to develop innovative policy spoken need for strategic management of innovation Noah activities. Therefore, innovation policy of the company should provide a coherent purposeful complex innovation to change any element of business.
Innovation policy - a form of strategic management, which you defines the objectives and terms of innovation activities agroindusment, aimed at ensuring its competitiveness and optimal use of existing productive capacity.
Innovation policy is part of the overall enterprise policy, which governs the interaction of scientific and technical, marketing, production and economic activity in the process of innovation. Management of this interaction should be based on certain rules and regulations that cover:
- Organizational, legal and other procedures determined procedure of forming innovation policy;
- Factors to be considered in the process of formation;
- The development of functional activities under prizes;
- Implementation of the mechanism of innovation activity;
- Methodological framework for assessing effectiveness of innovation activities;
- Adjustment mechanism for innovation.
Innovative policy suggests treatment in the innovation enterprise defines its objectives, areas, functions and organizational forms. [17, p. 24]
Innovation policy should take into account companies you features of the industry to which it belongs. This, in turn, implies the formation of the innovation in policy for ensuring the implementation of our strategy.
Strategy - a long-term development model organization that has been adopted to achieve its strategic objectives and takes into account the limitations in its provisions internal and external environment.
Innovation policy should take into account companies you features of the industry to which it belongsThis, in turn, implies the formation of the innovation in policy for ensuring the implementation of our strategy.
Strategy - a long-term development model organization that has been adopted to achieve its strategic objectives and takes into account the limitations in its provisions internal and external environment. [17, p. 26]
Innovation Strategy "for the opportunity" associated with the use of information and opportunities that arise in the external environment of the enterprise. A characteristic feature of this strategy is the lack of its own scientific and technical activities. This type of behavior is called "niche strategy" because the advantage is to find a special niche in the existing markets of goods and services, which is the consumer of unusual, but has different needs.
Overall objectives of innovation policy are to answer the question:
1. Which products and which markets should develop its enterprise activity in the future? Given the limitations of the environment.
2. With that innovation, what methods (projects, programs) will be achieved strategic goals?
3. In what extent and from what sources will the resources for strategic purposes?
4. As part of that organizational forms (traditional line-staff, matrix or design, or CDF management centers for each) is an innovative process in the enterprise?
5. With a management style with which the composition of staff and tools by which the goal is reached? (Pavlenko)
1.2 Principles and methods of innovation policy
Innovative processes, development of science and technology, current world economic trends led to the need to implement radical changes in management practices and organizational culture. The process of optimization of management by implementing appropriate innovative traditions and norms is a process innovation of management culture. Therefore, issues of innovation activities directly related to the complex analysis of general trends and patterns of innovation culture, detection of specific features of interaction with the environment of innovation implementation, and study the structure and construction behavior patterns that reflect different aspects of innovation policy.
The main role of innovation policy - definition and synthesis of the main elements of innovation, their operation, interaction and dynamics of the innovation process, harmonious work of the whole innovation system of the enterprise. The purpose of the policy innovation is the implementation of effective innovations in qualitative terms, improve the mechanism of activation of the necessary capacities in the innovation process. [2, c. 564]
Principles of formation of innovation policy - rules, the right behavior of la establishing the relationship between the development of the enterprise and its directions of innovation activity assets.
Innovation policy should ensure the implementation of strategic business objectives with regard to its presence them and potential resources available and taking into account the market situation. This innovative policy is not to blame rely on extrapolation method - a method of scientific knowledge at which there is dissemination of conclusions intermediaries by indicators, trends of some phenomena and processes on the other expected phenomena and processes. It is important to analyze trends, risks, opportunities, and some teamer situation that can change the position of enterprises in the competition. Furthermore, innovation policy should take into account the economic regulatory mechanisms cement and line up so as to ensure developed business ideas to achieve the objectives of the company and creating mechanisms for their implementation. To solve these problems it must:
- Be strategic in nature;
- To be inextricably linked to the market;
- Take into account the resource capabilities of the enterprise;
- Based on a systematic and deliberate approach to its formation;
- Ensure the continuity and comprehensiveness of innovation of the company, its coverage of all internal parts;
- Ensure the continuity of innovation policy and modern achievements of NTP.
Given these demands the formation of innovative policy should be based on the following principles: advantage strategic focus, focus on market demand, commitment, comprehensiveness, information security. [3, p. 82]
Features of the state innovation policy determine the specific features of national innovation model of development. The major objectives of innovation policy is to develop innovative business environment and the accumulation of innovative potential of the economy on the basis of such principles as initiative, interactivity, objectification.
Analysis of the evolution of mechanisms of state regulation of innovative processes allowed to separate three types of state innovation policy.
They differ in the purposes and principles of regulation, the significance of economic determinism, instruments, institutional and political system are determined by technological economy.
The first type of state innovation policy (implemented in England, France, USA, Germany) based on consideration of the innovation process as a set of separate stages, mostly used tools stimulating nature, management functions are divided between different institutions of regulation.
The second type of state innovation policy (most effectively implemented in England, France, USA, Germany, Japan, USSR) arising in connection with the formation of national innovation systems, provides extensive state involvement in providing innovative economic development, state encouragement of innovative partnerships between institutions and industry. Innovative activity is deeply institutionalized.
The third type of state innovation policy (implemented in the U.S., Germany, Japan) is aimed at forming a national innovation system linkages with other components of the economic system of the state, the accelerated development of international and cross-border cooperation.
Crucial to improving the efficiency of innovation has its supply of resources and institutional support. [14, p.. 67]
Key role in implementing innovation policies play methods of state regulation that is proposed to classify for 22 features, most important among which are: the sphere of influence, institutional framework, direction action, means of implementation, duration of implementation details and more.
Existing approaches to the classification improved by the introduction of such features as priority implementation, institutional framework, ontology, composition effects, correlation with other types of policies, the use of public resources [20, p.. 23]
The effectiveness of public innovation policy is determined by the ability to ensure the development of "growth poles" of the national economy and the influence of political, legal, economic, technological, informational factors that determine the possibilities of its intensification.
In developed countries, state innovation policy is one of the key factors to economic growth, it is highly efficient in solving the problems of society and creates conditions for increasing the efficiency of national innovation systems.
In modern conditions, increased competition, accelerating scientific and technological progress, the formation of specific environmental factors that affect the national economy, the importance for sustainable economic growth shall state innovation policy, which aims at forming an innovative model of economic development.
1.3 The role of state policy innovation and enterprise
innovation policy market economy
The State creates conditions for the implementation of innovative policies, influences the development of not only public but also private sector innovation.
The most important task of the state in innovation policy is a strategy that enables flexible changes in the proportions between the pace of scientific, technical and production potential.
A special place in the "direct" measures of state influence on innovation is taking those that stimulate the cooperation of industrial corporations in R & D and cooperation of universities with industry. The second of these forms of cooperation arises from the awareness of objective necessity, on the one hand, bringing advanced scientific ideas to the stage of their commercial release, on the other - creating conditions for the interest of industry funding of academic research. In this regard the state innovation policy perspective it is clear orientation, interest in the scientific novelty of industrial innovation. But in the interests of industrial companies, who decide, first of all, industrial and commercial tasks it all goes by the wayside. [21, p.. 239]
A characteristic feature of innovation policy is also latitude influence on the supply of innovative ideas, which creates the initial demand for the results of innovation processes, to involve in business innovation financial-credit facilities and information resources for innovation creates a favorable economic and political climate. Finally, a common feature of innovation policy - accounting features of the innovation process: its cyclicality, split into stages, a high degree of risk, etc.
In Ukraine, during the transformation period was carried out gradual reform of innovation policy, created a management structure that coordinates the innovative development of national economy.
Investigation of structure of the management of scientific and technological and innovation development, the characteristics of the financing of innovation and implementation of innovative individual programs targeting identified the main problems in the field of innovation processes in Ukraine related to: the imperfection of the legal and administrative support innovative development, lack of organizational and economic and financial support of the state innovation policy measures, including procurement, low flexibility of public administration and its individual components. [20. with. 22]
Without support from the state of domestic producers at the realization of innovative projects placed the economy on an innovative way is unrealistic. That the state should create conditions for the existence and continuous expansion of innovation by reducing the tax rates of innovative products and direct financial support for innovation and in other ways.
The purpose of state regulation of innovation policy depends on many circumstances and, especially, the degree of overall economic development. Classic set of objectives of state regulation of economically developed countries provide the following components: economic growth, full employment, economic efficiency, stable prices, economic freedom, a fair distribution of income, economic security, the balance of foreign trade relations. [11, p.. 168]
According to the Law of Ukraine "On innovation activity" , the main purpose of the state innovation policy is to create socio-economic, organizational and legal conditions for the effective reproduction, development and use of scientific and technical potential, to ensure implementation of modern environmentally friendly, safe, energy - saving technologies, production and implementation of new competitive products.
It also notes that state regulation of innovation activities carried out by:
- Identify and support priority areas of innovation state, sectoral, regional and local levels;
- The development and implementation of national, sectoral, regional and local programs;
- Creation of legal framework and economic mechanisms to support implementation of innovative projects;
- Establishment of a privileged taxation of innovative activity. [8, p.. 476]
Innovative policies are closely interrelated with scientific and scientific-technical policy, it includes state regulation of science and technological development in part designed to increase applied knowledge, and use scientific and technological achievements. Intersect each other, these two components of the state regulation does not cover each other completely, and have a number of specific objects and methods.
Innovation policy should be combined with the investment policy aimed at stimulating investment and simultaneously stimulates and innovation in the part in which investments are the basis for the materialization of innovations.
A developed economy is growing correlation innovation and structural policies. A possible way of public exposure is the stimulation of innovation through structural policies - support for high-tech (high technology) industries, encourage the development of traditional industries to new technical basis, to promote Phasing that stagnate, in order to shift resources in the area with a high innovative potential. At the same time encouraging innovation itself is a preference for new knowledge-based industries.
Innovation policy is not reasonably practicable in isolation from the industrial policy, which became one of the most important factors in demand for innovation by influencing the structure of ownership, firm size, concentration and distribution of productive resources, etc. [8, p.. 489]
The system of state regulation should also include export controls aimed at preventing the outflow from the country of innovation, first of all dual use technologies, to countries where their use could affect the safety of the world community.
Along with the strengthening of scientific and technical contacts with leading Western countries in the short term, Ukraine should intensify interaction with the new industrial countries, developing countries. Access to global innovative resources and markets innovative products has facilitated the country's active participation in international organizations innovative profile.
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