Mined-land reclamation in Primorsky territory

Study of the emerging soils and vegetation of technogenic landscapes of the forest-steppe zone and the zone of coniferous-broad-leaved forests. Dependence the stages of vegetation cover development on their position in the relief, composition of rocks.

Рубрика Экология и охрана природы
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 25.03.2018
Размер файла 17,2 K

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Mined-land reclamation in Primorsky territory

Today Primorsky Territory seeks to become one of leaders of social and economic center in the Asian-Pacific Region. In the same time all have to understand that successful development of Primorye region depends on that, how rationally and carefully we will use natural resources. According to official reports, the area of disturbed lands in the Primorsky Territory is 16,8 thousand hectares. 70,4% of the area disturbed lands is attributed to industrial facilities. The main way for brown coal mining in the Primorsky Territory is the opencast mining method. The major part of land allotments granted to the open-pit coal mine (over 40%) are covered by overburden dumps. Today these post-industrial lands remain virtually unused by agriculture and forest industries. Only insignificant portions of such lands undergo of reclamation. The vast majority of the rock dumps remain non-reclamated (up to 98%). As a result, a huge amount of waste rock, rock dumps overburden rocks and enclosing rock, non-recultivated industrial quarries and pits now occupy substantial area. These lands undergo natural pedogenesis and vegetation recovery. The result of these processes is mining landscape formation featuring environmental wedge with specific composition and development of edaphic and ecological functions [3, 4, 6]. It should be noted that we consider reclamation as a complex of procedures aimed at formation on the disturbed lands some territories (habitats, landscapes, fields of reclamation) with certain characteristics of economic and/or soil and ecological capabilities as provided for in respective working project for land reclamation [3].

Our study covered the soils and vegetation emerged on the external dumps of different age containing overburding and enclosing waste rock at Pavlovsky and Luchegorsky coal-mining open pits in the Primorsky Territory. In geomorphologic aspect the dumps were low ridges and were considered to be anthropogenic catenas at the stage of forming. The dumps selected into the study were similar in terms of relief and slope exposition. The rock material in the dumps differed in grain-size, mineralogy, and petrography [5]. Three stations were picked out on each dumps: eluvial (El) on the top, trans-accumulative (Transacc) on the slope, and accumulative (Acc) by the foot. The stations were chosen on the basis of topography and type of vegetation. Substantive-genetic classification of soils mane-made landscapes was applied in the study [3].

Gross compound of soil samples was defined by roentgen-fluorescent spectrometer Shimadzy EDX 800 (made in Japan) and organic matter content - on carbon and nitrogen elemental analyzer Flash 2000 (made in the USA). Determination of chemical characteristics of rocks forming dump was made by accepted methods [1].

The initial stages of soil formation are Embryozems initial. They are syngenetic phytocenosis stages of development. characterized by the almost complete absence of pedogenic differentiation into genetic horizons of the soil profile. [2]. Soil profile is represented by several layers that are usually different in density. Organogenetic layer is absent. Organic carbon content in soils annual is 0,1-0,2% of soil weight. Accumulative positions are the first to overgrow with pioneering vegetation. The phytocenoses on trans-accumulative positions in the first 1-3 years behind in its development from the stages of phytocenosis in accumulative positions.

Organo-accumulative Embryozems like initial are soils of the very first stages of evolution. Expressed biogenic characteristic organo-accumulative Embryozems that is genetic layer represented by ground litter and is diagnostic indicator [3, 5, 7]. Low development of pedogenesis processes is observed. On overburden dumps

of Luchegorsky fuel and energy complex there are primitive plant phytocenosis of pioneer type: Equisetum arvense, Sonchus arvensis, Calamagrostis langsdorffi, Artemisia umbrosa, Artemisia selengensis, Lathyrus pilosus, Lysimachia davurica, Vicia amurensis, Phragmites australis, Artemisia mandshurica, Elymus sibiricus Cirsium setosum, Chamerion angustifolium. Herbs may be rarely observed. Profile formula is О (0-1sm) + С1 (1-5sm) + С2 (5-10sv) + С3 (10-22sm) + С4 (22-70sm). Duration of this period is 3 - 18 years.

On overburden dumps of Pavlovsky coal-mining open pits this stage lasts 3-12 years. That means that in forest-steppe zone this period is shorter than in coniferous-deciduous zone.

Soddy Embryozems with complex grouping of vegetation are being formed on trans-accumulative and accumulative positions in forest-steppe zone after 10-12 years (on Luchegorsky fuel and energy complex after 13-15 years). Gley processes are frequently observed on accumulative positions. Soddy embryozems profile is expressly differentiated on biogenic (soddy horizon) and lithogenic (formula profile is Ао (0-1sm) +Ад (1-3sm) +С1 (3-17sm) + С2 (17-45sm) + С3 (45-100sm)). Profile has low differentiation in physical and chemical properties.

Humus-accumulative Embryozems with developed small capacity humus horizon are formed on dumps of Pavlovsky coal-mining open pits after 20 years under closed phytocenosis. Humus-accumulative horizons existing in humus-accumulative Embryozems along with ground litter and soddy horizon layer is common feature for all zones. Forming of this horizon is accompanied aggregation of substrate, differentiation of the soil profile chemical, physical and chemical and physical characteristics. Transient layers are difficult to define in morphologic examination.

soil landscape relief

20-year Embryozems of forest-steppe zone features in self-overgrowing

Depth, sm





mus, %

Gross content, % of tempered weigth











































































Though studied dumps situated in different soil and climatic zones, they all showed common features in the development. It was found out that in all zones evolution of developing soils progressively passed four main types of Embryozems: initial Embryozem - organo-accumulative Embryozem - soddy Embryozem - humus-accumulative Embryozems. The main factors contributing to the topsoil evolution were the surface topography, grain-size distribution and mineralogy of the rock, biological and climatic conditions of the natural zone, and the biogenic factor. Pronounced mosaicity (parcelarity) and small outlines of soil was detected in all zones, which are increased by more mature stages of the evolution of soils, as well as horizontal and slightly inclined surfaces.

Evolution of soil cover reveals itself in changing ratio of different Embryozems with time. Featured formed young anthropogenic soils newly formed horizons small capacity. As a rule, these horizons were of ogranogenic or organo-accumulative type. Rudimentary eluvial, illuvial, gleyed etc. horizons were way more seldom. Soil formation in man-made landscapes under different biological and climatic conditions was associated with different rates of organic matter accumulation (in forest-steppe zone it was higher than in taiga). A portion of Embryozems in late stages of development in soils of the forest-steppe zone was higher than in taiga ones. Taiga zone was characterized by prolonged stage of organo-accumulative Embryozems. Pioneered the overgrowth is ecologically adaptable species capable of withstanding extreme conditions existing in the anthropogenic environment. On the surveyed dumps there were no cenosis reflecting typical zonal vegetation found. Biological reclamation based on planting only homogeneous forest of alien species was ineffective. The process of natural reforestation was slow; therefore disturbed lands require combination of self-restoration of native vegetation and creation of artificial phytocenosis. At the same time, reforestation must utilize native tree species with respect to biological and ecological characteristics of the plants.


1. Агрохимические методы исследования почв. М.: Наука, 1975. - 656 с.

2. Андроханов В.А. Принципы оценки почвенно-экологического состояния техногенных ландшафтов / В.А. Андроханов, В.М. Курачев // Сибирский экологический журнал. - 2009. - Т. 16. - №2. - С. 165-169.

3. Андроханов, В.А. Почвенно-экологическое состояние техногенных ландшафтов: динамика и оценка / В.А. Андроханов, В.М. Курачев; отв. ред. А.И. Сысо; Рос.акад. наук, Сиб. отд-ние, Ин-т почвоведения и агрохимии. - Новосибирск: Изд-во СО РАН, 2010. - 224 с.

4. Полохин О.В. Гумусное состояние молодых почв техногенных ландшафтов / О.В. Полохин // Вестник КрасГАУ. - 2010. - №10. - С. 40-44.

5. Костенков Н.М. Почвы ландшафтов Приморья (рабочая классификация). - Учебно-методическое пособие / Костенков Н.М., Нестерова О.В., Пуртова Л.Н. и др. - Владивосток: Изд-во Дальневост. Ун-та, 2011. - 112 с.

6. Пуртова Л.Н. Запасы растительного органического вещества и процессы гумусонакопления в почвах техногенных ландшафтов на юге Приморья / Л.Н. Пуртова, Л.А. Сибирина, О.В. Полохин // Фундаментальные исследования. - 2012. - №3-3. - С. 535-538.

7. Сибирина Л.А., Полохин О.В., Жабыко Е.В. Начальные этапы формирования растительного покрова на техногенных экотопах Приморского края / Л.А. Сибирина, // Известия Самарского научного центра Российской академии наук. - 2012. - Т. 14. - №1-6. - С. 1539-1542.

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