Culture of India

Term culture of India. The History of India's culture. Attires in Indian culture and values. Family is about joy and sharing. Folk music and tradition is the rich heritage. Indian monuments and languages. Traditional Indian Clothing. People in India.

Рубрика Культура и искусство
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 14.02.2011
Размер файла 19,2 K

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india culture tradition values

1. Term culture of India

2. The history of India's culture

3. Attires in Indian culture

4. Values in India

5. Family Culure of India

6. Dance form in India.

7. Indian monuments

8. Traditional Indian Clothing

9. Indian languages

10. People in India

1. Term culture of India

Indian culture treats guests as god and serves them and takes care of them as if they are a part and parcel of the family itself. Even though we don't have anything to eat, the guests are never left hungry and are always looked after by the members of the family. Elders and the respect for elders is a major component in Indian culture. Elders are the driving force for any family and hence the love and respect for elders comes from within and is not artificial. An individual takes blessings from his elders by touching their feet. Elders drill and pass on the Indian culture within us as we grow.

“Respect one another” is another lesson that is taught from the books of Indian culture. All people are alike and respecting one another is ones duty. In foreign countries the relation between the boss and the employee is like a master and slave and is purely monetary whereas in Indian culture the relation between the boss and the employee is more like homely relations unlike foreign countries.

Helpful nature is another striking feature in our Indian culture. Right from our early days of childhood we are taught to help one another in need of help and distress. If not monetary then at least in kind or non-monetary ways. Indian culture tells us to multiply and distribute joy and happiness and share sadness and pain. It tells us that by all this we can develop co-operation and better living amongst ourselves and subsequently make this world a better place to live in.

Even though India is a country of various religions and caste our culture tells us just one thing 'phir bhi dil hai Hindustani.

2. The History of India's culture

Ancient civilization in India reveals marvelous facts about our heritage. It is a eye opener as to how kingdoms ruled and how people went about life in a logical way. Though medieval, it is actually amazing to find how people transacted and went about building dams and tended to the chief occupation which was agriculture. Dance and rituals were always a part of Indian culture and this was the chief mode of entertainment.

Indian culture is also about respecting elders, honoring heroes and cherishing love. It is a land of aspirations, achievements and self reliance. Indian culture has a very high level of tolerance and hence the advent of so many external cultures was not restricted. Adaptation to any culture or embracing a religion was always the democratic culture. Indian history is about war heroes during Indus valley civilization and the initial time when currency was coined. Indian history talks a lot about self reliance especially in terms of food and agricultural produce. This was the great effort put in by the farmers and support received through irrigation. The modern agriculture also shows a lot of indigenous methods of preserving the produce. The Chola dynasty, the great King Emperor Ashoka and the secular era of Emperor Akbar will always be green in our memory. Several books are written on the rich Indian culture wherein the saints preserved the Vedas and scriptures.

There are shlokas and mantras i.e. chants that can evoke positive energy and revoke enthusiasm in life. The rich culture of yoga as a part of life and the goodness of ayurveda has now got an universal lifestyle approach. Our roots are strong and despite the westernization and access to technology, the distinct Indianness is still maintained whilst celebrating Diwali or observing the Shravan fast. This is also believed to be a land of Lord Rama which is Ayodhya or the birthplace of Sri Krishna is considered as Mathura. The birth of Sikh religion and the reverence felt by all Indians is still intact. Indians are extremely secular and especially in the metros there is seamless blending of Indians during Xmas and Id.

3. Attires in Indian culture

Ethnic charm is exuded in simple outfits in India. The tropical climate is well adapted to the range of muslins and cottons. The mixed variety in cotton goes from viscose, polycot and also cotton silk which has a sheen of its own. Attires are very much about the region and climate. The Himalayan costume is suited for the environment where the dress is a blanket wrap in red and black secured with a ethnic pin. The ornaments or jewelry is a festive adornment with a big red bindi to complete the outfit.

The sari happens to be the most versatile drape with its amazing styles of draping and design. The sari is the traditional dress of India which also modifies as per material, drape and style with each region. This has also gone up to international drape style followed by ranking designers on the ramp shows. The chungari sari of the south has the tie and dye pattern that finds its counterpart in the bandhi print of Gujarat. There are embroidery types that seem to be the intrinsic talent of certain regions.

The cardigans and shawls are hand-woven from the North especially the Himachal and Arunchal belt. This displays the rich handicraft culture of India. The modernization in winter wear is seen with details like pockets, zippers, blends of fabrics and easy feel wear. The gota work of Rajashtan and Punjab is skilled golden zari strips woven or fixed on to the main garment like a sari or the dupatta. The most comfortable dress is the salwar kameez that radiates Indianness and is also comfortable.

The south Indian Kerala set-saree is the beautiful print in cream and golden which can be teamed with colored blouses. The navvari sari or the nine yard drape of Mahrasthra is usually found in leaf green color that is symbolic of the newly married bride. The colors also seem to be in mauve, red or blues and the sarees happen as Narayan peth, paithani and various other Belgaum prints.

4. Values in India

Tradition in India is about values that transcend down generations automatically. These are genetic traits and simplicity is the main ingredient. Ancient culture believed in a lot of dogmas and rituals that can be termed as false beliefs and Indians are an intelligent lot to traverse these paths and modify the social requirements. Indians are highly flexible in the sense they would like to imbibe the changes dictated by western influence and yet clearly affirm their belief in traditions.

It is customary to respect elders and touch their feet as to seek their blessings. Occasions or festivals demand a lot of participation in terms of rangoli drawing, diyas and an array of yummy treats made in the authentic variety as per the caste and geography. Hindu rituals are a lot about song and dance and each family has a natural way to adjust to these formats. It is a ritual to pray to the Goddess of learning Ma Saraswathi to achieve success. Similarly business people always insist on drawing the Swastika which marks prosperity and worship the Goddess of wealth.

With the advent of technology and women emancipation there is a trend to mingle free with the western concepts of dress, belief, work and also get into a secular concept. But one can feel a distinct Indianness and most of our brethren abroad miss their homeland. Indians all over the world are known for their hospitality and high level of tolerance. Their adaptation power is high and hence they are able to scale heights in the international arena. Putting oneself on the global map, Indians are seeking new vistas of communicating their beliefs and tradition. The gift of health and well being through yoga and meditation is a great source of Vedas in the rich Hindu tradition which has actually benefited the world.

5. Family Culture of India

Family is about joy and sharing. In India, the family culture is all about love and patience. A girl weds into a family and adjusts herself seamlessly to the rituals, routine and cuisine. Of late, one can see a lot of love marriages i.e. cross border mingling which is also being accepted by the elders in the family. Association with religious beliefs and sects is also followed by families as many families believe in a particular Guru or saint who guides them in their spiritual path. Families are also getting nuclear owing to independent lifestyle preference and also the concept where in both husband and wife is working and has demanding careers. This is quite common in metros where families are independent in their upbringing and yet love and respect the elders who reside separately. The earlier homes housed themselves together in very large families where one can actually see three or four generations put up together.

Certain families observe a matriarchal concept i.e. the groom resides in the house of the bride or also follows a tradition as per the bride's ancestors. Generally India is patriarchal in the sense the children get the surname of the father and the wife changes her surname to follow that of the husbands. It is also a tradition in certain families that the wife changes her maiden name but again this concept is also changing. Indian families are very accommodating and willing to accept change. It is a concept to observe the karva chauth or the raksha bandhan with great aplomb. There is an occasion for gifting and seeking the blessings of elders. It is important to respect and hold certain family traditions which are unique in terms of cooking, rituals and beliefs. Families give a lot of importance to lighting the diya in the evening and also each person in family has a habit of doing the puja in his own way.

Metros are also seeing a lot of family value in celebrating birthdays and anniversaries by observing the rituals and also entertaining outdoors. The Indian culture has imbibed the right mix of western influence and yet maintaining the ethnic family tradition. There is more love in every family while blowing candles on the birthday cake and also lighting the diya to observe an Aarti for the birthday person.

6. Dance forms in India

Folk music and tradition is the rich heritage of modern India. Despite the advent of technology, open communication and developments in all fields, the area of fine arts still gives a proud picture of our India. Dance is a part of celebration and is the intrinsic part of Indian glory. There are folk dances which are distinct and distinguished as per the geography. This also calls for a lot of make up talents and attire which only enhances the beauty of the dance and song.

The ghumar dance of Rajashtan is a lot about rotation and typical palm movements. The ghungrus and the ghungat impart more style to this type of dance. The Lavani of Maharasthra is now being revoked by sincere people and the type of dance is now again getting traditional in its concept without being polluted by other influences. The gharba dance which was a form of raas by the gopis and Krishna is now being followed in all parts of India. There is enough commercialization in the 9 day festival in metros and the participation is done on a wide scale.

The Manipuri and Oddissi dance is very ethnic in its concept. There are a number of folk dances which still happen in the villages where the authentic lifestyle of rural India is displayed. Dance is the main form of artistic entertainment along with folk songs and other influences that is brought in by cinema. Acknowledging the subtle distinguishing points, the essence of Indian dance form is pure and unique.

7. Indian monumens

Stories and legends are told about the great monuments in India. India has a vast culture, interesting facts and the revelations are marvelous. As one looks at the beauty of Taj Mahal, we can just see the love Emperor Shah Jahan had for his wife. The work of Ustad Isa Khan, the architect who designed this piece is exquisite. This is surely one of the best heritage sites in India.

Down south is the Meenakshi Sundareshwar temple which bears the Shiv linga which was worshipped by Lord Indra to absolve him from sin. The Meenakshi Sundareshwar temple is a granite form and has twelve gopuras. Gopuras are the traditional architectural towers in the south of India. There are several shrines with the primary two shrines of the main Shiva and Parvathy.

The Agra fort over the banks of Yamuna is another great place. The red stone colour is unique with the grandeur effect of architecture. Fatehpur Sikri was at its peak during the administration of Akbar. The tomb of Saint Sheik S Chisti, Jama Masjid, Bulund Darwaza are some of the monuments that are famous hers. The Konark temple, Hampi, Qutab Minar are other famous monuments in India.

8. Traditional Indian Clothing

Indian attire is as varied as it's subcultures. Just as each region has its own language, food and lifestyles, so also it has its own traditional mode of dressing. A half sari worn to college in the southern states would be subject to ridicule in the northern or western regions. Intermingling due to social changes and improvement in communication has managed to give India a pan-Indian look. People from all subcultures are slowly giving way to a more uniform form of dressing.

Men these days usually wear a trouser along with a shirt and women wear the sari or the salwar. Traditional clothes are still worn in traditional ceremonies or in the interior pockets of the country. Also more and more women are taking to western wear (the skirt and the pant, with shirts), specially the youth and people in large cities.Many Indian women wear earrings, nose ornaments and brightly colored bangles. Some paint a dot of color or apply a readymade Bindi, on their foreheads. The bindi is also a fashion statement and may be matching to the color of the dress or to the personality (large, small etc).

Six yards of cloth, that is all there is to the saree. Yet, this dress worn by millions of Indian women is, by far, the most elegant. It is not merely an outfit but an ornament, lending both grace and glamour to the wearer. More important, the saree epitomizes the continuity of an age-old tradition that has withstood the onslaught of many different cultures, to emerge today as a visible symbol of the resiliency, continuity and timelessness of the Indian way of life.

Each region displays a different style of draping it. This is shaped by the lifestyle and the religious inclination. The urban Indian style is by far the most common. Stiff tangails, flowing silks, elegant chiffons and heavy brocades - all of them can be easily maneuvered into this style. Tied around the waist, the saree forms a skirt with the pleats positioned in front thus allowing for free movement. The pallav or the part draped over the left shoulder is either pleated and pinned up the convenience, or is left flowing loose for glamour.

This seemingly cumbersome garment is in reality an extremely versatile, meaningful and adaptable one. It suits every possible occasion, every possible activity. Washing and cleaning, carrying firewood back from the forest in the anchal (pallav) or walking long distances, can all be easily executed in a saree.The saree is worn with a short blouse or a choli, covering the upper body. The blouse is also worn with a skirt called a lehenga or ghagra. A long scarf called a duppatta (aka orna, orni, etc.) is commonly found to be part of various dresses including the salwar- Kameej and Ghagra - Choli or the Half saree. Headgear is a prominent part of the Indian attire.

The ladies generally use the dupatta or the pallav (edge) of the saree to cover their heads. The men use turbans and caps of various types. The Muslims use a different cap (topi) from those in the northeast and the Sikh turban forms an essential part of his identity and is very different from the ones worn by others on festive occasions.

9. Indian languages

Languages are the beauty of India. With distinct boundaries, India seems to have many dialects, conversational linguistics and also scripts. It is interesting to note that certain languages like Tulu do not seem to have a written method. These must have evolved due to families cross mingling or speaking languages akin to the main language.

Over a period of time, dialects seem to be the formal tone of conversation in most families. A place like Punjab itself has various tones, words and mannerisms select to the place. The pind or the faraway villages have an authentic way to speak Punjabi which gradually changes as one reaches Haryana.

The urban kind of Punjabi has many words in English or Hindi and the tone is a bit away from the key language. Going to the east there are many languages like Oriya, Bengali, Assamese which for a onlooker may sound similar but there are distinct rendition in speaking the same. Due to the homogeneous nature of urban lands and cross state moving due to employment and academics, one can see many people adapting graciously to the regional language.

It is amazing to see a Tamilian speaking Marathi in Maharashtra or a Gujarati giving a verbal demonstration of his Tamil proficiency. There are other languages like Bhotia, Gondi, Chang, Konyak and Pawi among others which are non scheduled languages in India. Languages are owing to states and also the dialects get formed due to vagabonds or border situations. The Kerala Brahmins speak a language which is a mixture of Tamil and Malyalam. The rituals also resemble two cultures and yet the simplicity is maintained as per the heritage.

The Konkani spoken in Mangalore, Dharwad and Goa is different and distinct. Hindi being the official language of India the students have a natural skill to master the language. The scriptures are usually in Sanskrit and yet we find many Hindus speaking a confident expression in Urdu. Language schools are recognized even in the university level which enables us to learn other languages apart from our own mother tongue

10. People of India

Indian people are taught from their child hood to respect their elders. They are also very much attached to their family, not only their immediate family, but, all the near and dear ones. People of India are very hospitable. They welcome guests with an open heart. The phrase "Atithi Devo Bhava" is ingrained in them. So, the maximum chances are that you will have a very enjoyable time with the Indian people. Read on to know more about Indians:

India is probably the only country with the most diverse mix of races. People belonging to different religions, communities, casts and beliefs live in India, peacefully and in harmony. India is an amalgamation of the five major racial types. The five racial types, finding representation in India are:

· Australoid

· Mongoloid

· Europoid

· Caucasian

· Negroid

To find the exact origin of the Indian People is a task next to impossible. A number of ethnic groups exist among the people of India. The 6 main ethnic groups are as follows.

· Negrito

· Proto

· Australoids or Austrics

· Mongoloids

· Mediterranean or Dravidian

· Western Brachycephals

· Nordic Aryans

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