Passive house as advanced technology in XXI century construction
Description essentially "passive house". The basic construction methods, advanced technology and materials used in the creation of a Passive House. The main advantages of the Passive House. Analysis of the construction of Passive House in Belarus.
|Рубрика||Строительство и архитектура|
|Размер файла||18,2 K|
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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь
Белорусский национальный технический университет
Кафедра английского языка №2
на тему «Passive house as advanced technology in XXI century construction»
Конюшенко Екатерина Игоревна,
Дробова Полина Сергеевна
Imagine living in a comfortable, modern house with no cold drafts, no temperature variations from room to room, and, best of all, virtually no heating or cooling bills. It might sound too good to be true, but these cozy conditions are the norm for the people who live in passive houses.
Passive House is a performance based building standard that can result in a house that consumes as little as 10% of the total heating and cooling energy used by a house built to the 2006 building code. If you're an architect or builder, imagine the reaction you'll get from clients when you tell them that you can either build a house that uses energy by the dollar or one that uses it by the dime.
The main aims of our work are:
· To give the definition of the «passive house»
· To List the main construction methods and used building materials in the «passive house»
· To give the main advantages of «passive house»
· To analyze the development of «passive house» in Belarus
Over the last 20 or so years, engineers have worked on the developing of energy-efficient and sustainable concepts for buildings. The results of their research have produced many different forms of green construction, including, for example, straw-bale houses, low-energy houses, passive houses and plus-energy houses. passive house construction advanced
The passive house is a refinement of the low-energy house concept, and passive houses may be made from wood, solid components or may be prefabricated.
The Passive House standard was developed in Germany (where it's known as “Passivhaus”) in 1996 by physicist Wolfgang Feist, who was inspired by and fully acknowledges the influence of the groundbreaking, superinsulated houses built in the United States and Сanada in the 1970s. Today, many in the building sector have applied this concept to design, and build towards a carbon-neutral future. Over the last 10 years more than 15,000 buildings in Europe - from single and multifamily residences, to schools, factories and office buildings - have been designed and built or remodeled to the passive house standard.
Passive houses provide a comfortable indoor climate at any time of year without using conventional heating. They need only 10% of energy that a standard new building uses - good for the environment and the home-owner. Instead of traditional mechanical heating and cooling, passive houses use smart, time-tested heating and cooling methods like natural ventilation, solar heat gain and efficient insulation. Passive housing is effective for any building that uses energy - residential housing, offices, schools, supermarkets and factories.
Benefits of Passive House:
* Low Energy Use. Up to 90% less heating and cooling energy use, and 60-80% overall energy savings
* High Quality Indoor Air. Controlled ventilation for a continuous, consistent supply of fresh air
* Comfortable Indoor Temperature. 20єC/68єF (with no thermostat setbacks) in winter, night cooling in summer
* Operational and Construction Savings. Vastly reduced utility bills; elimination of conventional HVAC system; much smaller solar systems required to reach zero energy; durable, tight building shell for lower maintenance, etc.
* Proven Sustainability. 40,000+ buildings worldwide, some zero and even positive energy.
A passive house designs include:
1. Advanced window technology
Windows have exceptionally high R-values and usually combine triple-pane insulated glazing with air-seals and thermally-broken window frames.
2. Airtight construction
Air leakage through unsealed joints is less than 0.6 x the house volume per hour.
3. Lighting and electrical appliances
Low-energy lighting and high-efficiency electrical appliances minimise energy use.
4. Passive solar design
Buildings normally have a reduced surface area with windows facing the equator.
5. Space heating
Passive houses use intrinsic heat from internal sources - like waste heat from lighting, white goods and electrical devices, and people's body heat.
6. Super insulation
Thermal insulation materials reduce heat transfer through walls, roof and floor.
Mechanical heat recovery ventilation systems (with a heat recovery rate over 80%) and high-efficiency electronically commutated motors (ECM) maintain air quality and recover enough heat to dispense with conventional central heating.
While some techniques and technologies were specially developed for the Passive House standard, others, such as superinsulation, already existed, and the concept of passive solar building design dates back to antiquity. There was also other previous experience with low-energy building standards, notably the German Niedrigenergiehaus (low-energy house) standard, as well as from buildings constructed to the demanding energy codes of Sweden and Denmark.
There is wide range of materials available on the market, but some countries (especially Northern ones) still needs to be stimulated by importing for example good double windows. Building construction are usually multi-layered, previous single-layer brick walls are not effective for Passive house.
Building structures include:
· Massive walls - with high surface weight.
· Light walls - mostly wooden construction.
· Wooden structures
· Prefabricated wooden structures
· Masonry - Burnt clay, shaped from expanded concrete
· Reinforced concrete and etc.
Typical building materials are the following:
· OSB board - wood chip board, oriented strand board
· Gypsum board - finish construction of interior walls and ceilings
· Gypsum fibred boards
· Engineering wood - profiles, joints, plywood, boards
· Thermal insulations - for achieving thermal comfort, reduce of heat loss or gain
· Vapour barrier and retarders - resistant layer to prevent moisture in the building
The Belarusian Division of the International Academy of Ecology (BD IAE) also developed the idea of building natural, low-energy houses for the rural population and vulnerable groups needing housing after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. An international seminar was held to discuss the ideas in 1996 and a few demonstration houses were built.
A variety of house styles have been designed to allow for cultural acceptability. The simplest design is a simple wood frame that is in-filled with straw-bales. These can be built in two weeks and have a high level of insulation.
A four-story block of flats has also been built in Minsk. Starting in 1996 with a few demonstration houses, more than 150 two-story houses have now been completed. An allocation of US$5 million has been received from the Belarusian National Programme of Construction for the construction of 300 eco-houses in 2006.
The European Passive House 2010 conference took place in Minsk on 21 April as part of the Belarusian Construction Week special-purpose exhibition. The forum was aimed to cover the problems and prospects of energy saving housing construction in Belarus and the EU, discuss possible cooperation areas within the Eastern Partnership initiative. The conference is organized by the Minsk Union of Entrepreneurs and Employers and Minskexpo under the auspices and with the participation of other organizations including Belarusian National Technical University.
In 2012 in Dzerjinsk the government of our country had begun the construction of the first passive house. The cost of square meter in this house is 1500$.
Unfortunately, the idea of “green houses” is not developed in Belarus so much, like in Europe. A lot of Belarusian people don't know about this low-energy concept.
Also, there are not so many specialists of this sphere in Belarus, who could show the advantages of passive house and develop new, own methods of house construction.
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