Methods in construction
Architecture is the appearance of buildings and structures. Structural elements of buildings, the history of their origin, their importance in construction. Methods in construction: load-bearing wall, аrch, vault, dome, truss, framed structures.
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«Methods in construction»
Methods in construction
I have read the text of the Methods in construction. I'm a mountain-building faculty. Architecture is my specialty. We are studying the art of modeling the human environment and people's behavior in this environment, particularly through a functional and artistic organization of space and form, the art work with the plastic elements, color. And similarly all of structural nuances. That's why I chose this subject and the text. The main idea of the text to tell about structural elements of buildings, the history of their origin, their importance in construction. As well as the methods and applications in construction.
Each element of the building is important. If, for example, the building will not be walls, it is unlikely it will be possible to name the building. All building elements are dependent from each other. If there are no walls, so cannot be a roof. This proves that the close interaction of all elements of the building.
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social, environmental, and aesthetic considerations. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of material, technology, light and shadow. Architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost estimating and construction administration. As documentation produced by architects, typically drawings, plans and technical specifications, architecture defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or any other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed.
Architectural works are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. architecture buildings construction
Architecture sometimes refers to the activity of designing any kind of system and the term is common in the information technology world.
Methods in construction
Load-bearing wall. The load-bearing wall of masonry is thickened in proportion to the forces it has to resist: its own load, the load of floors, roofs, persons, etc., and the lateral forces of arches, vaults, wind, etc., that may cause it to crack or buckle. Its thickness often can be reduced at the top, because loads accumulate toward the base; in high buildings this is done by interior or exterior setbacks at the floor level of upper stories. Walls that must resist lateral forces are thickened either along the whole length or at particular points where the force is concentrated.
Nonbearing wall. Excluding the independent garden variety, the nonbearing wall appears only where loads are carried by other members, as in heavy timber and other skeletal structures. Modern steel and reinforced-concrete frames require exterior walls only for shelter and sometimes dispense with them on the ground floor to permit easier access. Since the wall rests or hangs upon members of the frame, it becomes a curtain or screen and admits treatment in any durable, weather-resisting material. Traditional materials are often used, but light walls of glass, plastic, metal alloys, wood products, etc., can be equally efficient. This freedom of choice extends also to the form of walls and offers greatly expanded opportunities for creative expression.
The simplest illustration of load and support in construction is the post-and-lintel system, in which two upright members (posts, columns, piers) hold up a third member (lintel, beam, girder, rafter) laid horizontally across their top surfaces. This is the basis for the evolution of all openings. But, in its pure form, the post-and-lintel is seen only in colonnades and in framed structures, since the posts of doors, windows, ceilings, and roofs are part of the wall. The job of the lintel is to bear the loads that rest on it (and its own load) without deforming or breaking. Failure occurs only when the material is too weak or the lintel is too long. Lintels composed of materials that are weak in bending. The job of the post is to support the lintel and its loads without crushing or buckling. Failure occurs, as in lintels, from excessive weakness or length, but the difference is that the material must be especially strong in compression. The development of the arch and vault challenged the system but could not diminish its importance either in masonry construction or in wood framing, by its nature dependent on posts and beams.
The arch can be called a curved lintel. With the invention of the arch, two problems were solved: (1) wide openings could be spanned with small, light blocks, in brick as well as stone, which were easy to transport and to handle; and (2) the arch was bent upward to resist and to conduct into its supports the loads that tended to bend the lintel downward. The size of arches is limited only by economy. The form may be varied to meet specific problems; the most efficient forms in masonry are semicircular, segmental (segment of a circle), and pointed (two intersecting arcs of a circle), but noncircular curves can be used successfully.
The evolution of the vault begins with the discovery of the arch, because the basic “barrel” form, which appeared first in ancient Egypt and the Near East, is simply a deep, or three-dimensional, arch. Since the barrel vault exerts thrust as the arch does, it must be buttressed along its entire length by heavy walls in which openings must be limited in size and number. This is a disadvantage, since it inhibits light and circulation.
But Roman builders discovered that openings could be made by building two barrel vaults that intersected at right angles to form the groin vault, which is square in plan and may be repeated in series to span rectangular areas of unlimited length. This vault has the additional advantage that its thrusts are concentrated at the four corners, so that the supporting walls need not be uniformly massive but may be buttressed where they support the vault.
Two disadvantages of the groin vault encouraged Gothic builders to develop a modification known as the rib vault. First, to build a groin vault, a form must be made to pour or lay the entire vault, and this requires complex scaffolding from the ground up; second, the groin vault must be more or less square, and a single vault cannot span extended rectangular areas. The rib vault provided a skeleton of arches or ribs along the sides of the area and crossing it diagonally; on these the masonry of the vault could be laid; a simple centring sufficed for the ribs. To cover the rectangular areas, the medieval mason used pointed arches, which, unlike round arches, can be raised as high over a short span as over a long one. Thus, the vault could be composed of the intersection of two vaults of different widths but the same height.
Domes appeared first on round huts and tombs in the ancient Near East, India, and the Mediterranean region but only as solid mounds or in techniques adaptable only to the smallest buildings. They became technically significant with the introduction of the large-scale masonry hemispheres by the Romans. Domes, like vaults, evolved from the arch, for in their simplest form they may be thought of as a continuous series of arches, with the same centre. Therefore, the dome exerts thrusts all around its perimeter, and the earliest monumental examples required heavy walls. Since the walls permitted few openings and had to be round or polygonal to give continuous support, early domes were difficult to incorporate into complex structures, especially when adjacent spaces were vaulted. Newer techniques, however, have added practically to the expressive advantages of domes. The reinforced-concrete slab used in vaulting can be curved in length as well as width (like an inflated handkerchief or a parachute). And in this development the distinction between vaults and domes loses significance, being based on nothing but the type of curvature in the slab. Geodesic domes, developed in the 20th century by R. Buckminster Fuller, are spherical forms in which triangular or polygonal facets composed of light skeletal struts or flat planes replace the arch principle and distribute stresses within the structure itself, as in a truss. Geodesic domes can be supported by light walls and are the only large domes that can be set directly on the ground as complete structures.
By far the commonest covering throughout history is the trussed roof, constructed upon a frame composed of triangular sections spaced crosswise at intervals and made rigid in length by beams. Trusses formerly were principally of wood and were used to cover masonry as well as framed structures, even when these were vaulted. The variety of trusses is so great that only the general principle of the form can be given here.
The truss is based on the geometric law that a triangle is the only figure that cannot be changed in shape without a change in the length of its sides; thus, a triangular frame of strong pieces firmly fastened at the angles cannot be deformed by its own load or by external forces such as wind pressure. These forces, which in a vault thrust outward against the walls, are contained within the truss itself, because the piece (chord) at the base of the triangle resists by tension the tendency of the two sides to behave like a vault. With its forces in equilibrium, the truss exerts only a direct downward pressure on the walls, so that they need not be thickened or buttressed. This explains why most roofs are triangular in cross section. In trusses that are too large to be constructed of three members of moderate size, a complex system of small triangles within the frame replaces the simple triangle. Not all peaked roofs are trusses, for in primitive building, in ancient Greece, and in much Chinese and Japanese wood architecture the chord is omitted and the sides exert thrust. Nor are all trusses triangular, since the principle may be modified (as in modern steel and heavy timber construction) to apply to arches and vaults if chords of sufficient strength can be found.
A framed structure in any material is one that is made stable by a skeleton that is able to stand by itself as a rigid structure without depending on floors or walls to resist deformation. Materials such as wood, steel, and reinforced concrete, which are strong in both tension and compression, make the best members for framing. Masonry skeletons, which cannot be made rigid without walls, are not frames. Posts must rest on a level, waterproof foundation, usually composed of masonry or concrete, on which the sill (base member) is attached. Each upper story is laid on crossbeams that are supported on the exterior wall by horizontal members. Interior walls give additional beam support. In the heavy-timber system, the beams are strong enough to allow the upper story and roof to project beyond the plane of the ground-floor posts, increasing the space and weather protection. The members are usually exposed on the exterior.
Steel framing is based on the same principles but is much simplified by the far greater strength of the material, which provides more rigidity with fewer members. The load-bearing capacity of steel is adequate for buildings many times higher than those made of other materials. Because the column and beam are fused by riveting or welding, stresses are distributed between them, and both can be longer and lighter than in structures in which they work independently as post-and-lintel. Thus, large cubic spaces can be spanned by four columns and four beams, and buildings of almost any size can be produced by joining cubes in height and width. Since structural steel must be protected from corrosion, the skeleton is either covered by curtain walls or surfaced in concrete or, more rarely, painted. The steel frame is used also in single-story buildings where large spans are required.
Attention is draw to the following factors, that the architecture is very important in our daily lives. We are often faced with it, without even noticing. We often see the architecture, but do not notice all of its beauty.
Architecture is the appearance of buildings and structures. This image is composed of structural elements which are associate with each other. Elements create a whole system. This system is built according to strict rules, which are approved by the building regulations and rules, as well as national standards (BRaR, NS).
Architecture the art of building in which human requirements and construction materials is related so as to furnish practical use as well as an aesthetic solution, thus differing from the pure utility of engineering construction. As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure.
Architecture around us. It is difficult to imagine life without it. Essential tool for practical decision functions, and the ideological and artistic problems of architecture is the construction equipment. It determines the feasibility and economic feasibility of the implementation of various space systems. On constructive solutions largely depend and aesthetic properties of works of architecture. The building must not only be, but also look strong.
Conclusions are drawn Technology is constantly evolving, the science is not static, which means that new methods in construction.
1. Энциклопедия Британника
2. Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский и русско-английский словарь: 150000 слов и выражений / В.К. Мюллер. - М.: Эксмо, 2008.
3. Электронный словарь: ABBYY Lingvo x3 English. - 2011г.
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