Qualities of respiratory system in physiological situations

The physiological definition of respiration and its structure. Characterization of physiological changes in the process of breathing in the mountains. Features of regulation of respiration in conditions of high atmospheric pressure and in a hot climate.

Рубрика Биология и естествознание
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 23.09.2016
Размер файла 16,6 K

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West Kasakhstan state medical university named after Marat Ospanov

Independent work of student


Theme: Qualities of respiratory system in physiological situations

Made by:

Nazarbayeva A.

317 «A»

Checked by:

Akkozhina A.M.

Aktobe, 2016


In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. respiration physiological mountain pressure

The physiological definition of respiration should not be confused with the biochemical definition of respiration, which refers to cellular respiration: the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water, carbon dioxide and 38ATP (energy). Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the organism, while physiologic respiration concerns thebulk flow and transport of metabolites between the organism and the external environment.

Gaseous exchange (which in organisms with lungs is called ventilation and includes inhalation and exhalation) is a part of physiologic respiration. Thus, in precise usage, the words breathing and ventilation are hyponyms, not synonyms, of respiration; but this prescription is not consistently followed, even by most health care providers, because the term respiratory rate (RR) is a well-established term in health care, even though it would need to be consistently replaced with ventilation rate if the precise usage were to be followed.

Thus, breathing is one of the most important regulatory functions of the human body. In the human body respiratory function provides a breathing.

The respiratory system consists of lungs and respiratory tract (Airways), which, in turn, includes the nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi, small bronchi and alveoli.The bronchi branch out, spreading throughout the volume of the lungs, and resemble the crown of the tree. So often the trachea and bronchi with all the branches is called the bronchial tree.

The oxygen in the air through the nasal passages, larynx, trachea and bronchi into the lungs. The ends of the smallest bronchial tubes end in a lot of thin-walled pulmonary bubbles - the alveoli.

The alveoli is 500 million bubbles with a diameter of 0.2 mm, where the transition of oxygen in the blood, removing carbon dioxide from the blood.

1. Characterization of physiological changes in breathing in the mountains

Most people when breathing in the mountains to a height of 2.5 km does not occur disorders. This does not mean that at a height of 2 km the body is in the same condition as when barometric pressure at sea level. Although at altitudes up to 3 km the blood is saturated with oxygen is not less than 90% capacity, but the tension of oxygen dissolved in the blood, here have already been reduced and this explains a number of observed changes in breathing in the mountains. These include:

· deepening and small shortness of breath;

· increased heart rate and increase in minute volume;

· a slight increase in BCC;

· increased new formation of red blood cells;

· small, captured only a very subtle methods, the fall of excitability of the receptors, disappear after two or three days of stay at a specified height.

All of these changes while breathing in the mountains in a healthy person, however, are regulatory processes, normal development which provides performance on par. No wonder stay at the height of 1-2 km is sometimes used as a therapeutic technique in the fight against certain diseases.

From a height of 3 km, and the number of people (no muscle work) only with the height of 3.5 km, begin to show a completely different disorder that mainly depends on the changes in activities of higher centers. When breathing in the mountains decreases the tension of oxygen dissolved in the blood, decreases the number of oxygen bound with hemoglobin. The symptoms of respiratory hypoxia is when the blood oxygen saturation falls below 85% blood oxygen capacity. If the oxygen saturation during respiratory hypoxia decreases below 50-45% oxygen-carrying capacity, the person death.

When lifting to a considerable height is made slowly (e.g. while climbing), then develop symptoms of hypoxia, which are not found in a rapidly developing hypoxia, leading to loss of consciousness. In this case, as a result of disorders of higher nervous activity marked fatigue, drowsiness, tremor, headache, shortness of breath, palpitations, often nausea and sometimes bleeding (altitude sickness or mountain sickness).

2. Features of regulation of respiration in conditions of high atmospheric pressure

Barometric air pressure when descending under water for every 10.4 m of depth increases by 1 ATM. The increased pressure exists also in caissons and in the construction of tunnels, bridges, hydropower plants. People in such cases may be under pressure not exceeding 505400 PA. Respiratory rate decreases for 2-4 min. in 1 Breath becomes lighter and shorter, the exhalation is complicated and lengthened. Gas exchange does not change or slightly increased. At elevated pressure the number of red blood cells decreases, which is associated with their accumulation in the blood depot. The longer a person is in conditions of high pressure and the higher it is, the more nitrogen dissolves in his blood.

With the rapid transition from high pressure to normal, there is a risk of "decompression sickness", which is reflected in the fact that the release of nitrogen from the tissues and blood. Bubbles of nitrogen released can clog small blood vessels. When blockage of the blood vessels of the brain there comes a paralysis and death. Lift safety in the conditions of normal pressure, is provided by his gradualism. The rise and inhalation of O2, accelerating the excretion of nitrogen from the body, completely eliminate the risk of "decompression sickness".

When breathing through the oxygen mask at high pressure the exhalation becomes active and the inhalation is passive, that leads to a restructuring of the nervous regulation of respiration. Respiratory rate changes little, and its depth increases significantly. Pulmonary ventilation increases more than 2-3 times. In the result of lung hyperventilation, excessive removal of CO2 and the CO2 pressure in the alveolar air falls from PA to 5320 3325 PA and below that threatens hypocapnia -- drop the content of carbon dioxide in the blood. In the chest cavity creates a positive pressure instead of negative, which violates the blood circulation in the large and small circles. Increased venous pressure compensates for the excess pressure in the lungs. In humans, the venous pressure increases almost proportionally to the increase of pressure under the mask: for example, at an excess pressure under the mask at 2660 PA it is at 2660 PA more in the cubital Vienna, when in excess of 10640 PA - and more in Vienna at 9310 PA, but when there is an excess pressure under the mask reaches 15 960 PA, in Vienna, the pressure increases by only 13 300 PA.

With increasing pressure in the lungs from zero to 6650 PA blood pressure in the right ventricle increases 2600-5320 PA to 7980-10640 PA, and blood pressure also increases by 60-70% compared to a rise of pressure in the lungs. Pulse pressure drops. Also decreases in cardiac output. Adaptation to the increased pressure in the lungs is achieved when the pressure increases no more than 3325 PA.

3. Features of regulation of respiration in conditions of hot climates

Comprehensive clinico-physiological study of the functional state of external respiration showed significant differences of lung volumes and indices of bronchial patency of the inhabitants of the regions with a hot climate, living in a temperate climate in comparison with similar indicators among Russian students, which is due to acoperirea and reactivity of the tracheobronchial tree.

Clinical and statistical studies of students from various climatic and geographical regions in adaptation to the conditions of Central Russia showed a significant difference in the incidence of various nosological forms, which caused the cases of temporary disability. It was found that the frequency of lung diseases in students from regions with a hot climate most 2 year adaptation. Students from South-East Asia, the frequency of lung disease by 32% higher than that of students from countries of the Middle East and 45% higher than that of students from African countries.

It was found that students from South-East Asia in the acute period of adaptation reduced lung volumes FVC, FEV1, Rowed by 10-15% and 20-25%, the integral measure of the patency of the bronchi (AEH) at higher values of tidal volume and pulmonary ventilation in comparison with the proper values and indicators defined by the Russian students. These differences is more pronounced in women.

It is shown that students from South-East Asia for the first 3 years of training in the conditions of Central Russia there is a reduction of FVC by an average of 7% and patency of the bronchi (МОС50) by 15%. Thus, in the first year of adaptation is the reduction of these indicators at 5 and 15%, respectively, with the further stabilization of these indicators.

Revealed that students from South-East Asia with a slight decrease patency of the bronchi in the first year of the adaptation occurs further decline МОС50 and other indicators of patency of the bronchi, 20% or more by the third year and increased risk of pulmonary diseases with bronchial obstruction, whereas, students with a pronounced reduction in patency of the bronchi in the first year showed improvement in patency and growth МОС50 5-7% for 3 year adaptation.

It was found that students from South-East Asia with low functional indicators of the respiratory decreased bronchial reactivity to P2 adrenergic agonists 10% (p<0.05), in comparison with Russian students. The differences are most pronounced on the changes МОС50. At the same time, Russian students ' application of (32 agonists (salbutamol) caused an increase in the patency of the bronchi by 22-25%, and students from Southeast Asia patency of the bronchi has increased by 15-17% (p<0.05).


Respiratory organs carry out the gas exchange between atmospheric air and the body. In the lungs oxygen from the air to be absorbed in the breath, enters the bloodstream and delivered to cells. Here most of the oxygen binds to carbon and hydrogen, which are allocated in the metabolism of high molecular weight organic compounds comprising cells. The resulting carbon dioxide and water vapor are removed from the lungs during exhalation. A smaller part of oxygen included in the cells of the body. The energy released during the breakdown of organic substances, used for life, to restore the crumbling cells and development of the organism.

Respiration is divided into external, or lung - gas exchange between atmospheric air and blood, and the inner, or tissue - gas exchange between blood and tissues, provides exchange of substances in cells.

The vital functions of a living organism connected with the absorption of O2 and release of CO2. Therefore, the concept of "breath" includes all processes related to the delivery of O2 from the external environment into the cells and CO2 from cells to the environment.

In humans, there are breathing: 1) internal (cellular, tissue); 2) gas transport in the blood or other body fluids; 3) external (pulmonary). In fact, all parts of the gas transportation system of the body, including the regulatory mechanisms are designed to ensure the concentration of oxygen in the cells needed to maintain the activity of the respiratory enzymes.

Without breathing a person's life is impossible; within a short time after their heart stops and starts the destruction of the body, primarily the cells of the nervous system. Especially the significance of respiration for growing children because growth and development are the result of an intensive metabolism (Galperin, 1974).


1. Agadzhanyan N. L., Tell ' L. Z., Tsirkin V. I., Chesnokov S. A. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. - M: Medical book, N. Novgorod: ngma Publishing house, 2003. - 528 p.: Il.

2. Brin V. B. human Physiology in diagrams and tables. Phoenix. 1999. 350 p

3.Halperin, S. I. Anatomy and human physiology (Age-related features with the fundamentals of school health). High school. 1974. 468 p. with Il. and table.

4. Genin, A. M. Physiology of respiration. The basics. John. West. Moscow. "The world". 1988. 198 p.

5. Zavialov, A.V., Smirnov V. M.. Normal physiology - M.: Medpress-inform, 2009. - 816 p.: ill.

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