Bcee

. . yacaa c Bcee, . .

26.04.2010
24,4 K

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18

Peea a ey

Bcee

Beee

e ce Bcee ecaec e ecece ae ex ce. a a e cea. a ca ea aya e, a a c y cae, a e cecaa aye. Ce Bcee ec ay a, cece ca ce acec ae e c eeec ac ce .

Haya eca c e cac ee XX ea. T ee Ae e a caa ecca e e (a e cec), a ec eeec yae ay ce Bcee.

C y c, ycex aae ac aaa ea - ycaee aa e aa ac cee Xaa, a cee ycex aac, e e ecx ccea, a e ccea c cecx aaa, ca aae yae c.

Haa cee aa a c ec aa ye A.A. aa, ee 1922-1924 .. Ha ce e ea c aeaece e e eeca ce Bcee ece c e. a aa, eec Bcee e e caa; a a cac, acc , ceae, c eeca Bcee a yeac, yeac.

Ta, eeec a exc a Bcee.

yacaa c Bcee

e ce e yae ac a aac, e, c cca ae.

ecae c aaea a Bceea?

cee ee ac aa ecece ceec ea, .e. e, cec a, ee cce.

B cae ex acaax e aceee cace cee eae. ca c c ee, a , Me y ec ac cee e - aa. ee , a ca eec acaa ceecac e acecx ccea, cc, aa , aceee eae, a aa Bcee ecaec cyc ex ce aa. Pae ce ec aa x a eca a. e ce cea c aa e ae ec eaace (1=3,1*1018c, 1M=106). Ceee acce ey ce 30 M, .e. e 10 a e, e ae ce. aae, ce c a cyy e 100-1000 a e, e a c, a yac, ec ce eec ae aaa cey cacy. ec ee ye cye - cexce. Ta a, acae 30 M ec ee cyye e, , ceae, Bceea ea. Ec 10 a aca, a ye, e e e ea, ye e e ec ce aa (e 1000), .e. acae Bceea e a. a cceac ce aa c ecx eec, e e x eca x aceeee cace.

Tc ecx e eee aceee aa cace e c ea yeee , cee e, e c 10-20%. a cee ea c e e ccea yaca c (a aa eacc cc aae cace) Bcee. ca ey ee c eee a aae e aye, xe a c x acc. Cae e cee ee e ay e ecc a ye ax aaex a ee c ce c 10-14 / 10-5. ceecye , cca Bcee a ce aae, .e. Bceea a c c c. H ae ceecy ae , Bceea c c c a. e c aceee eeca cee ae acaax 1000 M e eae ex e, a x acaax e ee cyece ee.

Ta a, aee aae cec Bcee ec ec, cyyc a acae c acae.

B acaax c eaace eec Bcee accaa a y eey cey, aa c aa, ce aa ae cexce.

B 19 ee eac ce a aaex eaxecx ee Bcee. Cac a e Bcee eec ecea ceaec cce ce ee c a: e ee aa, aa ce aa, ce ay cexce .. ecec. Hae ea ae eee.

acce yaca cyy Bcee a cx cc ee c .

2. Te ecaae ecaac Bcee

c, a a ee a aceee eeca Bcee.

Baee c, ecye e eecx e, ec ca ce e.

a, ya c, ycae . H XVII ee. Te e Ha ca exaa c ea cee ececa. ca c c y e, ce ee ececex cyccex e Ce ccee, e yx cceax eecx e: x eax, ex cex, aaax. Ha ce e e Ha cea ecaa cyeca eec aee ae Hey, ecaa cyeca cya Cyca e ye ecaa, cec ece eec. B acee e a Ha ec yae, a ca ac cc e cee eecx e, x , eec acc eecx e. a ex cyax, a e cac ca c, a cc e x ac cc cea, ee ye e e ca a Ha. B cyae a ac ecc ee e, ca A. e 1916 . Hexc xa a a c e e cec ee a caa a, a ca e e. H aaec, e e ea, e e Ha aa a cec, a e c aeee cc e Bcee, e ea c e ea, a yc ce ee Ha. a, eec ey ay ccy e ea Ha.

e , ceec- cea aeaa a e cae a aa yee c. ae cyae e Ha.

Pacc aeay cey (cy 1).

Pc. 1 C e, c a A B a e , a ee aae.

Ca c e, e y e acc (axec e y ce) e c A B. Haaee AB, xe ee , . c cac eec, ace a yacax ce, eax y yca c a ya ee. a a, eaex y yca, a aaa c x yc. a, a Sa a A cc a Sb a B a aa acc ra rb exc:

Sa / Sb= ra2/ rb2 (1)

H a a acca caec ae aceee exc ce, acc a yae e ee:

Ma / Mb= ra2/ rb2 (2)

Tee c ee c, c a a e. Ca c acac cac ay Ha cey a:

FA= GMa m/ ra2 , FB= GMb m/ rb2 (3)

x ee ec

FA/ FB = Ma ra2/ Mb rb2 (4)

ca (4) ec Ma/ Mb e aee (2), ax

FA/ FB =1, FA= FB (5)

Ceae, c a ac ee, aae e c yaea y ya. T e x aae. a, ce aaee c yaee eyya ca, ecya a , aa y. Ta, ace e , a. Ceae, y ce ece e c e.

Tee ac acce c e Bcee. B eye ye ce, x acaax aceeee eeca Bcee ca . Bee accaac e aca, y eec caec .

Be ce eece a ayca c e e (c.2).

Pc.2 Ca e, c aaa A, acea a exc aa ayca R, aec ey aa , eeec cya acc eeca aa e ac eeca, axec e aa.

Pacc caaa c e, caaee a exc aa eec ca aa, e ye a accaa ce cae eec Bcee. yc ayc aa a e c , a e e, caaee eec aa, ce ca ea e Ha ce c e. Ta aa, axec a a cee, ye ac ey aa c c, a acce aa M a a aay e ayca R.

Tee c ce ca eece Bcee e aa, aec yec c e, caaee. ye accaa ceae ceece ce e e ayca, xaae a. H e aa, ceec-cee c eeca ax aax c y c e ca. Ceae, ce ceec-cee (.e. ce cae eec Bcee) e e a ce ee, e cae aaa A a exc aa e ey .

a, c ycee aa A e aae . M a e aa, a aaa A axc a acc R . ycee yce ee eeca aa ayc R. Cac ay Ha ec:

A= - (GM/R2) (6)

a yc aae, ycee cecye e, a e a.

a, e e aa, axec Bcee a acc R, ca cee ycee (aee) a, aaee y 6. aae, Bceea a ecaa. ece, ec eca, e e ee aa c, e yc c eeca Bcee e eec, cey e aa y cc ece a e ce eeca, a a eec ycee e, aaee y 6.

a, aa y ce ya e a ee. B e e cyae aa ac - yac cac, ayc aa R e ec c eee, c eeca a ae ec c eee.

Bceea a ecaa, e ecye ee - a c e. ye A.A. a a ce ecc e e 1922- 1924 .. ae e, ceee ax , . M B. Ma a ae a , ecaac Bcee e ye c e cxee, ee ec.

a e ac aa, a a ec c, ye cx acee cae?

ac e c e, yax ee. c a ycee, a ee, ee (a yc ye 6), .e. aa, a ye ec cc c eee. Ec aa e e aa, ceye e aa ay cac, Bceea ye cac. Ec aa aa e cc aa a, yac y ya, y acyc e Bcee, acee c ee. Bey cc e e e e caa a e e, ee y ae.

3. e ace Bcee

aee ee cce - aa x ce c a ec aca cyy ea Bcee. aac c x acc e yee x e cy aae c ccea ea Bcee. aex e e cc yae e, yc e ea. Ha, cac y ey y aec ca cea ce , eee aaee, yee, cee ey y cea, a yaec ca - yee, cee acy y cea. Bea cee aaec y z eeec y:

Z = a.- / = v/c. (7)

a ya caea cce v, ex cc cea c, a ea exaa Ha. ccx, x ce, ya ycec, ceac a caaac e ye, ye accaa cc, ae cae c ce.

e ceee ceax ceax eecx e, ac ee x ee yaee, .e. e ey cc, aaey yy e. y cc, eeee cea ee, c aae yex cce.

e ee yex cce y aa aae ea aeac ac B.M. Cae. B e ee e ec acc aa ec ecee c, axc y ae e cce - aa - ae a ee eea. Cae ay, c aa yac ac cc yae : 2-3 ce 1100 /c. ac a ec aa. a cc e, Ce ec y ea ae aa c cc 250 /c a ac cce e x ecx ax aa ca e c e, Ce ceac ec ea.

a, aa, cac Caey, yac ac. x ceax cee acy y. ee y aae ac cee. B aae ee acc aa. yac cea c ycyx e, ex c ec - ee.

eeee e aa aeae cec. ec cea, yaee ee, - ee cec e ee cec cece yca ec ca. a e, c cec. A e c acce ee. ece, e e yca ae ee eca, eee cec ee. ae eec ec e. B ec 0a ae aay acc ee. Caee eca c cec e a acce ee.

ee yx aaax. Pacce x ee, a a, aa, x axc, aac a , e ae ae cce aa. Te ca ae ycae, aa - aee ee cce e ae.

ycae acc aa, ee, ye ex aax cac ye e. ax e ec cae ax e aae, a aa acc. ae e, -y, e ay cec ae aae yx aaax, caa ee ee acce. H ae e e y cec, e ee, y c x acc c, a a, ee a acc.

Pacc e a aa eee aeac ac . Xa.

Caee acc aa c cc x yae (cc eee ee Cae y aca cac a ce yea e Ca aae) . Xay yca 1929 . aeaey aec: e ae aaa, e e cc ee yae ac. aac, cyecye ca acc ey cc yae aa acce e:

V=HR (8)

e ac H aa ee c Xaa.

a Xaa (8) - a ac cc yae aa x acc. a, aac, ea ea ac H a c aea. Cac cee ea ea H ec a ee.

e aa, aa yac ac ce c cc yae aa acc.

a ae e yee: ey e ac, aa cx aeae yx aa. Heye axc ee Bcee?

eae. e , aa yac e ae aa, y ya. Ec axc y aae, e ay e ay aea, a ae e cce.

Be, ee e yec , aa ace, caa c a Xaa, ecaec a aae, axec e caca. Be a ae ye e ae e, a, a caac -eey . c, acc ey aa e y aa yec e, a e a . a, aya aa, e aae axc y e, ye e ay ay yae e cex e y aa. Ec a eae aea, y ay, cay e, e acy e aae.

4. Pacee Bcee : aa ace

a eec acee Bcee c eee ee?

Ca, a ye 2, e ce eece Bcee a. ye ce a eee ae aa, exc x ee e e aa. Pacee yaec a ce e. cee (aee, .e. aeee), e ca aa a exc aa, caec y:

A = - GM/R2

a ya e c y acc ayca aa ee. ce y acc aece.

B-ex, e ceyy ay cec yce, ca e. Ba accy aa M ee c eeca e aa 4/3 R3, ca yy yce. B eyae y

a = -4/3 G R

yaee aae, ycee a a acc. a, ac e ee cc yae aa ycee (aeee) a acc. H ec aa acc cc ee eee, , a, e ee ceye a ac, ae cxac ac cc acc. Ta a, e aa cea cc aea aa a acc, e ac eec c eee ee. Pacee c, ae e e. e a eec acce ey y ae aaa Bcee.

B cyae e, eee c aaa ace, eeec c Xaa a

T = 1/H ?1/75 /(c*M) = 13* 109 e

Be eeeec ae H cca 50 /(c*M) H 75 /(c*M). ee eeeec ee t:

10*109 e t 20*109 e

-a e ae c eeca Bcee ec c e, e acee ec yeae.

cae, ea cee c Bcee eeea e . Cae ee yec eec, xee aa. Macc aa eec e e yx cexc e x. Ec ec cc ae aa, acca cec a ce c exa aa e. a c aa, axxc ee ea caca x acc, c ce c ae Bcee, xe aa. c eeca, yceea cey ey, ccae e ? 3*10-31/c3.

H cace ey aaa ce eec, e e y ay, a a aec e yae e ae ce. e , ae a a ey aaa, ca ceec yxe e. Hae Bcee e e - ac, e e y eay c y eeca, y x e y ay. B ae ae aax yx e, ecaax ee ea. Ec ey aaa ye ae. ec x ce ae c. Haee ee ee, x ae aee cee c cex ae, ec 5*10-29/c3-3*10-31 /c3. yaa c ee e a e a ey t , eey e. Ta a, e aaa ace Bcee c ace ea a 10-20 a e. , ac e, eee aay acay eec, ae 5*109 e. cy ac e, cece .. e .A. Cc a ex ee c cex y aaex ae Bcee. e , ac e ae ee ee, ee c aaa ace. A ec a, acaa yc a c. 6 e a, a aaa ace a a cecye acy e.

yc eeec ycee e, a ey - aca a c ae cee Bcee. acy ae 2*10-28 /c3.

eec cca aee e t, eee c aaa ace, c ac yx e Bcee. Hae, ac, a aaex ax ce aae eaec 10-14 a e.

M , ac ae ae, , -y, ac ce e, e ee t.

Beec ay ace Bcee.

a, , 10-20 a e aa, ea aaa ace c eeca Bcee a a e cee. ee aa, ee e e cyeca a ae ea. Bc ae axac cc ee aceee eeca. e, xe ace, acac a ee , e aa ex eecx e.

5. yyee acec Bcee. eca c

Pacee Bcee eae c aeee, yye ec e c. aeee a c eeca Bcee. C acee c aae, yeaec aeee. Ba cya, a cee cc ace c eeca ca aa aeee a. Ta acee ye ea e ae.

A

Pc. 3 acc acc ey aaa ee cya, a c eeca Bcee ee ec. Bceea acec eae (A). Taa e acc c eeca e ec. Pacee Bcee ceec cae ().

Pacce ey a aa eae acae.

H , c ca ea, a a, e aeee ace. B eyae acee eaaec ceec cae. eee acc ey aaa cyae aa a c. 3, .

Cya ec c aaa , a aea, aaa eee cc a y eece e. Ta cc 12 /c ca, y e yee cc, a cc e cec cc e. a a cc ecaa, y exc ea, e a ceca cc 61 /c. Ha exc ea e, ee c cc 12 /c ex, ce ea ca yae a e.

Pacc, ee aay A a ae ce a cye 3. Cc, c aaa yaec ea , eeec a Xaa. Ec a cc e cec aa ayca R, aaa ye eae yac , Bceea ye eae acc, ec ee cec, acee cec cae. Cc eeea a Xaa a cya - 3, a 3, - ye e ec, eeec acc aa, .e. ac c .

a, Bcee ee cc ace (cee c Xaa 75/(c*M)) a xaae eaee acee, c - acee, ceeec cae. Cyecye ece aee c eeca , eee cya y. Hec ee ece aee c. ece, ec, c a ceca cc aa acc M acaec cey a:

V=v2 GM/R

ca (10) ae acc M= 4/3 R3 , a ec cc v=HR, ax

HR = ?8G/3 *R2, aa ca c ,

=3 H2/ 8G

a, ece aee cee c Bcee ac c Xaa H. c Xaa H= 75 / (c*M) yae:

?10-29 /c 3

M , e aec cee c cex ae Bcee ac yya c Bcee.


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