Problems of Aviation
Description of the role of aviation as a universal means of transport in the modern world. A study of the problems of modern aviation: technical, human factor, economic (taxes and charges, competitors, innovation, fuel), environmental, safety, security.
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It is impossible to overestimate the enormous role of aviation as a universal means of transport in the modern world. That is why all countries and governments see the development of aviation industry and solving the problems in this sphere as one of the main issues to deal with. This article is devoted to reviewing the problems of modern aviation which are often linked by common factors. However, all these problems can be divided into several groups given below.
· Technical problems. Though the history of aviation reflects great improvements in technologies and bears all signs of scientific progress, this sphere still leaves much to be desired. For instance, engineers are working to create aircraft with advanced airfield-free capabilities to use them on difficult routes in remote and Arctic regions. Another goal is enhancing speed flight at subsonic and supersonic aircraft to create a reduced capacity of the supersonic strike on the ground at cruise flight over large territories. Besides, a prospective idea of movement of mechanical blade in a circle with a turn on its axis is awaiting its realization. The technical capability to change the direction by 360 degrees makes vertical take-off possible as well as horizontal motion. Such aircraft can keep stability in the air and avoid failure into a spin .
· Human factor problems. According to experts, human errors are to blame for the majority of accidents. Even if the equipment is out of order, there may be a good chance to land more or less safely in case the crew is able to quickly understand the emergency as it happened with the Boeing-737 Aloha Airlines in 1988 . Then, despite the substantial damage on the top of the fuselage there was only one fatality (a flight attendant was swept overboard from the airplane) and 94 out of 95 passengers landed alive because the pilots were real professionals. Thus it is absolutely necessary not only to provide the sphere with highly-qualified graduates but also to continue systematic training of pilots, engineers and flight personnel. Experts advise airlines to purchase simulators and check flight personnel aptitude or just training practically after each flight. So, having faced no emergency in the air, a pilot can get it on the ground, in order not to “relax” on his experience but to master his skills. Though it is quite expensive to buy and install, and upgrade multiple simulators, but the results are worth it.
· Economical problems in air industry and transportation is often the basic reason that causes delay in development and interferes with successful functioning of the sphere. Huge taxes and fees burden small companies and eliminate competitors . Monopoly in the sphere does not stimulate companies to improve working conditions, update technologies, introduce innovations etc. Besides that, situation on energy markets is often unstable of excessive speculation and the resulting volatility of oil prices. Smart combination of government regulations and healthy competitive market can be of great help in such cases.
· Ecological problems. Like any public transport, aviation is based on natural resources. Modern fuel is still based on finite planetary resources. Thus the nearest future demands that engineers construct hi-tech aircraft on alternative fuels such as synthetic kerosene, liquefied natural gas, and cryogenics . Another ecological issue concerns impact of aviation on environment. To minimize negative effects on ecology (pollution, noise, possible change of climate), air industry and transportation need to systematically renovate equipment and technology.
· Problems of safety and security. This problem is closely connected with economical and human factors. Statistically, since the beginning of aviation era aircraft has become the safest means of transport. Owing to modern technologies including introduction of computers and constant upgrading of navigation, fatal accident rates have dropped to the minimum level. We have also mentioned the importance of highly-qualified specialists and highlighted their role in safety of flights. However, one of the biggest safety problems that exists in the modern world is terrorism . Everyone remembers the tragedy of September, the 11th, 2001 when four passenger airlines were hijacked by 19 Al-Qaeda terrorists and crashed into buildings in suicide attacks . The tragedy made it obvious that security system and measures of control used at airports were inefficient and unable to recognize threats of terrorism . As a result, pre-flight inspection of passengers and their luggage is reinforced and more effective measures of providing safety of flights are being designed, among which one can mention development and understanding of new forms of data. In general, reactive, incident-based approach is being replaced by so-called proactive, or predictive, approach.
These are the main problems of modern aviation. In conclusion we can say that aviation remains a very prospective sphere which demands solutions of its problems in the present to serve humanity in future.
aviation economic innovation technical
Resources and References
1. Aircraft Accident Report: Aloha Airlines, Flight 243, Boeing 737-200, №73711, near Maui, Hawaii, April 28, 1988 / National Transportation Safety Board. - US Government Printing, 1989.
2. Caruso, Lisa. What Are The Five Most Important Issues Facing The Aviation Industry? URL: http://transportation.nationaljournal.com/2009/11/what-are-the-five-most-importa.php (accessed November 26, 2014).
3. Environmental issues for aviation / Eurocontrol. URL: https://www.eurocontrol.int/articles/environmental-issues-aviation (accessed November 26, 2014).
4. Oster, C. et al. Analyzing aviation safety: Problems, challenges, opportunities / Clinton V. Oster Jr., John S. Strong, C. Kurt Zorn // Research in Transportation Economics. The Economics of Transportation Safety. Volume 43, Issue 1, July 2013, P. 148-164.
5. The 9/11 Encyclopedia / Stephen Atkins. - 2nd ed. - USA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2011.
6. Изобретен новый движитель для летательных аппаратов - Вращающееся разворачивающееся крыло. URL: http://www.poletim.net/technology/izobreten-novyjj-dvizhitel-dlya-letatelnykh-appara (accessed November 26, 2014).
7. Черток В.Б. Новые технические средства обеспечения авиационной безопасности . http://www.secuteck.ru/articles2/oficial/novye-tehnicheskie-sredstva-obespecheniya-aviacionnoj-bezopasnosti/ (accessed November 26, 2014).
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