General Information about Australia

The area of country, the population of the country, the capital, language, states and internal territories. National Anthem, Flag and the Coat-of-Arms, creation of The Commonwealth of Australia. The constitution of Federal Parliament, duties Monarch.

Рубрика География и экономическая география
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 22.01.2014
Размер файла 10,6 K

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General Information about Australia

Australia is situated in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean. The area of this country is 7, 7 million square kilometres. The population of the country is about 20 million people. The capital is Canberra. The population of Canberra is about 300 thousand people. Official language is English. Australia is the largest island in the world and it is the smallest continent. The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-governing federal state. It has got 6 states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and 2 internal territories.

area population language monarch

National Anthem, Flag and the Coat-of-Arms

Australian national flag consists of 5 white stars of the Southern Cross and the white Commonwealth star (the large seven pointed star) on a blue background with a Union Jack in canton. The Southern Cross is the southern Crux, whose four chief stars are in the form of cross.

The flag of Australia is the only one to fly over a whole continent. The small Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain, and the large seven-pointed star represents the six states and the Territories, and the small stars form the Southern Cross- a prominent feature of the southern hemisphere night sky. A distinctive Australia flora and fauna is reflected in the country's coat-of-arms by the symbols of Australia's endemic animals; kangaroo and emu and twig of wattle (a kind of acacia). Australia officially adopted green and gold as its national colours in 1984. The Australia national anthem was adopted in the 1970ties. It is used on the all official and ceremonial occasions.

Creation of The Commonwealth of Australia

In 1901 the separate colonies in Australia merged together and became the States of the Commonwealth of Australia, which acquired the status of dominion of Great Britain. The Commonwealth of Australia- a federation of the 6 former colonies as states - was declared to come into being on January 1, 1901. The first Governor -General, the Earl of Hopetoun, convened the first Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia on April 29, 1901. It was opened in Melbourne on May 9 by Duke of Cornwall and York, son of King Edward VII. Sir Edmund Barton was the first Prime Minister.

The constitution provided for Federal Parliament to sit in Melbourne until a federal capital territory was selected and established. The present Australian Capital Territory was ceded from New South Wales to become federal territory in 1911, and the future capital was named Canberra in 1913. The first Federal Parliament to meet in Canberra was opened by the Duke of York, later King George VI, on May 9, 1927.

Though Australia now is an independent state, according to the Constitution the head of the state is the Monarch of Great Britain, represented by the Governor-General. His duties include assenting to bills, opening, proroguing and dissolving Parliament and commissioning the Prime Minister to form a government. Governor-General's residence Jarralumla is in Canberra. The Commonwealth of Australia is composed of 6 states and 2 territories: the State of New South Wales with its capital in Sydney, the State of Victoria with its capital in Melbourne, the State of Queenland with its capital in Brisbane, the Sate of Western Australia with its capital in Perth, the State of Tasmania with its capital in Hobart, Australian Capital Territory with its Federal Capital in Canberra, and Northern Territory with its capital in Darwin.

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