Varieties of the english language

The study of historical dynamics and linguistic change in the making of the modern English language. Comparative analysis of national versions of the vocabulary. The study of the classification of related languages. Features of regional dialects.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Язык английский
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The origins of other words are not as clear or are disputed. Dinkum (or "fair dinkum") can mean "true", "is that true?" or "this is the truth!” among other things, depending on context and inflection. It is often claimed that dinkum dates back to the Australian goldrushes of the 1850s, and that it is derived from the Cantonese (or Hokkien) ding kam, meaning, "top gold". But scholars give greater credence to the conjecture that it originated from the extinct East Midlands dialect in England, where dinkum (or dincum) meant "hard work" or "fair work", which was also the original meaning in Australian English. The derivative dinky-di means `true' or devoted: a `dinky-di Aussie' is a `true Australian'. However, this expression is limited to describing objects or actions that are characteristically Australian. The words dinkum or dinky-di and phrases like true blue are widely purported to be typical Australian sayings, even though they are more commonly used in jest or parody than as authentic slang.

Similarly, g'day, a stereotypical Australian greeting, is no longer synonymous with "good day" in other varieties of English and is never used as an expression for "farewell", as "good day" is in other countries. It is simply used as a greeting. A few words of Australian origin are now used in other parts of the Anglosphere as well, among these are first past the post, to finalise, brownout, and the colloquialisms uni "university" and “part” short of a “whole” meaning stupid or crazy, (e. g. "a sandwich short of a picnic").

Colloquialisms Diminutives are used by some. They are formed in various ways and are often used to indicate familiarity. Some common examples: Maccas (McDonald's) arvo (afternoon), brekky (breakfast), barbie (barbecue), footy (Australian rules football, rugby union football or rugby league football), and servo (service station).

Litotes, such as "you're not wrong", are used by many.

Many idiomatic phrases and words once common in Australian English are now stereotypes and caricatured exaggerations, and have disappeared from everyday use. Among the words less used are: strewth, you beaut and crikey.

Waltzing Matilda written by bush poet Banjo Paterson contains many obsolete Australian words and phrases that appeal to a rural ideal and are understood by Australians even though they are not in common usage outside the song. One example is the title, which means travelling (particularly with a swag).

2.3 British English

British English, or UK English or English English (Bre, BE, en-GB), is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere. There is confusion whether the term refers to English as spoken in the British Isles or to English as spoken in Great Britain, though in the case of Ireland, there are further distinctions peculiar to Hiberno-English.

There are slight regional variations in formal written English in the United Kingdom (for example, although the words wee and little are interchangeable in some contexts, one is more likely to see wee written by someone from northern Britain or from Northern Ireland than by someone from Southern England or Wales). Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described as "British English". The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, and a uniform concept of "British English" is therefore more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English (p. 45), "for many people...especially in England the phrase British English is tautologous," and it shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word British, and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

Dialects Dialects and accents vary between the four countries of the United Kingdom, and also within the countries themselves. There are also differences in the English spoken by different socio-economic groups in any particular region.

The major divisions are normally classified as English English (or English as spoken in England, which comprises Southern English dialects, Midlands English dialects and Northern English dialects), Welsh English, and Scottish English (not to be confused with the Scots language). The various British dialects also differ in the words that they have borrowed from other languages. The Scottish and Northern English dialects include many words originally borrowed from Old Norse and a few borrowed from Gaelic.

Accent There is no singular British accent, in fact, the United Kingdom is home to a wide variety of regional accents and dialects, to a greater extent than the United States.

Regional The form of English most commonly associated with the upper class in the southern counties of England is called Received Pronunciation (RP). It derives from a mixture of the Midland and Southern dialects which were spoken in London during the Middle Ages and is frequently used as a model for teaching English to foreign learners. Although speakers from elsewhere within the UK may not speak with an RP accent it is now a class-dialect more than a local dialect. It may also be referred to as "the Queen's (or King's) English", "Public School English", or "BBC English" as this was originally the form of English used on radio and television, although a wider variety of accents can be heard these days. Only approximately two percent of Britons speak RP, and it has evolved quite markedly over the last 40 years.

Even in the South East there are significantly different accents, the London Cockney accent is strikingly different from RP and its rhyming slang can be difficult for outsiders to understand.

Estuary English has been gaining prominence in recent decades: it has some features of RP and some of Cockney. In London itself, the broad local accent is still changing, partly influenced by Caribbean speech. Communities migrating to the UK in recent decades have brought many more languages to the country. Surveys started in 1979 by the Inner London Education Authority discovered over 100 languages being spoken domestically by the families of the inner city's school children. As a result, Londoners speak with a mixture of accents, depending on ethnicity, neighbourhood, class, age, upbringing, and sundry other factors.

Since the mass immigration to Northamptonshire in the 1940s and its close accent borders, it has become a source of various accent developments. There, nowadays, one finds an accent known locally as the Kettering accent, which is a mixture of many different local accents, including East Midlands, East Anglian, Scottish, and Cockney. In addition, in the town of Corby, five miles (8 km) north, one can find Corbyite, which unlike the Kettering accent, is largely based on Scottish.

This is due to the influx of Scottish steelworkers.

Outside the southeast there are, in England alone, other families of accents easily distinguished by natives, including:

1. West Country (South West England);

2. East Anglian;

3. West Midlands (Black Country, Birmingham);

4. East Midlands;

5. Liverpool (Scouse);

6. Manchester (Mancunian) and other east Lancashire accents;

7. Yorkshire (Slight but noticable differences between Leeds, Sheffield and Bradford);

8. Newcastle (Geordie) and other northeast England accents.

Although some of the stronger regional accents may sometimes be difficult for some anglophones from outside Britain to understand, almost all "British English" accents are mutually intelligible amongst the British themselves, with only occasional difficulty between very diverse accents. However, modern communications and mass media have reduced these differences significantly. In addition, most British people can to some degree temporarily `swing' their accent towards a more neutral form of English at will, to reduce difficulty where very different accents are involved, or when speaking to foreigners. This phenomenon is known in linguistics as code shifting.

2.4 Canadian English

Canadian English (CanE) is the variety of English used in Canada. More than 26 million Canadians (85% of the population) have some knowledge of English (2006 census). Approximately 17 million speak English as their native language. Outside Quebec, 76% of Canadians speak English natively. Canadian English contains elements of British English in its vocabulary, as well as several distinctive Canadianisms. In many areas, speech is influenced by French, and there are notable local variations. However, Canada has very little dialect diversity compared to the United States. The phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon for most of Canada are similar to that of the Western and Midland regions of the United States, while the phonological system of western Canadian English is identical to that of the Pacific Northwest of the United States, and the phonetics are similar. As such, Canadian English and American English are sometimes grouped together as North American English. Canadian English spelling is a blend of British and American conventions.

History The term "Canadian English" is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857.

Geikie, a Scottish-born Canadian, reflected the Anglocentric attitude prevalent in Canada for the next hundred years when he referred to the language as "a corrupt dialect," in comparison to what he considered the proper English spoken by immigrants from Britain.

Canadian English is the product of four waves of immigration and settlement over a period of almost two centuries. The first large wave of permanent English-speaking settlement in Canada, and linguistically the most important, was the influx of British Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States - as such, Canadian English is believed by some scholars to have derived from northern American English, and is nothing more than a variety of it. The second wave from Britain and Ireland was encouraged to settle in Canada after the War of 1812 by the governors of Canada, who were worried about anti-English sentiment among its citizens. Waves of immigration from around the globe peaking in 1910 and 1960 had a lesser influence, but they did make Canada a multicultural country, ready to accept linguistic change from around the world during the current period of globalization.

The languages of Aboriginal peoples in Canada started to influence European languages used in Canada even before widespread settlement took place, and the French of Lower Canada provided vocabulary to the English of Upper Canada. Regional variation Canada has very little dialect diversity compared to the United States.The provinces east of Ontario show the largest dialect diversity. Northern Canada is, according to Labov, a dialect region in formation, and a homogenous dialect has not yet formed.

A very homogeneous dialect exists in Western and Central Canada, a situation that is similar to that of the Western United States.

William Labov identifies an inland region that concentrates all of the defining features of the dialect centred on the Prairies, with periphery areas with more variable patterns including the metropolitan areas of Vancouver and Toronto.

This dialect forms a dialect continuum with the far Western United States, however it is sharply differentiated from the Inland Northern United States. This is a result of the relatively recent phenomenon known as the Northern cities vowel shift. Western and Central Dialect.

As a variety of North American English, this variety is similar to most other forms of North American speech in being a rhotic accent, which is historically a significant marker in differentiating different English varieties.

Like General American, this variety possesses the merry-Mary-marry merger (except in Montreal, which tends towards a distinction between marry and merry), as well as the father-bother merger.

Canadian raising Perhaps the most recognizable feature of CanE is Canadian raising. The diphthongs /a?/ and /a?/ are "raised" before voiceless consonants, namely /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, and /f/. In these environments, /a?/ becomes [??~??~??].

One of the few phonetic variables that divides Canadians regionally is the articulation of the raised allophone of /a?/: in Ontario, it tends to have a mid-central or even mid-front articulation, sometimes approaching [??], while in the West and Maritimes a more retracted sound is heard, closer to [??].

Among some speakers in the Prairies and in Nova Scotia, the retraction is strong enough to cause some tokens of raised /a?/ to merge with /o?/, so that couch and coach sound the same, and about sounds like a boat (though never like a boot, as in the American stereotype of Canadian raising). Canadian raising is found throughout Canada, including much of the Atlantic Provinces. It is the strongest in the Inland region, and is receding in younger speakers in Lower Mainland British Columbia, as well as certain parts of Ontario.

Many Canadians, especially in parts of the Atlantic provinces, do not possess Canadian raising. In the U.S., this feature can be found in areas near the border such as the Upper Midwest, although it is much less common than in Canada, raising of /a?/ alone, however, is increasing in the U.S., and unlike raising of /a?/, is generally not noticed by people who do not have the raising.

Because of Canadian raising, many speakers are able to distinguish between words such as writer and rider a feat otherwise impossible, because North American dialects turn intervocalic /t/ into an alveolar flap. Thus writer and rider are distinguished solely by their vowels, even though the distinction between their consonants has since been lost. Speakers who do not have raising cannot distinguish between these two words.

British Columbia British Columbia English has several words still in current use borrowed from the Chinook Jargon. Most famous and widely used of these terms are skookum and saltchuck. In the Yukon, cheechako is used for newcomers or greenhorns. A study shows that people from Vancouver exhibit more vowel retraction of /?/ before nasals than people from Toronto, and this retraction may become a regional marker of West Coast English.

Prairies (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) A strong Canadian raising exists in the prairie regions together with certain older usages such as chesterfield and front room also associated with the Maritimes. Aboriginal Canadians are a larger and more conspicuous population in prairie cities than elsewhere in the country and certain elements of aboriginal speech in English are sometimes to be heard. Similarly, the linguistic legacy, mostly intonation but also speech patterns and syntax, of the Scandinavian, Slavic and German settlers - who are far more numerous and historically important in the Prairies than in Ontario or the Maritimes - can be heard in the general milieu. Again, the large Metis population in Saskatchewan and Manitoba also carries with it certain linguistic traits inherited from French, Aboriginal and Celtic forebears. Some terms are derived from immigrant groups or are just local inventions:

- Bluff: small group of trees isolated by prairie;

- Bunny Hug: elsewhere hoodie or hooded sweat shirt (primarily Saskatchewan);

- Ginch/gonch/gitch/gotch: underwear (usually men's or boys' underwear), probably of Eastern European or Ukrainian origin. Gitch and gotch are primarily used in Saskatchewan and Manitoba while the variants with an `n' are common in Alberta and British Columbia;

- Jam Buster: jelly filled doughnut;

- Porch Climber: moonshine or homemade alcohol;

- Slough: pond - usually a pond on a farm;

- Pot Hole: usually a deeper slough, also used to refer to slough in plural. Pot hole more commonly refers to a hole in a paved road caused by the freezing and thawing cycle;

- Vico: used in Saskatchewan instead of chocolate milk. Formerly a brand of chocolate milk.

In farming communities with substantial Ukrainian, German, or Mennonite populations, accents, sentence structure, and vocabulary influenced by these languages is common.

Ontario The area to the north and west of Ottawa is heavily influenced by original Scottish, Irish, and German settlers, with many French loanwords. This is frequently referred to as the Valley Accent.

Toronto Although only 1.5% of Torontonians speak French, about 56.2% are native speakers of English, according to the 2006 Census. As a result Toronto shows a more variable speech pattern. Although slang terms used in Toronto are synonymous with those used in other major North American cities, there is also an influx of slang terminology originating from Toronto's many immigrant communities. These terms originate mainly from various European, Asian, and African words. Among youths in predominantly Jamaican areas, a large number of words borrowed from Jamaican Patois can be heard.

Northwest Ontario With a smaller French population, and sizable Aboriginal population, this area is somewhat unique as having elements from both the Western provinces and the rest of Ontario.

Communities receive media from both directions, and residents travel frequently to both areas, prompting a blending of dialects. Sharp eared locals can detect from word usage (Soda versus pop, hoodie versus bunny hug) where in Northwest Ontario one originated, "Down south" (Thunder Bay and beyond the Great Lakes) or "Out West" (west of the Manitoba border).

Quebec Many people in Montreal distinguish between the words marry and merry. A person with English as the first language is called an Anglophone. The corresponding term for a French speaker is Francophone and the corresponding term for a person who is neither Anglophone nor Francophone is Allophone. The terms Anglophone and Francophone are used in New Brunswick, and Ontario.

Quebec Anglophones generally pronounce French street names in Montreal as French words. Pie IX Boulevard is pronounced as in French («pea-nuf»), not as "pie nine." On the other hand, most Anglophones do pronounce final Ds, as in Bernard and Bouchard.

In the city of Montreal, especially in some of the western suburbs like Cote-St-Luc, Hampstead or Westmount, there is a strong Jewish influence in the English spoken in these areas. A large wave of Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union before and after World War II is also evident today. Their English has a strong Yiddish influence, there are some similarities to English spoken in New York. Italians and Greeks living in Montreal have also adopted English and therefore have their own dialect.

Words used mainly in Quebec and especially in Montreal are: stage for "apprenticeship or internship", copybook for a notebook, depanneur or dep for a convenience store, and guichet for an ABM/ATM. It is also common for Anglophones to use translated French words instead of common English equivalents, such as "open" and "close" for "on" and "off", e. g. "Open the lights, please" for "Turn on the lights, please".

Newfoundland The dialect spoken in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, an autonomous dominion until March 31, 1949, is often considered the most distinctive Canadian English dialect. Some Newfoundland English differs in vowel pronunciation, morphology, syntax, and preservation of archaic adverbal-intensifiers.

The dialect can vary markedly from community to community, as well as from region to region, reflecting ethnic origin as well as a past in which there were few roads and many communities, and fishing villages in particular remained very isolated. A few speakers have a transitional pin-pen merger.

Grammar When writing, Canadians will start a sentence with As well, in the sense of "in addition", this construction is a Canadianism.

Canadian and British English share idioms like in hospital and to university, while in American English the definite article is mandatory.

Vocabulary Where Canadian English shares vocabulary with other English dialects, it tends to share most with American English, many terms in standard Canadian English are, however, shared with Britain, but not with the majority of American speakers. In some cases British and the American terms coexist in Canadian English to various extents, a classic example is holiday, often used interchangeably with vacation. In addition, the vocabulary of Canadian English also features words that are seldom (if ever) found elsewhere.

As a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Canada shares many items of institutional terminology and professional designations with the countries of the former British Empire - e. g., constable, for a police officer of the lowest rank, and chartered accountant.

Daily life vocabulary Terms common in Canada, Britain, and Ireland but less frequent or nonexistent in the U.S. are:

- Tin (as in tin of tuna), for can, especially among older speakers. Among younger speakers, can is more common, with tin referring to a can which is wider than it is tall;

- Cutlery, for silverware or flatware;

- Serviette, especially in Eastern Canada, for a paper table napkin. This usage is fading;

- Tap, conspicuously more common than faucet in everyday usage;

- The following are more or less distinctively Canadian;

- ABM, bank machine: synonymous with ATM (which is also used);

- BFI bin: Dumpster, after a prominent Canadian waste management company, in provinces where that company does business, compare Kleenex, Xerox;

- Chesterfield: originally British and internationally used (as in classic furnishing terminology) to refer to a sofa whose arms are the same height as the back, it is a term for any couch or sofa in Canada (and, to some extent, Northern California). Once a hallmark of CanE, chesterfield is now largely in decline among younger generations in the western and central regions. Couch is now the most common term, sofa is also used;

- Converter: a television remote control. Used synonymously with "remote control" or "remote," and less common among younger speakers;

- Eavestroughs: rain gutters. Also used, especially in the past, in the Northern and Western U.S., the first recorded usage is in Herman Melville's Moby-Dick: "The tails tapering down that way, serve to carry off the water, d'ye see. Same with cocked hats, the cocks form gable-end eave-troughs (sic), Flask";

- Garburator: (rhymes with carburetor) a garbage disposal;

- Homogenized milk or homo milk: Milk containing 3.25% milk fat, typically called "whole milk" in the US;

- Hydro: a common synonym for electrical service, used primarily in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and British Columbia. Most of the power in these provinces is hydroelectricity, and incorporate the term "Hydro". Usage: "I didn't pay my hydro bill so they shut off my lights." Hence hydrofield, a line of electricity transmission towers, usually in groups cutting across a city, and hydro lines/poles, electrical transmission lines/poles. These usages of hydro are also standard in the Australian state of Tasmania;

- Loonie: the Canadian one-dollar coin, derived from the use of the common loon on the reverse. The toonie (less commonly spelled tooney, twooney, twoonie) is the two-dollar coin. Loonie is also used to refer to the Canadian currency, particularly when discussing the exchange rate with the U.S. dollar, neither loonie nor toonie can describe amounts of money beyond a very small amount. (e. g. I have thirty dollars versus "got a loonie/toonie?";

- Pogie or pogey: term referring to unemployment insurance, which is now officially called Employment Insurance in Canada. Derived from the use of pogey as a term for a poorhouse. Not used for welfare, in which case the term is "the dole", as in "he's on the dole, eh?".

2.5 Indian English

Indian English or South Asian English comprises several dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in the Indian Subcontinent. These dialects evolved during and after the period when Britain exercised colonial rule over India. English is one of the official languages of India, with about ninety million speakers according to the 1991 Census of India. Fewer than a quarter of a million people speak English as their first language. With the exception of some families who communicate primarily in English, as well as members of the relatively small Anglo-Indian community (numbering less than half a million), speakers of Indian English use it as a second or third language, after their indigenous Indian language(s), such as Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, Sindhi, Pushto, Bengali, Balochi, Kannada, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Malayalam, etc.

Several idiomatic forms, derived from Indian literary and vernacular language, also have made their way into Indian English. Despite this diversity, there is general homogeneity in syntax and vocabulary among the varieties of Indian English.

Influences: British and American The form of English that Indians and all the other people of the subcontinent are taught in schools is essentially British English. A socially-superior accent is deemed to be that of Received Pronunciation. However, even during the time of the British Raj, before the partition of Pakistan and Bangladesh, Indian English had established itself as an audibly distinct dialect of the language with its own quirks and specific phrases. Indian spellings typically follow British conventions.

After gaining independence in 1947, Indian English took on a divergent evolution, and many phrases that other English speakers consider antiquated are still popular in India. The legacy of the East India Company and its practices still prevails in official correspondence in India. Official letters include phrases such as "please do the needful" and "you will be intimated shortly", which are directly lifted from East India Company correspondence from the seventeenth century.

Because of the growing influence of American culture in recent decades, certain elements of American slang are now used by some Indians, especially younger ones. American-English spellings are also widely prevalent in scientific and technical publications, while British-English spellings are used in other media.

Idioms and popular words/phrases.

- B.A. - fail - used in matrimonial ads to describe someone who did not pass the final examinations but was admitted to college and did take college classes, as opposed to someone who did not go to college. `Higher Secondary (fail)' and `M.A. (fail)' are similar;

- B.A. - pass - used as the opposite to the above;

- Gone for a six - to mean something got ruined. (Origins linked to game of Cricket);

- Eve teasing - `Sexual harassment';

- Convented - `A girl educated well in Christian convent-style school';

- I got a firing/I was fired by him - `I got yelled at by him'. Means "I was dismissed (from employment) by him" in almost every other English variety;

- Where are you put up means `Where do you live'? Heard often in S. India;

- Where do you stay? is the same as `Where do you live?' or `Where's your house?'. This is also used in Scottish and South African English;

- Shift - to move as in "I shifted my things from my old apartment to my new one";

- I don't take meat/milk/whatever - `I don't eat meat/drink milk' etc;

- She is innocently divorced or divorced (innocent) - part of matrimonial advertising terminology, it means the marriage was not consummated;

- Wheatish complexion - Seen in matrimonial ads. Means `not dark skinned, tending toward light';

- "What is your good name?" to mean "What is your full name?," where a questioner wants to know the person's formal or legal given name that may appear on a passport, as opposed to the pet name they would be called by close friends and family. It is a carryover from the Hindi expression "Shubh-naam" (literally meaning "auspicious name") or the Urdu "ism-e shariif" (meaning "noble name"), or in Bengali, bhalo-naam (meaning quite literally "good name" or "proper name"). This is similar to the way Japanese refer to the other person's name with an honorific "O-" prefix, as in "O-namae" instead of the simple "namae" when referring to their own name;

- "Out of station" to mean "out of town". This phrase has its origins in the posting of army officers to particular `stations' during the days of the East India Company;

- "Join duty" to mean "reporting to work for the first time". "Rejoin duty" is to come back to work after a vacation;

- "Tell me": used when answering the phone, meaning "How can I help you?";

- "Too good": intended to mean "very good", in place of "so" or "very". For example: This mobile is too good;

- "order for food" instead of "order food", as in "Let's order for sandwiches";

- "pass out" is meant to graduate, as in "I passed out of the university in 1995";

- "go for a toss" means to end prematurely or unexpectedly, as in "my plans went for a toss when it started raining heavily". This phrase has origins in cricket, where to go for a toss as means to be dismissed on the first ball. Likely to cause embarrassment if used in Britain, where "(go for a) toss" is a slang term for masturbation;

- "on the anvil" is used often in the Indian press to mean something is about to appear or happen. For example, a headline might read "New roads on the anvil";

- "tight slap" to mean "hard slap";

- Timepass - `Doing something for leisure but with no intention or target/satisfaction' For example, "Hows the movie?" reply - "Just timepass man... nothing great about it";

- Dearness Allowance - Payment given to employees to compensate for the effects of inflation. Source:online Dictionary of Indian English;

- Pindrop silence! - Teachers in schools may say this to the kids;

- Chargesheet: n. formal charges filed in a court, v. to file charges against someone in court;

- "I won't give him a single pie" to mean a "single cent". Pie is an Indian denomination of the anna, which in turn was one-sixteenth of one rupee/taka;

- Redressal: n. redress, remedy, reparation;

- "Hill Station" means mountain resort;

- "Hotel" means "restaurant" (as well as specifically "big hotel") in India: "I ate in the hotel". "Lodge" is used to refer to small hotels. Sometimes "Lodge" refers to a place where you stay (in rooms) and "Hotel" refers to a place where you eat;

- "Stepney" refers to a spare tyre. The word is a genericized trademark originating from the Stepney Spare Motor Wheel, itself named after Stepney Street, in Llanelli, Wales;

- "Specs" means spectacles or glasses (as in colloquial UK English);

- "Cent per cent" means "100 per cent" as in "He got cent per cent in maths";

- "Centum" is also frequently used to refer to 100.

Grammar The role of English within the complex multilingual society of India is far from straightforward: it is used across the country, but it may be a speaker's first, second, or third language, and the grammar and phraseology may mimic that of the speaker's Indian language.

While Indian speakers of English use idioms peculiar to their homeland, often literal translations of words and phrases from their native languages, only standard British English is considered grammatically correct.

The distinct evolution of regional variations in contemporary usage has led to terms such as Hinglish (Hindi + English), Kanglish (Kannada + English), Telgish (Telugu + English), Tanglish (Tamil + English), and Minglish (Marathi + English). Hinglish and other variations are popular in the field of advertising. In this context, the aim of reaching a large cross-section of society is fulfilled by such double-coding. Many words borrowed from Indian languages find their way into the ostensibly-English media. Phonology Indian accents vary greatly. Some Indians speak English with an accent very close to a Standard British (Received Pronunciation) accent, others lean toward a more `vernacular', native-tinted, accent for their English speech.

2.6 New Zealand English

New Zealand English (NZE) is the form of the English language used in New Zealand.

The English language was established in New Zealand by colonists during the 19th century. The most distinctive influences on New Zealand English have come from southern England, Scottish English (see Dunedin), and the indigenous Mвori language.

New Zealand English is close to Australian English in its pronunciation, there are, however, several subtle differences, many of which show the influence of Maori speech. One of the most prominent differences between the New Zealand accent and that of Australia is the realization of /?/: in New Zealand English, as in some South African varieties, this is pronounced as a schwa.

Historical development A distinct New Zealand variant of the English language has been in existence since at least 1912, when Frank Arthur Swinnerton described it as a "carefully modulated murmur," though its history probably goes back further than that. From the beginning of the British settlement on the islands, a new dialect began to form by adopting Mвori words to describe the different flora and fauna of New Zealand, for which English did not have any words of its own. New Zealand English vocabulary There are also a number of dialectical words and phrases used in New Zealand English. These are mostly informal terms most common in casual speech.

New Zealand adopted decimal currency in the 1960s and the metric system in the 1970s. While the older measures are understood by those born before 1960, younger New Zealanders have lived most or all of their lives in a metric environment and may not be familiar with pounds, ounces, stones, degrees fahrenheit, acres, yards, and miles, or pounds sterling, shillings, and pence - unless they have spent some time and effort studying foreign countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States. However, that can be questionable.

Differences from Australian English Many of these relate to words used to refer to common items, often based on which major brands become eponyms (see Table - Differences from Australian English):

language vocabulary dialect

In the 1950s and 1960s, the phrase "milk bar" referred to a place that served non-alcoholic drinks, primarily milkshakes, tea, and sometimes coffee. Ice cream was also served. A traditional difference between the New Zealand "varsity" and the Australian "uni" (for "university"), has largely disappeared with the adoption of "uni" into the New Zealand vocabulary.

Dialects within New Zealand English Recognisable regional variations is slight, with the exception of Southland, where the "Southland burr" (see above) is heard. This southern area formed a traditional repository of immigration from Scotland (see Dunedin). Several words and phrases common in Scots or Scottish English still persist in this area as well. Some examples of this include the use of wee to mean "small", and phrases such as to do the messages meaning "to go shopping". Some speakers from the West Coast of the South Island retain a half Australian accent from the region's 19th century gold-rush settlers.

Mвori retain a further variation of New Zealand English, with accents of varying degree, and tending to use Mвori words more frequently. Bro'Town was a popular TV programme that exaggerated Mвori, Polynesian, and other accents.

Spelling Where there is a distinct difference between British and US spelling (such as colour/color and travelled/traveled), the British spelling is universally used. In words that may be spelled with either an -ise or an -ize suffix (such as organise/organize) New Zealand English uses the -ise suffix exclusively. This contrasts with American English, where -ize is generally preferred, and British English, where -ise is more frequent but -ize is preferred by some (including the Oxford English Dictionary). New Zealand favours the spelling fiord over fjord, unlike most other English-speaking countries. This is particularly apparent in the name of Fiordland, a rugged region in the country's southwest. Thus, this part of our research we touched the main features of the varieties of the English language. As it was mentioned above, there are six main variants of the English language, that are American, Australian, Canadian, British, Indian and New Zealand languages. All the variants differ from each other and each of them has its own peculiarities and characteristics.


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