Technological process of air cargo terminals work

Calculation of air cargo terminal technical parameters. Determination of warehouse overall dimensions. Technological process of transfer goods in ULD on IAL handling. Loading characteristics of the aircrafts. The data of the standard packaging (ULD).

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, YOURTH AND SPORT OF UKRAINE

NATIONAL AVIATION UNIVERSITY

Air Transportation Management Department

TERM PAPER

(EXPLANATIONAL NOTE)

On discipline "Cargo Transportations"

Topic: "Technological process of Air Cargo Terminals Work"

Done by: student of the group 309

Faculty of Management and Logistics

Nastya Geraimovych

Supervisor: Ivannikova V.Yu.

Kyiv - 2013

Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Chapter I. Calculation of Air Cargo Terminal Technical Parameters

1.1 Analysis of goods' flow structure and grounding of air cargo terminal structure

1.2 Calculation of technological parameters of warehouse

1.2.1 Calculation of technological area of warehouse

1.2.3 Calculation of auxiliary area of warehouse

1.2.4 Calculation of office area of warehouse

1.3 Determination of warehouse overall dimensions

1.4 Calculation of length of the front of loading and unloading works

1.4.1 Calculation of optimal number of goods acceptance point

1.4.2 Calculation of necessary length of the front of loading and unloading works

1.5 Calculation of mechanized means number

1.5.1 Calculation of mechanized means number in warehouse

1.5.2 Calculation of mechanized means number on apron

Chapter II. Organization and technology of Air Cargo Terminal work

2.1 Technology of goods handling in Air Cargo Terminal

2.2 Technological process of transfer goods in ULD on IAL handling

2.3 Loading characteristics of the aircrafts

2.4 Technical characteristics of the standard packaging (ULD)

2.5 Organizational structure of Air Cargo Terminal Mail and Goods Handling Department

Conclusion

References

Abstract

Explanation note consists of the page, project statement, abstract, contents, list of symbols and definitions, specification, introduction, practical and theoretical part, conclusions and list of literature. Includes 5 schemes, 3 schematic plans, 2 diagrams, 8 tables with initial data. In the process of writing the work the 5 resources were used, including online resources and further reading.

The object of investigations in this course project is an air cargo terminal technological functioning. The aim of course work is to gain the following skills:

- ability to calculate process parameters of cargo complex, using data obtained after analyzing the structure of cargo flows;

- calculate needed number of apron and warehouse mechanized means (unite load devices and bulk cargo);

- develop an original technology of goods using international schemes and standards for quality and safety process (import, export, transit);

- learn different types of aircraft, their construction and unite load devices, which can be transported be them;

- develop master-plan of air cargo terminal, taking into account IATA recommendations and planned decisions of separate warehouses of the complex;

- design organizational structure of air cargo terminal;

- use knowledge gained on lectures, practical courses.

Among program sources there are: MS Office Word, Excel;

List of key words: cargo, cargo terminal, air cargo terminal, domestic airline, international airline, warehouse, import, export, transit, utine load devices, bulk cargo, mechanized means, cargo manifest, package, vehicle whit a lifting body.

List of symbols and definitions:

ACT - air cargo terminal;

DAL - domestic airlines;

IAL - international airlines;

VLB - vehicle with a lifting body;

ULD - unite load devices.

Cargo - is whatever goods which is not mail or passenger baggage items transported by air transport. This is also goods or produce transported, generally of commercial purpose.

Warehouse - is a commercial building for storage of goods.

Cargo airline - are airlines dedicated to the cargo transportations. Some cargo airlines are divisions or subsidiaries of larger passenger airlines.

Mechanized means - are means providing human operators with machinery those assist them with the muscular requirements of work. It can also refer to the use of machines to replace human labor.

International airline - are organizations providing aviation services to passengers and/or cargo.

Domestic airline - are local airlines and generally they only flying in local airspace (as opposed to international and intercontinental); operate within a single country.

Specification:

DAL

1 - Cargo receiving zone;

2 - Receiving/dispatching point;

3 - Warehouse;

4 - Stack;

5 - Electric loaders;

6 - Cargo consolidation zone;

7 - Trucks;

8 - VLB.

Arrived cargo.

Shipped cargo.

IAL

1 - Cargo receiving zone;

2 - Receiving/dispatching point;

3 - Warehouse;

4 - Stack;

5 - Electric loaders;

6 - Cargo consolidation zone;

7 - Trucks;

8 - VLB;

9 - Diesel truck.

Introduction

Air Transport Industry is one of the best prototypes of the future world where all human activities will be integrated including administrations, companies and contractors. In that respect Air Transport Industry gives an idea of the world.

Air transport is a huge international industry and the demand for air transport of both goods and passengers is set to grow even more, with new airports being built all over the world. Main scope of air transport - passenger and cargo transportations over a distance of more than a thousand kilometers. Mainly by air perishable foods and especially valuable cargo and mail are transported. The demand for air cargo transportation has increased significantly over the last few years, because product life cycles have shorted and the demand for rapid delivery has increased. calculation air cargo terminal

Air cargo plays a crucial role in today's world. Whether it's through express shipments providing expedited service, cargo carried in the holds of passenger aircraft linking together businesses across the globe, freighters delivering cargo on high volume trade lanes, or chartered flights providing needed supplies on special service schedules, the air cargo industry serves as a key engine of economic growth and development. It supports trade and investment, promotes connectivity, and improves efficiency and competitiveness.

Air cargo represents a relatively small percentage by volume of world trade (less than 10 %)- but its significance leaps by value, where it accounts for more than 30 % of international trade. In other words, air cargo is oriented towards high value or time sensitive products. For example, the express industry has enabled the widespread adoption of just-in-time practices by many businesses, which saving countless dollars in inventory and logistical costs. That said, air cargo continues to expand its clientele and now serves a diverse range of businesses and consumers. It is interwoven into the fabric of everyday life- business and personal- in many corners of the globe.

In this project we are consider designing process of Air Cargo Terminal. It is highly complicated because it depends on factors such as the complexity of the process, the range of product/service functions, the industrial environment and the volume of components.

According to the diversity of cargo types a cargo terminal that is going to be constructed should meet all the requirements as for facilities for proper cargo handling. Cargo, regardless if it is general or in bulk, requires different handling facilities. Loose, non-containerized cargo is mostly labor intensive, relying on the use of fork lifters of conveyors belts to move from one place to the next. This process often can be made easier if the cargo is placed on pallets.

Airport Cargo Terminal - a collection of buildings that are designed for the reception, temporary storage, processing and delivery of goods, as well as to accommodate staff, Road Transport, mechanization and equipment.

The structure of ACT consists of:

* Cargo commercial warehouse;

* Freight yard;

* Cargo apron;

* Service and administrative buildings;

* Utility room (Staff only).

Warehouse buildings depend on the traffic volume through this airport and the specific conditions of its functioning.

Depending on of daily cargo turnover cargo terminals are divided into 4 groups:

1. Small - (up to 70 tons / day).

2. Medium - (from 70 up to 300 tons / day).

3. Great - (from 300 up to 1000 tons / day).

4. Large - (more than 1000 tons / day).

As part of a medium, great and large terminals should contain following buildings and facilities:

- Cargo commercial warehouses - intended for short-term storage of goods after acceptance by the shipper before the flight acquisition and delivery of goods to the consignee;

- Freight yard - is designed for loading and unloading of vehicles with goods that are delivered to the airport for departure or exportation of goods received by the addressee in stock;

- Cargo apron - performed for loading and unloading cargo from/to aircrafts.

In addition to the basic structures ACT includes specialized storage for radioactive and hazardous cargo, storage areas for long-length and overweight cargo, as well as service and administrative facilities, parking area for mechanization.

Cargo Commercial Warehouse - is designed to carry out all operations related to receiving, issuing, shipping and cargo handling. Examination the state of packaging, label, weigh and accessories loads on aircraft departing is carried out. Drawing up the necessary documentation is carried out.

The design, equipment and construction of commercial warehouse should have sufficient space to accommodate the loads. Ingredients must be equipped with insulated rooms and spaces that are closed to the locks, to store the most valuable goods and facilities to the regulation of temperature for short-term storage of specific goods, which require certain definite temperature conditions. Equipment and construction of commercial warehouse must provide complete safety of goods in it. Provide mechanization of operations and require sanitary conditions. All standards of health and safety staff should be complied.

ACT is built on the basis of rational technology operations on processing of cargo. One or more sections of the warehouse should be designed to receive and dispatch cargoes, another warehouse or several sections in it - for the arrival, delivery and transit goods. For each of these operations sufficient scope of work area should be provided.

Thus, on the basis of the structure of cargo turnover we can make calculations of technological parameters of cargo complex, needed number of mechanized means, and develop a plan of technology and processing of different cargo categories.

Chapter 1. Calculation of Air Cargo Terminal Technical Parameters

1.1 Analysis of goods' flow structure and grounding of air cargo terminal structure

There are such goods flows in general volume of daily goods handling:

- goods which are shipped on domestic flights (DALв);

- goods which are arrived on domestic flights (DALarrived);

- goods which are shipped on international flights (IALв);

- goods which are arrived on international flights (IALarrived);

- transfer goods which are carried on international flights (IALtransferred);

- goods transported in bulk on international flights (IALbulk);

- goods transported in unit load devices on international flights (IALULD).

Let's calculate these flows based on the initial data of daily cargo turnover and part of separate types of cargo.

Daily goods turnover is Qday = 350 t/day.

DAL calculation. Specific weight of goods on DAL is 45 %. That is why daily goods turnover on DAL is equal:

QDAL = 350*0.45 = 135 (t/day).

Specific weight of goods arrived by DAL is equal to 50 %. That is why daily goods turnover is equal:

QDAL(arrived) = 135*0.5 = 67.5 (t/day).

Specific weight of goods shipped by DAL is equal to 50 %.(as arrived by DAL is equal to 35 %) That is why daily goods turnover is equal:

QDAL(shipped) = 135*0.5 = 67.5 (t/day).

IAL calculation. Specific weight of goods by IAL is equal to 60 %. That is why daily goods turnover on IAL is equal:

QIAL = 350*0.6 =210 (t/day).

Specific weight of goods transferred by IAL is equal to 10 % of total volume of goods carried by IAL. That is why daily goods turnover is equal:

QIAL(transferred) = 210*0.1=21 (t/day).

Specific weight of goods arrived by IAL is equal to 60 % of total volume of goods carried by IAL. That is why daily goods turnover is equal:

QIAL (arrived) = 210*0.6 = 126(t/day).

Specific weight of goods shipped by IAL is equal to 30 % because (100 % - (70 %+ 15 %)) of total volume of goods carried by IAL. That is why daily goods turnover is equal:

QIAL (shipped) =210*0.3 = 63 (t/day).

Specific weight of bulk cargo transported by IAL is equal to 30 % of total volume of goods carried by IAL. That is why daily goods turnover is equal:

QIAL (bulk) = 210*0.3 = 63(t/day).

Specific weight of goods transported in ULDs by IAL is equal to 70 % of total volume of goods carried by IAL. That is why daily goods turnover is equal:

QIAL (ULD) = 210* 0.7 = 147 (t/day).

Therefore, two warehouses should be built in our cargo airport complex:

1st warehouse - for cargo transported by DAL;

2nd warehouse - for cargo transported by IAL (transferred cargo included).

The cargo airport complex layout is presented in Appendixes.

1.2 Calculation of technological parameters of warehouse

1.2.1 Calculation of technological area of warehouse

During designing warehouses the following technological areas should be calculated:

Fwor - area, directly occupied by stored goods (working area);

Fad - area necessary for preforming operations connected with goods acceptance and delivery (additional area);

Fuax - area, occupied by passages (auxiliary area);

Fof - area, occupied by offices (office area);

Total area of warehouse (m2) is calculated according to the formula:

Ftot = Fwor + Fad+ Fuax + Fof.

For DAL (stack storage).

During calculation of the required working area of warehouse first of all capacity of its premises is calculated Ewar (t) according to the formula:

Ewar(stack) = Qday * Kn *,

where Qday - daily goods turnover of an airport on goods departure or arriving, (t/day).

Kn - coefficient that takes into account nonuniformity of goods delivery at warehouse during different seasons and months of year (Kn = 1,8);

- average duration of goods storage at warehouse, (days;= 2);

- arrival:

Ewar = 63*1,8*2= 170,1 (t).

- departure:

Ewar = 117*1,8*2= 315,9 (t).

Total capacity of DAL warehouse: Ewar =170,1 + 315,9 = 486 (t).

Calculation of working area for goods, transported by domestic airlines, should be performed taking into account specific loads per 1 m2 of warehouse floor according to the formula, where:

- capacity of premises, intended for storage of goods on floor or in stacks, (t);

Pfl - specific loading, allowed per 1 m2 per warehouse area (Pfl = 0,6 t/ m2);

K sur.ar - coefficient of surplus area that takes into account irregularity of goods distribution (K sur.ar = 1.3).

- arrival: = 368,5 (m2);

- departure = 684,4 (m2);

Total: 368,5 + 684,4 = 1053,9 (m2)

Number of stacks is calculated according to the formula:

Nst= Fwor/Fst (pcs),

Where Fst - area of one stack (Fst = 24 m2).

- arrival:

n st = = 15 (pcs);

- departure:

n st = = 28 (pcs).

Total amount of stacks at this warehouse: nst = 15+ 28 = 43 (pcs);

For IAL (rack storage):

Ewar(rack) = Qday * Kn * (m2);

- arrival:

Ewar(rack) = 141,7*1,6*1,5 = 340,1 (t);

- departure:

Ewar(rack) = 30,4*1,6*1,5 = 72,9 (t);

- transfer:

Ewar(rack) = 30,4*1,6*0,6 = 29,2 (t).

Total capacity of IAL warehouse: Ewar(rack) = 340,1 + 72,9 + 29,2 = 442,2 (t).

During determination of required working area for goods, stored at racks (IA), the volume of rack's working cell c is taken as a basis for calculation:

c = l*b*h (m3),

where l - length of the cell (m) (= 1,5);

b - width of a cell (m) (= 1,2);

h - height of a cell (m) (= 1,2).

Volume of rack's working cell: c = 1,5* 1,2* 1,2 = 2,16 (m3)

Calculation of the specific capacity of rack's cell Ec if performed according to the formula:

Ec--=--c*g*Kf--(t),

where g - volume weight of stored goods (t/m3) (= 1,2);

Kf - coefficient of a cell filling with goods (= 0,4);

Specific capacity of rack's cell Ec = 2,16*1,2*0,4 = 1,03 (t)

Number of racks working cells, which are necessary for arrangement specific capacity for stored goods, Nc should be determined according to the formula Nc, where

Number of racks working cells: Nc = 429 (pcs);

Number of racks tires is determined according to the formula Kt,

where Prack - specific loading, allowed per 1 m2 of warehouse floor with rack storage of goods, (t/m2) (= 3,6);

Fc - area of one cell.

Number of racks tires: Kt = 5 (pcs).

Design number of the working cells in the lower tire of racks is determined from the condition:

So, = 86 (pcs).

Total working area of warehouse section, intended for storage of goods at tracks, is calculated according to the formula:

S = (l+b`)*b* (m2),

where b` - width between neighboring cells (m2), (= 0,1).

= (1,5+0,1)*1,2*86 = 165,1 (m2).

1.2.2 Calculation of additional area of warehouse

Additional area of warehouse includes areas, intended for goods acceptance and delivery. It is calculated on the basis of index of design loading per 1m2 of area. Area for goods acceptance and consolidation is calculated according to the formula (Fad, m2):

Where P*- loading per 1m2 at the acceptance and consolidation area (t/m2) (=0,5);

t - term of goods storage at the acceptance and consolidation area (days) (=0,9).

- DAL

Fad = 436,8 m2.

- IAL

Fad = 656,1 m2.

1.2.3 Calculation of auxiliary area of warehouse

Approximate calculation of auxiliary area of warehouse, occupied by passages Faux can be performed according to the following formula:

Faux =Fwor *Kpas (m2),

where Kpas - coefficient that takes into account necessity in auxiliary area inside warehouse, occupied by passages. (= 0,6).

- DAL

= 1053,9 *0,6 =623,3 (m2).

- IAL

= 166 *0,6 =99,9 (m2).

1.2.4 Calculation of office area of warehouse

Fof = n*Sn (m2),

where n - is a number of workers at the warehouse (person) (=8);

Sn - normative area per one worker (m2)(=3,25).

It is necessary to take into account the number of the customs employees for international airline warehouse (5 person).

- DAL

= 8*3,25 =26 (m2).

- IAL

= (8+5)*3,25 = 42,25 (m2).

We have all needed data to calculate total area oh warehouses:

= Fwor+Fad+Faux+Fof = 1053,9+436,8 +623,3 +26 = 2140 (m2).

= Fwor+Fad+Faux+Fof = 165,1+656,1 +99,9 +42,25 =963,35 (m2).

1.3 Determination of warehouse overall dimensions

Determination of overall dimensions should be performed from the conditions of given total area. As a rule, during designing warehouse their width is set Bwar, which according to the construction standard should be multiple to 3. It can be 12, 18, 24, 36 or 48 m, for example.

Length of the front of loading and unloading works is also taken into account during warehouse overall dimensions determination.

Warehouse length Lwar is determined according to the formula:

Lwar= Ftot/Bwor (m),

where Bbar = 36 m.

- Lwar= 60 (m).

- IAL

- Lwar= = 27 (m).

1.4 Calculation of length of the front of loading and unloading works

One of the important tasks during development of the technology of comprehensively mechanized warehouses is determination of an optimal number of goods acceptance points and necessary length of the front of loading and unloading works.

Calculation of these parameters is performed on the basis of the queuing theory.

1.4.1 Calculation of optimal number of goods acceptance point

- Optimal number of goods acceptance points and amount of sets of vehicles and equipment for carrying out loading and unloading works and operations, connected with goods acceptance and registration, are calculated according to the formula nopt., where

- intensity of input flow of trucks (pcs/hour);

- average waiting time of truck with goods in queue on loading (hours) (=0,8);

- possibility that acceptance points will be occupied and next in trun truck with good will be waiting for unloading (=0,9);

- possibility that downtime of truck in queue on loading can be bigger than the given one (=0,1);

- intensity of one shipper servicing (inversely proportional to the average time of one shipper servicing tserv).

tserv =0,4 (h);= 2,5 (pcs/h).

Intensity of input flow of trucks (pcs/h) can be calculated according to the formula, where:

T - is working time of warehouse during a day from acceptance and delivery of goods from warehouse, (=20 h/day);

q - is average carrying capacity of trucks, which are used (=5 t);

- is coefficient of a truck carrying capacity usage (=0,6 h).

- DAL

nopt = 4 (pcs);

- IAL

nopt = 5 (pcs).

1.4.2 Calculation of necessary length of the front of loading and unloading works

Necessary length of the front of loading and unloading works is calculated by the formula:

L= nopt* l +(nopt-1)* lres (m),

where l - is length or width of a truck, depending upon the way of trucks arrangement(m) (=6,5);

lres - is reserve distance between neighboring trucks, installed near unloading platform (m) (=2).

- DAL

L = 4*6,5+(4-1)*2= 26+6 = 32 (m).

- IAL

L = 5*6,5+(5-1)*2= 32.5+8 = 40.5 (m)

1.5 Calculation of mechanized means number

Different technological processes, performed in Air Cargo Terminal, require existence of different according to the construction and purpose mechanized means. It is necessary to calculate needed number of mechanized means for warehouse and apron handling of goods, which are transported in ULDs (forklift loaders, diesel tractors with trolleys and ULDs loaders) and in bulk (forklift loaders, vehicles with lifting body).

1.5.1 Calculation of mechanized means number in warehouse

In order to handle goods inside warehouse the necessary number of electric forklift loaders is calculated according to the formula:

Nload= Qd*Kn/Ph.load*Tload*Kus.t (pcs),

where Ph.load - hourly productivity of electric loader (t/h);

Tload - term of electric loader work (h/day);

Kus.t - coefficient of vehicle usage during working time (= 0,7);

Number if electric loaders is integer. If calculation result is non-integer it should be rounded up.

Calculation of hourly productivity of electric loader is performed according to the formula:

Ph.load = Qload*Kus.c*Zload (t/hour),

where Qload - is carrying capacity of electric loader (t) (=2,5);

- coefficient of carrying capacity usage (= 0,7);

Zload - is number of working cycles of electric loader per hour.

Ph.load = 2,5*0,7* 49 = 86 (t/hour).

Number of working cycles of electric loader per hour is calculated according to the formula Zload, where:

Thour - duration of hour (3600 seconds);

Tc.load - duration of one working cycle of electric loader (sec);

Zload = 49 (pcs).

Duration of one working cycle of forklift loader is calculated according to the formula:

Tc.load = t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 + t5 + t6 (sec),

where t1 - time of forks placing under goods, lifting of goods on forks and loaders turn (= 25 sec);

t2 - time of loaders movement with goods;

t3-time of goods lifting on necessary height;

t4 - time of goods laying in stack and deviation of forklift loader frame backwards without goods (= 9sec);

t5 - time of empty loaders forks down movement (=t3);

t6-time on reverse idle running.

Tc.load(DAL) = Tc.load(IAL) = 25+8+16+9+16+7= 81 (s)

Time of forklift loader movement with goods or without it is calculated according to the formula:

t2,6 = + tac (sec),

where is forklift loader movement track (m) (is determined independently, depending upon warehouse dimensions, from the one ends of warehouse to another along diagonal);

- is average speed of forklift loader motion (km/s)(=20);

tac - time on acceleration and deceleration (= 5 s).

- DAL

Lload= 65,5 (m).

t2,6 = + 5 = 8 (sec).

- IAL

Lload= 41,8 (m).

t2,6 = + 5 = 7 (sec).

Time of goods lifting or fall movement is determined according to the formula:

t3,5 = + tac (sec),

where average height of loader's forks lifting (fall movement), (= 5m);

- speed of loaders forks lifting (fall movement), (= 0,45 m/sec);

t3,5 = + 5 = 16 (sec).

Now we can calculate needed amount of electric forklift loaders:

- DAL

Nload = 1 (pcs).

- IAL

Nload = 1 (pcs).

1.5.2 Calculation of mechanized means number on apron

Main mechanized means, used at airports for goods transportation on apron and carrying out loading and unloading woks near aircraft are vehicles with lifting body (VLB) for bulk cargo and diesel tractor with trolleys (two trolleys as a rule) together with ULD's loaders for goods transported in ULD's.

Necessary number of vehicles with lifting body, diesel tractors with two trolleys and ULD's loaders is calculated according to the formula:

NVLB;(d.t; ULD load) = Qd*Kn/Pvlb*Ktr (pcs),

where - productivity of vehicle with lifting body, diesel tractor with two trolleys or ULD loader, correspondently (t/day);

- is coefficient of technical readiness of vehicle with lifting body, diesel tractor with two trolleys of ULD loader, correspondently (= 0,7);

Number of vehicle with lifting body diesel tractor with two trolleys or ULD loader NVLB;(d.t; ULD load) is integer. If calculation result is non-integer it should be rounded up.

Productivity of vehicle with lifting body, diesel tractor with two trolleys or ULD loader is determined according to the formula:

Pvlb= Q VLB;(d.t; ULD load) *Z VLB;(d.t; ULD load)* Kus.c(t/ hour),

where Q VLB;(d.t; ULD load) - carrying capacity of vehicle with lifting body, diesel tractor with two trolleys or ULD loader, correspondently (t) (Q VLB =4) (Q d.t = 25) (Q ULD load = 7);

Z VLB;(d.t; ULD load) - number of vehicle with lifting body, diesel tractor with two trolleys or ULD loader trips during a day, correspondently.

Kus.c - coefficient of carrying capacity usage by apron mechanized mean (= 0,7).

Number of vehicle with lifting body, diesel tractor with two trolleys or ULD loader trips during a day is calculated according to the formula Z (pcs), where,

T - time of warehouse work, (hours per day)(=24);

V-average transportation speed of vehicle with lifting body, diesel tractor with two trolleys of ULD loader, correspondently (km/hour) (VVLB =10) (Vd.t = 15) (VULD load = 30);

kus.r. - coefficient of running usage (= 0,7);

La - average distance from warehouse to the aircraft parking place (km) (=1,9);

tdt - duration of vehicle downtime under loading and unloading works during one working cycle (hours) (= 0,17);

Kus.t - coefficient of vehicle usage during working time (= 0,6).

Now we can make calculation of mechanized means on apron:

a) Number of vehicle trips during a day:

ZVLB = 10 (pcs).

Zd.t. = 10(pcs).

ZULD load = 11 (pcs).

b) Productivity of vehicle:

= 4*10*0,7 = 28(t/ hour).

= 25*10*0,7 = 175(t/ hour).

= 7*11*0,7 = 53 (t/ hour).

c) Necessary number of mechanized means used on apron:

- DAL

NVLB = 13 (pcs).

N ULD load = 6(pcs).

- IAL

N load = 7 (pcs).

= 4 (pcs).

= 2 (pcs).

= 3 (pcs).

Chapter II. Organization and technology of Air Cargo Terminal work

2.1 Technology of goods handling in Air Cargo Terminal

Technological process of departure bulk cargo on DAL handling consists of the following operations:

1) Goods delivery to the airport by the transport of the shipper or transport-forwarding company;

2) Goods discharge in the cargo reception (warehouse) and transmission of documents to the consignor to handling agent;

3) Formalities performance, i.e. different types of control and supervision (customs) Goods marking, weighting, inspection of pieces, labeling, identifying damages;

4) Aviation security check and other controls as appropriate(ecological, radiological, etc.);

5) Cargo registration in a warehouse;

6) Transportation of cargo to the place of storage in warehouse. Temporary storage of goods before shipping;

7) Consolidation of cargo loading of a flight (warehousing unit shipment);

8) Transportation of cargo inside the warehouse to the place of consolidation for the flight;

9) Cargo transportation inside warehouse from the consolidation area to the loading area;

10) Transportation of the cargo from warehouse to parking place;

11) Goods loading to the aircraft (giving documents to flight crew responsible for commercial loading. Certification of document, issuing of cargo manifest);

12) Goods transportation inside the aircraft, its consolidation and providing of documents to crew;

13) Cargo writing-off from a warehouse.

Technological process of arriving bulk cargo on DAL handling consists of the following operations:

1) Unloading from the aircraft, giving documentation;

2) Checking number of pieces, packaging for damage;

3) Loading on apron vehicles;

4) Delivery of goods to the warehouse;

5) Unloading cargo in a warehouse;

6) Acceptance and registration of goods in warehouse;

7) Checking of documents, number of packages, presence of damages, weighting of cargo.

8) Transportation of cargo inside the warehouse to the place of temporary storage;

9) Short- term storage of goods before delivery to consignee;

10) Informing the consignee and conducting the final calculations for transport;

11) Formalities performance on the arrival of consignee;

12) Internally warehouse transportation of cargo to the place of cargo delivery;

13) Arriving of consignee. Checking of the payment. Certification of the documents;

14) Delivery of cargo to consignee and cargo writing-off from a warehouse.

15) Loading of cargo on vehicles of consignee and export of cargo from warehouse.

Technological process of export goods in ULD on IAL handling consists of the following operations:

1) Delivery of cargo to the airport;

2) Unloading the cargo to the warehouse;

3) Formalities performance (custom clearance and other needed inspections);

4) Goods marking, weighting, inspection of pieces, labeling, identifying damages;

5) Aviation security control;

6) Acceptance and registration of goods in warehouse;

7) Transportation of cargo inside the warehouse to the place of short-term storage;

8) Storing in warehouse until departure;

9) Consolidation of cargo loading of a flight

10) Transportation of the cargo inside the warehouse to the place of consolidation for the flight;

11) Internally warehouse transportation of cargo to the place of cargo delivery;

12) Certification of the documents (checking);

13) Loading of cargo aircraft, its consolidation and providing of documents to crew;

14) Cargo writing-off from a warehouse.

Technological process of import goods in ULD on IAL handling consists of the following operations:

1) Unloading cargo from the aircraft;

2) Loading of the goods on the vehicle;

3) Transport of goods to the warehouse;

4) Stamp "Cargo Customs";

5) Unloading of cargo at the loading ramp;

6) Acceptance and registration of goods in warehouse (documents certifications);

7) Transportation of goods within the warehouse to the place of temporary storage;

8) Short-term storage of goods before delivery to the consignee;

9) Informing the consignee and conducting the final calculations for transport;

10) Arrival of consignee, clearance (customs, veterinary control, etc.)

11) Checking operations (payments, cargo)

12) Transportation of goods within the warehouse to the loading ramp;

13) Loading cargo on a vehicle of the recipient;

14) Delivery to the consignee.

In the carriage of cargo in containers and on pallets appear manufacturing operations relating to acquisition of containers and pallets, loading and unloading operations with them.

2.2 Technological process of transfer goods in ULD on IAL handling

The cargo Transfer - is that according to the bill of lading, delivery Transfer to the airport on the same flight, and then transported to another flight same or a different carrier.

Loads to be carried with congestion are accepted for transportation by coordination with airport congestion. Initial airports, take a shuttle cargo transport must take into account the technical characteristics of aircraft on which the goods will be transported by shuttle from the airport to the destination airport.

Technological scheme provides for the transfer of cargo processing them sequentially as arriving and outgoing cargo except for certain manufacturing operations.

Technological process includes the following steps:

· Unloading cargo from the aircraft;

· Transportation to the warehouse;

· Unloading near the warehouse;

· Transportation inside a warehouse in the area of ??transfer cargo;

· Short- term storage prior to shipment.

The peculiarity is that he does not issue to the consignee.

Together with the load transmitted to the documentation. Shipping takes cargo agent warehouse arrival and transfer cargo warehouse on the documents at the foreman movers.

Informant warehouse load registers in the register receipt and transfer cargo shipments.

Processing steps for sending cargo transfer:

· Transportation to the place of recruitment flight load;

· Overload on warehouse transport vehicle;

· Transportation to the aircraft;

· Loading in the sun, laying and mooring.

Simultaneously with these transactions are transmitted documents.

Transfer goods requiring transportation between the airport one of the city called inter-airport. Such goods are transported from one airport to another as they arrive. Service Manager in the preparation of transport shipments by road to another airport picks up the shipping documents in the order of sending cargo and sends them to the cargo agent.

Operator design documentation is accompanying statement. It signed by cargo agent, confirming a full load of cargo, damage to packaging and the presence of seals.

The airport, which is sent cargo transportation service manager, gives an indication of the discharge. The driver sends the documents to the cargo agent.

Checks for cargo documentation, safety seals on a trailer. Cargo agent reveals the caravan. Cargo is unloaded at the warehouse pallets. Checking if the amount of cargo, packaging condition, the presence of marking. Cargo agent signs the accompanying statement.

The airport shuttle service in case of fault, loads are weighed again and draw up a statement of the problem. Further shipment of cargoes carried out after troubleshooting packs of actual weight with the application documents.

Algorithm of cargo handling technology.

Flowchart - is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation solution to a given problem. Process operations are represented in these boxes, and arrows; rather, they are implied by the sequencing of operations.

Algorithm - is a step-by-step procedure of data processing, that leads to the solving of the problem

2.3 Loading characteristics of the aircrafts

Airbus A319 passenger aircraft. The A319 is the next derivative of the baseline A320. The design is a "shrink" with its origins in the 130- to 140-seat SA1, part of the Single-Aisle studies. The SA1 was shelved as the consortium concentrated on its bigger siblings. After healthy sales of the A320/A321, Airbus turned its focus back to what was then known as the A320M-7, meaning A320 minus seven fuselage frames.It would provide direct competition for the Boeing 737-300/-700.The shrink was achieved though the removal of four fuselage frames fore and three aft the wing, cutting the overall length by 3.73 meters (12 ft3 in).Consequently, the number of overawing exits were reduced from four to two. The bulk-cargo door was replaced by an aft container door, which can take in reduced height LD3-46 containers Minor software programming were made to accommodate the different handling characteristics; otherwise the aircraft is largely unchanged. Power is provided by the CFM56-5A or V2500-A5, derated to 98 kN (22,000lbf), with option for 105kN (24,000lbf) thrust.

The A319 is one of the smaller members of Airbus' highly successful single aisle airliner family currently in service, and competes with Boeing's 737-300 and 737-700. The A319 program was launched at the Paris Airshow in June 1993. The first A319 airline order came from French carrier Air Inter (since merged into Air France), whose order for six was announced in February 1994. Since then Swissair, Air Canada, Lufthansa, Northwest, United, US Airways and British Airways are among the major customers that have ordered more than 500 A319s.

The A319 is a minimum change, shortened derivative of the highly successful A320. The major difference between the A320 and A319 is that the latter is shorter by seven fuselage frames, while in almost all other respects the A319 and A320 are identical.

Like the A321, A319 final assembly takes place in Hamburg with Daimler Chrysler Aerospace Airbus. Final assembly of all other Airbus airliners, including the A320, takes place at Toulouse.

Technical characteristics A319:

Speed is similar to A320.

Max. cruising speed - 820 km / h;

Top speed - 890 km / h;

Maximum altitude - 11900 m;

Range at 64 ton - takeoff weight 3391km, range at 75,500kg - takeoff weight 6845km.

Weights:

Operating empty - 39,884kg;

Standard max takeoff - 64,000kg or optionally - 75,500kg;

Maximum payload - 17900 kg;

Fuel tank capacity 23 860-29840 l.

Pic. Typical Cabin Configuration Airbus A319 aircraft

Dimensions: Wing span - 33.91m, length - 33.84m, height -11.80m. Wing area - 122.4 m2.

Capacity: Seating for 124 passengers in a typical two class configuration (eight premium class and 116 economy class). High density single class layout can seat 142 passengers.

Cabin width - 3.7 m.

McDonnell Douglas MD-11F cargo aircraft. The MD-11 F - long-range cargo aircraft design is based on the extensive knowledge gained from experience designing and producing the DC-8, DC-10 and KC-10 freighter. The airplane is part of the advanced MD-11 wide-cabin, three-engine jetliner family produced by the Long Beach Division of Boeing Commercial Airplanes.

In addition to modern aerodynamics, cockpit and power plants, the MD-11 freighter offers higher take-off weights, permitting increased cargo payload.

The all-cargo MD-11F provides the capacity for 202,100-pound (91,670 kilograms) gross payloads and has a 98.25-inch (249.5 centimeters) maximum stack height. Located in the forward fuselage, the MD-11 cargo door is 140 inches (356 centimeters) wide by 102 inches (259 centimeters) high.

The freighter's main cabin will hold up to 15,530 cubic feet (440 cubic meters) of palletized cargo. Its lower compartments will hold an additional 5,566 cubic feet (158 cubic meters) of containerized or bulk cargo. All standard industry containers can be accommodated side-by-side in the lower deck.

Mc Donnell Douglas MD-11F is a heavy cargo aircraft - up to 102 tons payload, 26 main deck pallet positions, large side cargo door, two belly freight sections, pressurized suitable for consumer goods of all kinds, heavy machinery, oversize equipment, oil & gas equipment, aerospace industry equipment and satellites, aid & relief & peacekeeping cargo as well as military cargo transportation.

General dimensions and information MD-11F:

Length - 61,20 meter.

Wingspan - 51,70 meter.

Height - 18,00 meter.

Cruising speed - 870 km per hour.

Max altitude - 43.200 m.

Max take-off weight - 285.900 kg.

Cargo door dimensions:

Side cargo door - 355 ? 259 cms (w x h).

Belly cargo door - 177 ? 168 cms (w x h).

Payload:

Payload - 102.000 kg.

Total volume - 600 cubic meter.

Pallets main deck - 26 pallets.

Pallets belly - 32 LD3 container.

MD-11F: Freight transport aircraft was the second variant on offer at launch in 1986 and was the last and longest (1988-2000) manufactured version. The all-cargo aircraft features the same forward port side cargo door (140 by 102 inches (3.6 m ? 2.6 m)) as the MD-11CF, a main deck volume of 15,530 cubic feet (440 m3), a maximum payload of 200,151 pounds (90,787 kg) and can transport 26 pallets of the same dimensions (88 by 125 inches (2.2 m ? 3.2 m) or 96 by 125 inches (2.4 m ? 3.2 m)) as for the MD-11C and MD-11CF. The MD-11F was delivered between 1991 and 2001 to FedEx Express (22), Lufthansa Cargo (14), and other airlines with fewer aircraft.

Pic. Typical Cabin Configuration MD-11F

2.4 Technical characteristics of the standard packaging (ULD)

A shipping container is a container with strength suitable to withstand shipment, storage, and handling. Shipping containers range from large reusable steel boxes used for intermodal shipments to the ubiquitous corrugated boxes. In the context of international shipping trade, "container" or "shipping container" is virtually synonymous with "(standard) intermodal freight container" (a container designed to be moved from one mode of transport to another without unloading and reloading).

On the basis of loading characteristics we have found out that according to the types of our aircrafts we can load the following containers.

Container specifications.

2.5 Organizational structure of Air Cargo Terminal Mail and Goods Handling Department

Air Cargo Terminal Mail and Goods Handling Department provides service of organizations, businesses, commercial organizations and individuals in the preparation, processing of cargo and mail for sending by air.

Main functions:

1. Transportation organization of mail and cargo in accordance with technology;

2. Providing of loading and unloading works;

3. Ensuring paperwork for transportation of cargo and mail;

4. Providing land commercial aircraft maintenance;

5. Organization of export/import declaration of goods;

6. Carrying out of payments for services and cargo transportations;

7. Claims and complains handling;

8. Improving the quality of services, implementation of activities and services that are not inconsistent with the actual legislation.

Main tasks:

1. Regularity and safety provision in terms of aircraft handling;

2. Qualitative and in time clients servicing;

3. Improvement of technological processes;

4. Increasing of automatization and mechanization level etc.

Lower we can see organizational structure of Air cargo Terminal Mail and Goods Handling Department

Conclusion

During term paper carrying out we have made Master Plan of Air Cargo Terminal and decision planning of two cargo warehouses construction (DAL and IAL) on the basis of calculations. Analysis of five cargo flows was done according to the given initial data.

Following calculations were done:

ь technological parameters of cargo warehouses (area, capacity, amount of goods turnover, etc.);

ь number of stacks and racks;

ь length of loading/unloading works front and optimal number of goods acceptance points;

ь number of mechanization means (electric loaders) inside the warehouse for inside- warehouse goods transportation and consolidation;

ь number of apron mechanization means (vehicles with lifting body);

In addition the original (according to circumstances) technological process of cargo handling was invented for ACT for all five cargo flows. Schemes-algorithms of technological process operations carriage out for all five cargo flows were designed On the basis of the process designed.

Also the organizational structure post carriage service was carried out. The main functions of Post Carriage Service were shaped out and focused on in a more detailed way.

References

1. Air Code of Ukraine - K.: Verkhovna Rada amendments from 04.05. 1993-36 p.

2. Kanarchuk V.N., Chyhiynec A.D. Technological processes mechanization in the airports. - M.: Transport, 1986. - 254 p.

3. Kruchkov A.A. Cargo transportations on aviation transport. - M.: Transport, 1983. - 232 c.

4. Rules of international passenger transportations, baggage and cargo. - M.: Air transport, 1986. - 86 p.

5. Bleif J. Modern cargo transportations, operations and technology. - Yorktown.; Express Air, 2003. - 88-105 p.

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