Factors of a crisis of the organization. Operation of business in the conditions of crisis. Management of the personnel of the crisis enterprise
Operation of business and factors of a crisis condition of the organization. Personnel selection essence consists in work with the personnel according to the concept of development of the enterprise. Management of the personnel of the crisis enterprise.
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THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION OF Republic of Belarus
On a theme: Factors of a crisis of the organisation. Operation of business in the conditions of crisis. Management of the personnel of the crisis enterprise
The factors influencing a crisis condition of the organisation
Bankruptcy of the organisation is a result of negative influence of various external and internal factors of development of the organisation in market conditions. World practice of bankruptcy while a hall, that threat of financial instability of the organisations arises on the average on 25-30 % because of external factors and on 70-75 % because of internal, connected with inept, irrational management. Thus in the developed foreign countries these parities have following values: external factors make 10-15 %, internal - 85-90 %, in Russia external and internal factors make approximately on 50 %.
If the organisations practically cannot or poorly influence negative influences of an environment influence of internal factors grows out of administrative decisions of administration of the organisation.
Environment factors share on following groups:
state, i.e. the factors defining as the state influences, its legal, tax and other systems on organisation activity;
market (influence of factors of the market);
Factors of the internal environment of development of the organisation concern:
operational (industrial and administrative);
financial (result of an irrational financial policy);
the investment organizations connected with an inefficient investment policy;
In more details these factors are opened by consideration of the qualifier of the factors causing bankruptcy.
Sources of a supply with information for definition of values of change of external factors are periodicals, information financial collections, economic magazines.
As sources of a supply with information for definition of values of influence of internal factors the analysis and the account serve is industrial-economic activities, the administrative account, the tax account.
The above-stated external and internal factors at their change to the worst will influence negatively results of commercial and industrial activity of the organisations, at their change to the best will positively affect results.
In real situations external and internal factors operate on organisation activity разнонаправлено. It is necessary to consider their influence at carrying out of the financial analysis and working out of measures under the prevention of approach of a crisis condition of the organisation, and in a case nevertheless its occurrence - on an exit from it and to restoration of normal functioning of the organisation.
If to generalise all factors in most cases deterioration of a financial position of the organisations and their subsequent bankruptcy is connected with:
an inefficient control system and incompetence of the top management;
the weak account of changes of a condition of the market (demand, competitors, the price policy, etc.), industrial and financial potential of the organisation;
plunders top-level managements;
uneconomical and non-technological production.
Organisation activity, its efficiency and solvency is reflexion of interests of various groups of the people connected with is industrial-economic activities the organisations and involved to some extent in this process.
The steadiest, strong influence on organisation activity, irrespective of a pattern of ownership, interests of proprietors and employees of the organisation render, suppliers and buyers, creditors and competitors, the state bodies of the control and regulation, etc.
In drawing 1 the purposes, interests and kinds of interaction of structural units and their separate representatives with the considered organisation which can influence results of its economic and commercial activity are grouped.
Various groups of proprietors, workers, clients and suppliers have various interests of interaction with the organisation, but all have a certain interest in that the organisation worked financially steadily and with profit. To some extent the enterprises-competitors as in struggle against them there is an updating of manufacture and its growth are interested in it even.
It is necessary to understand also, that some groups of persons can have opposite interests, namely "ruin" the organisation: for example, managing directors and proprietors can lay down the aim - to take away property, clients - to take production of the organisation and not to pay, suppliers - to put poor quality materials, the enterprises-competitors on someone's наводке regularly "run" into the organisation, not giving it normally to function etc.
Therefore it is necessary to consider, consider attentively all these interests of groups them in management of the organisation and at change of their purposes to an opposite sign urgently and adequately to react.
There are two classical variants of strategy of behavior for the managing director - adaptive. At the 1-st approach the enterprise is considered, how a certain mechanical system, to meet crisis in which it is possible, having replaced separate elements, having debugged work of the administrative mechanism. The adaptive approach considers the enterprise as organic system, crises in which have natural character and are caused by change of stages of development. These approaches have the lacks which not always allow to apply them at anti-recessionary management. Realization of the texnocratic approach causes resistance of the personnel. At the adaptive approach the natural current of processes can not keep within the established time frameworks of overcoming of crisis.
In both cases the most resembling for conditions of anti-recessionary management is the organizational-cultural approach. At this approach the enterprise is represented as the system which kernel is made by values dominating here, a complex of norms of acceptance and realisation of administrative decisions, principles of organizational construction and behavior model. Crisis is caused by change of structure of values which define a way of ability to live of the organization and a direction of its modification.
The head of the crisis enterprise faces two groups of conflicts in which he participates as one of the operating parties; the conflicts arising in labor collective which it urged to settle as the first person. If in the conflict interests face at distribution of resources, the contrast of opinions and valuable orientations in the decision of problems of development of the enterprise it is possible to speak about the industrial conflict is observed. At prevalence of personal and group interests when industrial problems fade into the background, it is available the social conflict. Character of conflicts should be considered at development of strategy of behavior of the enterprise in the conditions of crisis.
The situation conflictness at the enterprise which is in crisis conditions, is set by a number of factors: readiness of collective for changes, mutual perception of the anti-recessionary managing director and collective, features of organizational culture of the crisis enterprise.
The major factor is readiness of collective for basic changes. On the one hand, it is defined by motivation of workers, with another - level of their vocational training.
In the first situation workers wish to work in new conditions, and they it is good to it are prepared. Here valuable conflicts are to the greatest degree characteristic. The aggravated relation to professionalism of the anti-recessionary managing director is observed. The managing director should generate the complete program of development and valuable orientations comprehensible to collective. It can join in possible conflicts, including as the initiator.
In the second situation workers of the enterprise wish changes, but are insufficiently prepared for them. For it is functional-role conflicts are characteristic. Insufficient qualities anti-recessionary operating as head, other source - difficulties with development of new roles as managing director, and collective can be one of conflict sources. The main task for the managing director is the organization of increase of professional qualification of workers. It should avoid conflicts to the personnel and translate them in a direction of professional perfection of workers. The main means of overcoming of conflicts is instructing of subordinates.
In the third situation workers do not wish to work in new conditions though are professionally prepared well. Here on the foreground leave ориентационные conflicts. The managing director who has appeared in a similar situation, should aspire to raise level of motivation of workers. For this purpose by means of conflicts it is possible to provoke change valuable orientations. To the managing director it is necessary or to convince workers of correctness of strategic orientation offered it and by that to come into contact to subordinates, or if it is not possible, to get rid of resisting workers. Here the variant conscious from subordinates or integration is possible.
In the fourth situation workers of the enterprise do not want and cannot work in new conditions. Therefore on the foreground communicative conflicts act. The collective, as a rule, tries to charge with all fault the managing director. It is expedient to apply a complex of measures on training of workers and their belief in correctness of an offered way.
From the point of view of mutual perception of labour collective and the anti-recessionary managing director, a situation in which it is necessary to operate to the last, differ. First, whether the head is guided by integration with collective in the actions or aspires to separate from it. Secondly, accepts collective of the new head as the or considers it as the stranger. Depending on it relations of the head with collective also should be under construction.
The organizational culture of the enterprise develops of set of the values divided by workers, and system of norms and the rules accepted by them. From this point of view is important, how much workers are integrated into existing system of values and are how much ready to changes in this area. It is important also, whether their lives the enterprise for uniform rules and principles or different groups live by various rules. The parity of the standard and valuable is resulted.
Modern administrative approaches assume, that object of management are organizational cultures of various type, instead of people and their activity. Various cultures distinguish members of one group from another. People create organizational cultures as the mechanism of reproduction of social experience. The enterprise as the set of people solving definite purposes and problems, is compelled to be engaged in reproduction and loan of social experience. Following basic types of organizational cultures differ: organic, enterprise, bjurokra-tichesky, партиципативный. Their characteristics are shown:
Organizational culture usually existing at the enterprise is connection of all types of cultures. The head should consider culture as the powerful tool for mobilisation of collective and employees on the decision of the assigned problems, a way of effective dialogue between members of collective.
The personnel selection essence consists in work with the personnel according to the concept of development of the enterprise. The personnel selection purpose is maintenance of optimum balance of updating and preservation of shots according to requirements of the enterprise of the current legislation, a labour market condition.
In enterprise personnel selection following stages should be realised:
working out of principles, definition of priorities and the purposes;
planning of requirement for a manpower, structure and staff formation, creation of a reserve, moving;
creation and maintenance of system of movement of the personnel information;
creation of effective system of motivation and work stimulation;
realisation of the program of development, vocational guidance and adaptation of employees, planning of individual advancement, formation of commands, vocational training and improvement of professional skill of shots;
the analysis of conformity of personnel selection of strategy of development of the enterprise.
Distinguish passive, jet, preventive and active types of personnel selection.
At passive type the administration does not have expressed program of actions concerning the personnel, in the conditions of crisis work is reduced, at the best, to liquidation of negative consequences. The personnel service has no forecast and has no means of an estimation of the personnel. Concerning financial improvement the personnel question, as a matter of fact, is not considered.
The jet type assumes realisation by administration of the control over situation development. Personnel services own personnel diagnostic aids. For the purpose of financial improvement, personnel questions are allocated and considered separately.
At preventive type the management has the proved forecasts of development of a situation, but has no means for management of it. The personnel service has not only personnel diagnostic aids, but also forecasting of a personnel situation for the intermediate term period. For financial improvement there are short-term and intermediate term forecasts of requirement for shots.
At active type the administration has the proved forecast of development of a situation. The personnel service has diagnostic aids of the personnel, situation forecasting in the intermediate term and long-term period. In respect of financial improvement is available short-term, intermediate term, long-term forecasts of requirement for shots, the program of personnel work with variants of its realisation.
Personnel selection depends on external and internal factors. External factors concern: features of legislative regulation of labour relations, a situation on a labour market, professional and public associations.
Internal factors concern: the enterprise purposes, a management style, working conditions, qualitative characteristics of labour collective.
Management of the personnel of the crisis enterprise for achievement of objects in view
management personnel crisis
Mobilisation of collective of the crisis enterprise includes following stages:
propaganda in which course dependence of their personal destinies on a firm survival is shown to workers, is formed image of the reliable head, interaction channels between the head, collective and workers are established;
professional growth (conditions for increase by workers of the qualification are created, the high aspiration of workers to self-improvement is provided, the new purpose of the enterprise is formed and its interrelation with development in the future is defined);
integration (the new models of behavior fixing new relations are created, projects in which the perspective ideas are realised get out, allowing to unite efforts of all workers of the crisis enterprise).
In work with the personnel of the crisis enterprise exists two approaches on competitiveness increase:
liquidation of available lacks of the organisation by the reorganisation connected with elimination of divisions and workers which are not entered in strategy of a conclusion of the enterprise from a crisis situation;
search of unique lines of the enterprise which create a positive image at consumers.
The reorganisation connected with reduction of the personnel, can be effective and inefficient.
In a positive effect by reorganisation of the crisis enterprise, as a rule, result following actions.
reduction of levels in structure of management with preservation of workplaces at simultaneous strengthening of a reserve for the top echelon of operation of business;
reduction of structure of management taking into account interdependence of its elements and working out of measures on stabilisation of new structure;
periodic revaluation of personnel selection for the purpose of the greatest conformity of the developed situation;
revealing, maintenance and training of the workers who have shown лидерские qualities and propensity to administrative activity;
realisation of educational programs, maintenance of professional growth of workers, especially in priority areas for the enterprise;
preliminary preparation of perspective candidates on key posts taking into account their ability to carry out the functions in the conditions of crisis;
decentralisation of structure of management with delegation of necessary powers to key figures in management personnel at strategic and operative level;
creation of commands of adherents at level of a management and structural divisions;
tracing and preservation of personnel potential.
Increase of level of competitiveness of the enterprise in many respects depends on its mental potential. The abilities which are the centre of personnel potential, have following properties:
importance for a short-term survival in short-term and long-term prospect;
inaccessibility to competitors because of difficulty of their loan;
a combination of knowledge and abilities of the personnel, instead of their embodiment in production and functional duties;
connection in the concentrated kind scientific and technical, industrial;
Whom and personnel potentials;
an accessory to organizational system of the enterprise as a whole, instead of to separate workers;
a long-term basis for acceptance of strategic decisions;
are supported and perceived by the enterprise during the certain time period;
provide a leading position in the market.
In mutual relations with collective frequently it is necessary to overcome resistance from the personnel. The basic method here is compulsory which provides use of force for resistance overcoming. The compulsory method in the social plan is undesirable, but in the conditions of deficiency of time it gives advantages. However, when the reason of resistance of workers is clear, open display of force it is not required. At application of a power method there are following difficulties:
absence, as a rule, prior to the beginning of changes of a basis which would provide realisation of a power method, and as consequence, high risk of failure;
difficulty of forecasting of force of resistance of the personnel and elimination of the reasons generating it;
prematurity of a call of changes finally slows down terms of an exit of the enterprise from crisis;
ignoring of power instructions on introduction of changes;
?prevalence of power methods to the detriment of another.
For reduction of difficulties it is expedient to carry out the analysis of moods of workers and to reveal at least a potential source of resistance or support.
If resistance or favorable possibilities can be expected, and there is no special promptness in realisation of measures changes can be spent gradually during the long period of time. Process of changes in this case basically should go not from a management, and from supporters of a management at different levels. Conflicts are resolved by compromises, movings of the managerial personnel.
If external changes threaten the existence of a management, as a rule, resistance of the personnel starts to weaken and give way to support. In this case the main task is not struggle against resistance, and the panic prevention. If crisis is inevitable, the head can take following measures:
to convince collective of irreversibility of crisis and preparation for it;
to prepare itself in the opinion of collective for a role of "rescuer" when crisis will come;
before the present crisis to organize artificial crisis, having created an image of external "enemy" which threatens a management.
Last measure considerably reduces resistance, provides support to accepted decisions and increases chances of an exit from a real crisis situation. However, it can have and serious consequences as artificial crisis not always can outgrow in the real.
The greatest effect has management of resistance of the personnel when this process is supervised by administration. Such approach is effective, if external influences constantly repeat also to a management it is necessary to create constant administrative potential for reaction to these influences. For its realisation it is necessary to realise a number of measures:
to generate the analytical group, capable to give the proved forecasts of development of a situation at the enterprise and behind its limits, to develop schemes of overcoming of possible resistance, to create atmosphere of support of innovations;
to co-ordinate administrative efforts to the decision of priority problems;
to separate strategic changes from current conflicts;
to organise personnel training;
to involve in decision-making of experts;
to provide for heads real possibility to influence decision-making on the questions concerning their competence.
The specified elements of a control system should be directed on the decision of problems of the organisation. So, management as function, it should be realised more through performance of anti-recessionary administrative works, procedures of financial improvement of activity of the organisation in interrelation with other usual administrative works.
Management as process, demands взаимоувязки between itself the administrative actions directed on preparation and decision-making for realisation of the program of increase of financial stability of the organisation.
It is necessary to distinguish vertical communications - submission communications, in the presence of several levels of management and horizontal communications - communications of the coordination and coordination of administrative actions between services of one level and workers.
Thus, the management structure, its efficiency essentially influence all parties of life-support of the organisation.
The choice of a kind of structure of management, its construction and perfection is a process of adaptation of structure of management to external conditions of activity of the organization (to requirements of the market, the state bodies, the external economic environment and internal factors of an economic situation of the organization (technology, labour, material, technical and to financial resources, manufacture scale, production share in the market etc.)).
Widespread kinds of structure of management of the organization are linearly-functional, linearly-is functional-staff and linearly. The specified kinds of structure of management are characteristic for various industrial-economic and trading organizations. Are more seldom applied design structure of management (to the research organizations), conditional and matrix structures of management, as a rule, the organizations covering only a part.
In a basis linearly-functional, linearly and functional structures are put a linear chain of command between levels and specialisation of links, departments, services and separate administrative workers in functions.
Linearly-functional structure. Divisions within the limits of structure of this type specialise on performance of the basic functions of management (manufacture, researches and workings out, supply, sale, accounting, economy and the finance, personnel selection). This structure underlies высокоцентрализованной a control system of the enterprise.
The basic advantages of such structure are insignificant duplication of functions and high level of specialisation. Thus as lacks complexity of the decision of "through" problems, difficulty of movement of the information between divisions as across, and on a vertical and indistinct responsibility for economic results of activity of the organization act.
In economically developed countries structures are peculiar only small and a small part of moderate-sized firms.
Linearly structure. At this structure of management all divisions of the organization sicialise on products, kinds of activity or the concrete markets and on them all responsibility for working out, development, manufacture and sale of the concrete goods is placed. Decisions on completely independent branches in the economic relation - to the battalions having узкоотраслевую or grocery specialisation, are accepted on an interfunctional basis. Realisation of decisions is carried out on battalions, and in them - on linearly-functional services.
Advantage of this structure of management is completeness of responsibility for results of activity. Structure lacks are connected with duplication of functions, high autonomy and competition of battalions.
The organization of structure of management on to type is usually supplemented with giving to battalions of the status of the centre of financial responsibility and granting of full economic independence in current questions. Behind the top management there are questions of strategy of development of the enterprise, working out of the investment budget, issues and дивидендной politicians, etc.
In 1980th years about 96 % of the American successful companies had management structures.
Target structure. The target approach represents functional and grocery principles. For the decision of specific targets programs or projects are formed. In the order of heads of projects capacities and funds, and also experts of functional services are allocated.
Advantages of this type of structures are caused by their flexibility and mobility in a combination to personal responsibility. Target structures can act as the transitive forms, allowing to raise a management efficiency without ломки the traditional system organised by a functional principle.
Matrix structure. At such structure of management producing units are under the control both functional, and grocery services. Obvious advantages of this type of structures in the form of improvement of a supply with information and use of experience of experts are combined with lacks in the form of infringement of hierarchy of management and a duality of powers and submission, possibility of growth of a conflictness.
In practical activities basically are used 2-4-уровневые structures where the number of levels and control links on each of them depends on scale of manufacture of the organization, разнохарактерности assortment of production, industrial, subsidiary and auxiliary divisions, presence of the affiliated and dependent enterprises, features of work in the market, qualifying structure of administrative shots and other factors.
For an end result as a whole at each level of management the head which problem consists in coordination of work of all functional him functional and industrial-auxiliary divisions in achievement of end results answers.
Merits and demerits of organizational structures of management are estimated by that, how much concrete kind of structure effectively reacts to changes in an environment and in the organization, provides unity of the administrative personnel and interfunctional coordination in achievement of the purposes planned by the organization, how much financial condition of divisions depends on results of their functioning, how much divisions can operatively and independently solve current economic problems, and the top management can make effective strategic decisions.
At an estimation of efficiency of operating structure of management in the conditions of occurrence of signs of a crisis condition of the organization it is necessary to pay attention to the following factors, capable to influence its construction: the size and degree of a variety of activity of the organization.
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