Youth and their problems: (from discussion to decision)

Formation of the communicative and social competence at students with a basic knowledge of English. Information about the life and problems of youth. Actual problems of society. Еxercises for future social workers, analysis of specific situations.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид учебное пособие
Язык английский
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Министерство образования и науки РФ

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

Алтайский государственный университет

Кафедра иностранных языков гуманитарных факультетов

Youth and their problems

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов, обучающихся по специальностям «Социология», «Организация работы с молодежью», «Конфликтология»

Барнаул 2011

Youth and their problems: [Текст]: учебное пособие для студентов факультета социологии . Часть II./ Сост: В.А. Беляева; Алтайский государственный университет.- Барнаул: АлтГУ, 2012. - 5 с.

Составитель: к.ф.н., доцент Беляева В.А.

Рецензент: доцент Кузикова Т.Г.

Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов факультета социологии, обучающихся по специальностям «Социология», «Организация работы с молодежью», «Конфликтология».

Целью пособия является формирование коммуникативной и социально-культурной компетенции у студентов, имеющий базовый уровень знания английского языка.

Пособие содержит 8 разделов. Каждый раздел представлен аутентичными текстами для чтения монологического характера, содержащие информацию о жизни и проблемах молодежи, об актуальных проблемах общества. Формирование и развитее умений устной речи продолжается в творческих коммуникативных упражнениях с использованием изученного лингвистического материала. Пособие содержит задания творческого и дискуссионного характера, направленные на анализ конкретных ситуаций будущими социальными работниками

Словарь организован по тематическому принципу и охватывает более 200 ЛЕ и словосочетаний, подлежащих активному усвоению.

social communication problem

CONTENTS

UNIT I. YOUTH AND THEIR PROBLEMS

UNIT II. HOW TO BRIGE THE “GENERATION GAP”?

UNIT III. TEENAGE STRESSES

UNIT IV. RUNAWAYS

UNIT V. UDERAGE DRINKING

UNIT VI. TEENAGE PREGNANCY

UNIT VII. SAY “NO” TO DRUGS

UNIT VIII. SUBCULTURES

SUPPLEMENT

VOCABULARY

LITERATUR

UNIT I. YOUTH AND THEIR PROBLEMS

If we compare teenagers of the 50s and teenagers today, we will find out that they face almost the same problems, and still they are different in many aspects. The similarity lies in the psychology of human being; the difference of the economical and political situations brings new problems. Youth is the time of making decisions that will influence on your life. It is necessary not only to fit into the society but also to be sure of your position within a long period. However, it is the objective of the government to work out and bring into life the policy of social support of the young people as they are the basis of the future of the nation.

After the World War II, youngsters were happy when they got any job, and most of them couldn't dream of education. Now most young people want to get a proper education, but it turns into a serious financial burden for a family - that is why a lot of teenagers give up the idea of getting good education, and just waste their time idling, smoking or using drugs. Moreover, they don't find much support from the society.

The teenagers of the 60-70s in Britain or the USA were rebellious against double standards of the society - and they formed different kinds of organizations choosing various forms of protest. That's how hippies appeared. The protest was vivid in fashion, speech and music. The idols of that time were The Booties, The Beetles, Mary Quant, The Rolling Stones and Martin Luther King. Teenagers were struggling against the Vietnam War.

The daily problems of American teenagers reflect problems in American society: drugs, guns, violence, poverty and depression. However, there are a few problems, which are prevalent mainly among America's youth. For example, teenage pregnancy, underage drinking (drinking alcohol under the age of 21), gang membership, and the lack of a “voice” in today's society are among the many issues teenagers must deal with. Not all Americans have good clothing, adequate food and vitamins, and housing. So, some American children are raised in poverty. Many of these children find other means of supporting themselves or their families. Many times poor or underprivileged children are forced to sell drugs or join gangs. Gangs, violence, and drugs are issues, which go hand in hand. In other words, where one finds a gang, one is most likely to also find drugs, guns and violence. As a result many young girls and boys are brutally murdered in drive - by shootings, ambushes and gang wars. While these problems of poor teenagers are immeasurable and harsh, middle class and wealthy American teenagers also face many problems. Drugs, underage drinking and smoking are prevalent among teenagers. Drugs are destroying minds, family and friendships, and are killing America's youth. These drugs are a problem, which must be destroyed. Violence in schools has been an increasing problem in American in the past few years. Occasions when American students have shot and killed their classmates no longer sound unfamiliar. Guns have no place in the hands of American children. Children should not have to fear going to school, and should not have to fear their classmates.

Yet another problem of American youths is vehicular homicide. Because teenagers drive at the age of 14, and because many are careless or perhaps drunk drivers, the number of deaths behind the wheel continues to grow. Teenage drivers no longer have to worry about having a parent drive them around or parking them after school, but need to worry about driving safety.

Teenage pregnancy is also a problem relevant to the topic of teenage problems. Children having children - teenage mothers and fathers - cannot provide for their babies, because they too still need to be cared for. Teenage parents do not have adequate education and monetary means to support babies in today's world. And while teenagers continue to have sex at earlier ages, it is also necessary to address the problem of STDs (sexually transmitted diseases). STDs such as AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) are incurable and are devastating to teenagers who are just beginning to enjoy life. In order to address these problems of youth teenagers need to discuss their problem. In today's society it is difficult for a teenager to be taken seriously. However, in the next few years, adults must take the time to hear the problems of this young Americans so that solutions can be found to eliminate the problems.

Task 1. Transcribe the following words and word - combinations and learn their pronunciation:

to be rebellious against smth, smb, society, idols, violence, poverty, teenage pregnancy, adequate, wealthy, to eliminate, underprivileged.

Task 2. Answer the following questions:

1. Are there any differences between teenagers of the 50s and teenagers today?

2. What is the period - youth ?

3. What were the teenagers of the 60-70th rebellious against?

4. Name the idols of that time.

5. What problems do young Americans face?

6. Violence in schools has been an increasing problem in America in the past few years, hasn't it?

7. Vehicular homicide, what does it mean?

8. Why is teenage pregnancy also a problem?

9. Are teenagers taken seriously in the society?

10. What is the main solution of all these problems?

11. Do teenagers in our country have the same problems?

Task 3. State the general idea of each paragraph of the text.

Task 4. Express your opinion of the text. Use the following words for the characteristic:

- important - inconclusive;

- essential - trivial;

- well-presented -muddle;

- interesting - inaccurate, wrong.

Task 5. Briefly explain the problems of young people in America and in Russia.

Task 6. Translate the letters in writing and give your recommendations as to how to solve the problems described.

1. Should I Marry Him?

I have been with my fiancee for almost four years, we are going to get married next year, but there are a couple of concerns I have: one is the fact that he never talks about his feelings, he keeps everything inside of him. He sometimes has trouble with expressing his excitement about thing also. He never buys me a flower or takes me out to dinner. He says that he doesn't know why, but he never thinks of things like that. I don't know if this is a side effect of depression or, maybe, he is sick of me. He says that he loves me and that he wants to marry me. If this is true, what is his problem? Female, 19

2. For Friendship or Love?

I'm one of those guys who have “the quite normal” problem: I'm in love with a girl, but I don't know what to do. I have already had a crush on some girls, never with any success, but this is something different. My problem is actually that I'm too cowardly to tell her anything. I know that she likes me and we're very, very good friends. We've known each other for about three years, and our friendship has constantly become better. We often get into quarrels, but we always make up. Another problem is that we often talk about problems with each other, and so I know she is having problems with her boyfriend (who I think is no good for her). We meet almost every day. We always have very much fun together, but is it really so difficult to love someone who has been a good chum to you until now?

Male, 15

3. Please Help Me and My Family

My family doesn't get alone. It's like we all hate each other. It's my mom, me, my two brothers and a sister. I am the eldest. We all have certain problems. My mom wants to quit smoking so she is really stressed out. I'm really selfish (I just can't help it). One of my brothers is too bossy. He thinks he is better than the rest of us and that he is the only one who helps my mom. My other brother is kind of abusive and depressed. He always starts fighting and he's really spoiled (my mom doesn't yell at him for doing things wrong and when she does, he laughs at her); my sister (who's 7) makes messes and doesn't clean them up. I really want to help because I don't like being upset all of the time and having everyone hate everyone else. Even when we start to get along, someone will say something to upset someone else. Please help me and my family. Female, 15

4. Hate School

I hate school. I cannot stand my school so I skip it almost every day. Luckily, I am a smart person and I'm in all of the advanced classes and don't have a reputation as a rebel. Only the people who really know me know about my strange feelings. My parents don't care - they don't even mention it if I don't go to school. What I end up doing is sleeping all day and then staying up all night talking to my girlfriend. I get behind my work and when I try to go back to school I get a bunch of criticism from my teachers and friends. I just get so depressed when I think about it. I have given up on trying to go back and now I am considering dropping out altogether, but I really don't want to do that because I realize it would ruin my life. I don't want to go back at all but I also don't want to ruin my life. I am so confused and I have really tried to go back and just can't take it. What should I do? Please help.

Male, 16

Task 7. Find in the text “Youth and their problems” English equivalent for:

Время принятия решений, приспособиться к обществу, социальная поддержка, будущее нации, финансовое бремя, терять свое время, бунтовать против двойных стандартов общества, идти рука об руку, сталкиваться со многими проблемами, автомобильное убийство, быть беспечным, устранить проблемы.

Task 8. Arrange the following words into groups of antonyms:

different adult

unfamiliar lose

increasing softly

brutally familiar

find diminishing

wealthy general

deficiency poor

underage abundance

Task 9. Complete the following sentences:

1. Youth is the time…………………………………………………

2. It is necessary not only to fit into the society but………………………

3. Now most young people want to get……………………………………

4. Children having children - teenage mothers and fathers - cannot provide….

5. In today's society it is difficult for a teenager…………………………

Task 10. Make up dialogues according to the following situations:

1. When you read the newspapers and watch the news on television, it's easy to get the idea that young people are all unemployed, angry and in trouble. Your grandparents think so. Make them change their mind.

2. Life used to be fun for `teenagers'. They used to have money to spend, and free time to spend it in. They used to wear teenage clothes, and meet in teenage coffee bars and discos. Some of them still do. But for many young people, life is harder now. Jobs are difficult to find. There's not so much money around. Things are more expensive, and it's hard to find a place to live. Discuss it with a young man from Great Britain.

Task 11. Memorize the following words and word-combinations:

be confused make messes

be spoiled rebellious

double standards ruin(n,v)

drugs skip (n,v)

financial burden teenage pregnancy

get a bunch of criticism underage drinking

get behind underprivileged

go hand in hand upset smb

have trouble with vehicular homicide

immeasurable yell at smb

UNIT II. HOW TO BRIGE THE “GENERATION GAP”?

What is a family? A family is first of all, the closest to you: relatives and parents. They always support you; they love you with all your merits and demerits. Taking care of you from your first days, they are used to treating you like a baby. Naturally, it irritates you once in a while; so you try to prove you are not a silly child any more.

At the age of 15-16 you begin to form your own idea of life, but adults get their message across. What for? Although their care sometimes embarrasses us (teenagers, in front of our mates) they stubbornly and wholeheartedly try to do something good for us. Sometimes you want to answer: “Keep out of my room! Leave me alone!” but you cannot, because of the “generation gap”. This phrase means that now you want to be alone, you do not want to continue objecting and arguing. But for your parents it is an outrage! Unfortunately, not all grown-ups can understand their children.

If you are on good terms with your mother and father, if they are your best friends, it is a big advantage; because for many today's teenagers the lack of comprehension between different generations is a big problem. Not all of them can talk with adults about their boyfriend or girlfriend, about somebody's mad house-party, about an American youth comedy you've seen today or about a super-mini-skirt… Surely, they will start nagging you about your interests, awaiting aims, the harmful impact of TV on your young sensitive mind, your laziness, your slow progress and the job of a janitor you are going to have according to their prediction. Their favorite phrase is: “It doesn't matter to me whether other teenagers do it or not! You will not do the things you want till you are at least 18!”

So, if you want to be more independent, try to make friends with your parents. Ask them a question about their own youth: relations with their parents, the places where they spent free time, the scope of their freedom. Giving you examples from their life, they will understand your standpoint better. For instance the grown- ups of 70's didn't enjoy “Boney M”, while it was the favorite band of Soviet youth. Then why is Eminem, Madonna or Aria bad?

Sometimes grown-ups try to make friends with their children. They start asking you what you are up to, about your school, friends, relations with them and problems. It is not bad when you need their help, support, understanding, but sometimes it is really terrible. One of them can go through all your stuff, looking for your secret diary or pick up the phone extension and listen to your talk with friends… They will be shocked if they learn that the person you are going out with is ten years your senior. The best way to avoid such situations is to invite your friends to your place and to create a dialogue between your parents and them. It is a good way to show that you have the same problems as other teenagers.

Coming back to the theme of independence, I want to observe that it is the “generation gap” displayed in all its “beauty” that causes incomprehension, because relations in the family are built not only on mutual love and respect, but also on the dependence of a child on his/her parents. It is a weak-point of all fathers and, especially, mothers. This question is very delicate.

If you want to prove that you are not a baby, keep trying to think and to act as adults do for sometimes; try to carry out all your fair to share duties, quickly, to the best of your ability, without any reminders from your parents' side. They will understand you better, if they see you taking responsibility.

One more piece of advice. When you conflict with them don't be aggressive, because all your relations with people around you are greatly connected with their dispositions. Your voice should be gentle, your arguments should be earnest and explanations should be logical. If you are a very emotional person and cannot disguise your feelings, do not give up: do not get into a state! Make haste slowly! You must be interesting, clever and kind and everyone will associate with you!

Task 1. Transcribe the following words and word - combinations and learn their pronunciation:

to treat, to embarrass, generation, arguing, outrage, comprehension, nagging, sensitive, laziness, janitor, prediction, scope, standpoint, extension, mutual love, reminders, gentle, disguise, haste, associate.

Task 2. Answer the following questions:

1. What might the relationship be between the teenager and his/her parents?

2. How must the teenager feel?

3. When can you talk with your parents about your problems?

4. What should you do if you want to be more independent?

5. Is it difficult to make friends with the parents?

6. What are the relations of the family built on?

Task 3. If you are a teenager, youth problems are considered important and burning for you. What are, in your opinion, the most global problems teenagers have? Ask your parents to express their opinion on the period they were young. Do you have any difficulties with your parents? Give some pieces of advice how to overcome them. Use the following words:

In smb. 's view, analyzing the situation, mention should be made of the fact that.., it's interesting to stress out, frankly speaking.

Task 4. Read the following opinions and point out the ideas the people have about the “generation gap”. What is a “generation gap” according to them? Explain your ideas. What should they do? Have you had any problems with your parents? What are they?

1. I have no great difficulties with my parents. But sometimes I have some problems with them. They have their own ideas and views that I sometimes don't share or understand. They often say that I was better when I was younger, and now I am very difficult to socialize with and dumpty. They think that I won't find my place in life. I prefer to settle all our problems peacefully because they are my parents. They brought me up with loving care. And if I come to them for advice and help, they will do their best and help me to cope with my problems and difficulties.

Vasiliy Klunkov,

9th grade, school No 814, Moscow

2. Sometimes my parents don't understand me. They don't understand some problems and things which are very important in a teen's life; for example, the lifestyles of young people, piercing, tattoos, drugs, sex, relationships with friends and teachers. So sometimes I can't tell them everything about my private life. Now I can't remember an instance when my parents helped me in my difficulties. Sometimes, I think we can forget about the generation gap, but sometimes I see that my parents can't want to understand modern views, ideals and system of values. It is very bad for the new generation.

Rita Sharonova,

9th grade, school No 814, Moscow

3. There has always been a generation gap. Elderly people usually compare their childhood and youth with the present, and regard old times as better, always talking about “the good old days”. The young, on the other hand, tend to think their times are the best. Young people look at the world with fresh eyes. Everything is new, interesting and innocent to them. They have no responsibilities, and sometimes they cannot solve their everyday problems. But they want to cope with them by themselves. So adults shouldn't prevent them from making their own mistakes.

Anna Chernova,

9th grade, school No 814, Moscow

4. Nowadays teenagers have a lot of problems, their lives are no easier than the lives of grown-ups. One of the most important problems is that children and their parents don't understand each other. I'd like to tell you a story about my best friend Ivan Yershov and his father. Ivan didn't know his father. He didn't spend a lot of time at home with his family, and he loved freedom and independence very much. My friend loved his father, liked many of his actions and traits of character, but he has always known that they were not able to understand each other. The father thought that he was bringing up his son properly, that he loved and understood him; and that he was a very clever and kind boy. He also believed that they were like-minded friends and in some years they were expected to work together.

But frankly speaking, year by year Ivan and his father tended to understand each other with difficulty.

When he was 12 his father left his family. He just didn't come back in the evening. For the first time in his life Ivan realized most vividly that he needed a father. He felt physically sick and cried out of sheer vexation. But time went on and he continued his normal life. He believed until he met him one day. For several years they've been slightly out of touch. And now Ivan and his father meet from time to time and get on rather well. They talk about their past and future, but they speak two different languages and, unfortunately, his father is unable to feel his appeals, although it isn't very hard. This story doesn't turn out to be interesting if your parents understand you, but it is a simple example of a little tragedy for each of us.

Task 5. Translate the letters in writing.

Task 6. Find in the text “How to bridge the “generation gap” English equivalents for:

Заслуги и недостатки, раздражать, собственное представление о жизни, четко излагать, разрыв поколений, безобразие, быть в хороших отношениях, предубеждение, быть независимым, границы свободы, подружиться, обыскать вещи, подслушать разговор, непонимание.

Task 7. Arrange the following words into groups of antonyms:

Merit insensitive

Stubborn pliant

Grown-up gentle

Lack abundance

Kind children

Weak strong

Sensitive demerit

Aggressive angry

Task 8. Complete the sentences according to the text “How to bridge the “Generation Gap”?:

1. So, if you want to be more independen

2. At the age of 15-16 you begin to form

3. The parents' favorite phrase is:

4. Coming back to the theme of independence

5. When you conflict with them

6. Sometimes you want to answer:

7. If you are a very emotional person

8. One of them can go through all your stuff

Task 9. Imagine that you want to complain about the same things as Ken or Gary. How would you express your complaints talking to your foreign friend?

Gary - Well Ken, if you ask me, there is too much to complain about being young. It can really be hard sometimes, especially when your parents hardly ever leave you alone.

Ken - You are telling me! I am quite like Mom and Dad, but they are always ready to criticize me. “Don't do this! You can't do that!” It's often really hard to put up with.

G. - Oh, it's really that bad. Frankly, I am having a big argument with my parents at the moment. I ask them to buy me a motorbike, but they say they can't ridу one. They say “It's against the law. Wait till you are 17. You are not an adult yet.”

K. - Although, sometimes it's just the opposite. See I am 17. And I can join the army, right? But I am not allowed to see war films, because they say they are too violent.

G. - That's really unfair. Actually, when we go on a train or bus, we are adults. I have to pay full price for the ticket.

K. - I can understand how you feel, Gary. I sure am lucky I can have part-time job and get some money. My younger brother is only 12. And he can hardly ever afford a new CD.

G. - Hey, don't talk about money. I don't even have enough money to cover my daily expenses. I can't wait till I leave school and get full-time job.

K. - Oh, no. That would really come as shock for my parents; they want me to study further. Honesty, I have to obey them. I remember, when I was 11, I couldn't even buy a dog without their permission.

G. - That sounds really bad.

Task 10. Memorize the following words and word-combinations:

associate (n, v) incomprehension

cope with irritate

disguise outrage (n,v)

embarrass prediction

extension prevent smb from smth

generation gap scope

get across silly

go through standpoint

harmful impact treating

haste whole-heartedly

UNIT III. TEENAGE STRESSES

Today stress makes up an important part of our lives. A lot of information about it is available. Moreover every time stress is mentioned the first thought, 3v that occurs in our minds is that stress is always something evil that does harm to a person. And it certainly does it at times.

The negative impact of stress might cause diseases such as nervous breakdowns, migraines, eating disorders, asthma, hay fever, depression, heart disease, eczema and many other medical and social problems. Nevertheless, at the same time it can play a very important role in our lives making us stronger and helping us to overcome numerous problems.

H. Selye, the author of stress theory first used the term “stress” in 1936. This meant “to a special request”.

He described the positive and negative influence of stress and its three main stages: “anxiety”, “resistance” and “exhaustion”. At the stage of “anxiety” there is a sensation of excitement and increased mental concentration. The person feels exhilarated. Sometimes during the first stage stress-related illness such as migraines, hay fever and heart disease appear. The disease can return in the third stage of the stress, when it is quite serious and might be threaten one's health or even life.

In case the stressor is extremely strong, the second stage comes - “the stage of resistance”. The person adapts to a stressful situation and changing circumstances, however this causes exhaustion. One doesn't feel as well as during the 1st stage. There is no excitement or increased mental concentration.

We all have to face the need to overcome these two stages quite often. However, if a person is under stress for too long his psychological defenses break down. He is extremely tired and has no energy. The person is not able to cope with difficulties and solve problems. This can lead to a psychological disease or a psychosomatic illness. That is why this stage is called “the stage of exhaustion”.

However, in spite of all the negative effects sometimes stress can be positive. It might aid people in getting to the top of their profession. In the initial stages of stress, as mentioned above, there is a feeling of excitement and increased mental concentration.

Nevertheless, too much stress is negative. It is harmful for an individual, and especially for a child. We can't suppose that only adults suffer from stress. So what can be done in order to help children fight stress? Recognizing the fact that nowadays young people are under more pressure than ever before is the first step to take. Usually they are subjected to stress at school, at home and when having complicated relationships with their friends. Also the peculiarities of the teenage period, which is usually considered to be full of different conflicts. It should be taken into account. The next step is to determine the main reason for the stress.

In order to find out the most stressful situations for teenagers we have done research, in which 112 teenagers took part. They were asked to describe their emotions in 16 different situations, connected with their school life. Their answers were divided into 3 groups: the negative emotions, which might cause stress; positive and neutral.

According to the results the most stressful situation for teenagers are the following: when the teacher shouts at them (85%) or if he/she is unfair (83%), when they are not prepared for the lesson (70%), before a test (69%). Pupils' positive emotions and impressions are connected with the moment they come to school and meet with their friends (28%) and when it is five minutes until the end of the lesson (62%).

There are a lot of situations when an attentive and experienced teacher is able to reduce the harmful influence of stress on children or even to avoid its negative consequences. However, according to the results of our research, the relationships between teacher and pupils are still complicated and this problem demands further investigation.

Task 1. Transcribe the following words and word - combinations and learn

their pronunciation:

available, to do harm, nervous breakdowns, migraines, theory, request, exhaustion,

anxiety, to be threaten, exhilarated, circumstances, concentration, psychological disease, excitement, pressure, peculiarities.

Task 2. Answer the following questions:

1. What is stress?

2. What diseases can provoke stress?

3. What did three main stages of stress H. Salye describe?

4. What does the person feel at the stage of “anxiety”?

5. The person adapts to a stressful situation at the second stage, does he?

6. Why can stress lead to a psychological disease or a psychosomatic illness?

7. Can stress be positive and when?

8. Where are young people subjected to stress?

9. Who is able to reduce the harmful influence of stress on young people or even to avoid its negative consequences?

Task 3. State the general idea of each paragraph of the text.

Task 4. Express your opinion of the text. Use the following words for the characteristic:

Important - inconclusive

Essential - trivial

Well-presented - muddle

Interesting - dull

Valid - inaccurate, wrong

Task 5. Summarize the text in 10 sentences.

Task 6. Translate the text in writing

1. The factors that contribute to teenage stress are many and varied. It can be something as simple as worrying about getting asked to the dance or passing Friday`s pop quiz.

2. Any adult who doubts that teenage stress is a real problem affecting a large number of teenagers, only needs to cast their mind back to their own teenage years and recall their own experiences to realize how prevalent teenage stress is, and how difficult it can be.

3. The causes of teenage stress may appear trivial by comparison to the stresses which we experience as adults, which are associated with our responsibilities.

4. The first thing to learn is how to avoid a buildup of stress in the first place, and this can be accomplished by following some simple, yet effective guidelines.

5. Teenagers realize that there is a support network to help them through their problems; it can be easier for them to learn how to cope with it.

6. This arguments apply to teenagers setting standards for themselves, where again they need to guard against putting undue pressure on themselves by a tendency to seek perfection in everything they do.

Task 7. Find in the text “Teenage stress” English equivalents for:

Негативное влияние, нервный срыв, депрессия, преодолеть многочисленные проблемы, необычная реакция на особое требование, беспокойство, истощение, умственная концентрация, психологическая защита, сложные взаимоотношения, снизить пагубное влияние стресса, расследование.

Task 8. Give the words and word combinations synonymous to the given ones:

1. available to

2. the negative impact

3. to overcome

4. to solve problems

5. to aid

6. to be under more pressure

7. to be taken into account

8. to avoid negative consequences

9. the relationships are complicated

Task 9. Make up sentences choosing an appropriate variant from the second column and translate them into Russian:

1. The negative impact of stress might cause diseases such as

2. Sometimes during the first stage stress-related illness such as

3. In the initial stages of stress

4. However, if a person is under stress for too long

5. What can be done in order

6. The next step is to determine

7. They were asked to describe their emotions

1) his psychological defenses break down.

2) migraines, hay fever and heart disease appear.

3) nervous breakdowns, migraines, eating disorders, asthma,

hay fever, depression, heart disease, eczema and so on.

4) in 16 different situations, connected with their school life.

5) the main reason for the stress.

6) there is a feeling of excitement and increased mental

concentration.

7) to help children fight stress?

Task 10. Role-play the following situations:

1.Two student are discussing a “rough” week and their plans for the weekend.

2. One young girl fell in love but her parents forbid meeting with her boy-friend. She asks her friend to convince the parents.

3. You are suspicious. That is why you have difficult relationships with you group mates. You ask for advice at psychologist.

Task 11. Memorize the following words and word-combinations:

Anxiety overcome numerous problems

be taken into account peculiarities of the teenage period

demand psychological defense

depression psychosomatic illness

exhaustion reduce the harmful influence on

experienced teacher resistance

mental concentration special request

negative impact stressful situations

nervous breakdowns suffer from stress

neutral unusual reaction

UNIT IV. RUNAWAYS

More than a million American teenagers run away from home every year. Their parents are often puzzled and hurt. Why do they do it? Who provokes them for it? There's usually a lack of understanding on both sides - parents and child - problems in communication.

More than half of these runaways are girls. Their average age is fifteen. For one reason or another, they refuse to stay at home. Of course, the great majority of young people never run away home. Nevertheless, the problem is a serious one. There is no “typical” runaway, though. Many come from homes broken by divorce or homes where there is an alcoholic parent. Some run away from parents who beat them. But there are also many runaways who come from seemingly healthy homes where no such problems exist.

Steve, aged 15, ran away when he was 13. His father drank, and everyone in the family suffered when he got drunk. One night his father grabbed a gun and, with his finger on the trigger, threatened to kill everyone in the family. Steve ran away - and stayed away. His chief concern was getting enough food and a safe, dry place to sleep. “It's frightened to be homeless because you don't know about tomorrow,” - Steve says. “Everything you have is what's on your back. You wonder where you're going to eat or live. You don't know if you'll be all right.”

Sharon's parents are divorced, but she says she had no real problems at home. She lived in a small town in Vermont. One evening she was watching TV when a friend rang up. “We're going to New York. Want to come along?” Sharon - 14 years old - hesitated, then shrugged her shoulders and agreed. When the police finally traced her, she had become a drug addict.

Unfortunately, these young people often run into trouble. Few runaways have any idea of how to get along in the lonely and often dangerous world they find after leaving home. Most take off with only a few dollars in their pockets. When this is spent they find it is not easy to make money if you are only fifteen or sixteen years old. It's useless for them to look for a proper job, because legally they are too young to get a job. The police say that most runaways return home within a few days. Often a phone call home is enough to patch things up. However, the longer runaway is away, the more likely he or she got into trouble. One set of problems is often replaced by another. Runaways often think that they will find friendly people willing to help them out. But the sad fact is that cities are full of people on the lookout for runaways, who only want to take advantage of them.

On the street, there are four main means of survival: begging, stealing, prostitution and drug dealing. It's like a quicksand: The deeper in you go, the deeper down you sink. Sometimes, inevitably, it goes to suicide. There are a lot of charity organizations which try to protect street child from addict. But unfortunately, the number of teen runaways is rising and the kids are getting younger.

There are about 100 million young people around the world who call the streets their home. And their numbers are rising by the hundreds of thousands each year. In Africa, they are orphans of civil war or victims of famine; in Latin America and Asia, they are victims of poverty. In the capitals of the western world, they are runaways. Street children have to look after themselves, living off rubbish, trying to earn money by odd jobs.

The two most difficult cities in the world right now are Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Bangkok, Thailand. Many of the street children are beaten, raped and sold for sex. They cannot turn to the police for help because the police often do the same things to them. In some Latin America countries, street children are rounded up and imprisoned or killed, just to tidy up the streets for an important foreign visitor.

Task 1. Transcribe the following words and word - combinations and learn

their pronunciation:

runaways, majority, serious, typical, alcoholic, addict, advantage, suicide,

charity, orphans, civil, victims, poverty, rubbish, to earn, to imprison, famine, to provoke.

Task 2. Make up 10 questions to the text and offer it to your groupmates.

Task 3. Pick out sentences where the following word combinations are used. Reproduce the situation:

For one reason or another - по той или иной причине;

to be on the lookout for - охотиться (за);

to patch things up - улаживать (ссору);

to take advantage of - использовать (в своих интересах);

to run into trouble - попасть в беду;

to beg - попрошайничать;

to take off - убегать;

drug addict - наркоман;

charity organizations - благотворительные организации.

Task 4. Study these two articles about homeless children in America and in Russia.

1) Comment on the situation in two countries.

2) Propose your ways to improve the situation in our country.

The following expressions may be useful:

- analyzing the situation it's necessary to point out that;

- there is much concern about;

- mention should be made of the fact that;

- it's not a secret that.

Всего в США их более полутора миллионов - бездомных детей. Такую горькую статистику обнародовал Национальный центр по бездомным семьям. По сравнению с другими штатами Нью-Йорк занял 45 место из 50. При выстраивании рейтинга учитывались четыре критерия: процент бездомных детей, их общее благосостояние, риск ребенка стать бездомным и отношение властей к этим проблемам. С 2007 по 2010 год количество бездомных детей в США выросло на 38%. «Кризис стал для них настоящим стихийным бедствием, - считает доктор Эллен Бэссак, президент исследовательского центра и профессор психиатрии в медицинской школе Гарварда. - Сегодня бездомных детей больше, чем после ураганов Катрина и Рита в 2006 году». Бездомным считается ребенок младше 18 лет, живущий как минимум с одним родителем или опекуном в мотеле, кампусе, ночлежке или машине, так как их дом утрачен по экономическим причинам. Бездомные дети страдают от психических и эмоциональных расстройств, а также отстают от своих сверстников в школах. «Постоянный стресс, который они испытывают, отражается на их способности к обучению», - считают исследователи.

В Нью-Йорке за последние десять лет количество бездомных семей удвоилось. Коалиция для бездомных сообщает следующее:

* В Нью-Йорке 45 тысяч бездомных, 17 тысяч из которых - дети.

* Каждую ночь 41200 бездомных мужчин, женщин и детей спят в городских ночлежках, тысячи других спят на улицах или где-то еще.

* Каждый год больше 110 тысяч бездомных ньюйоркцев, в том числе 40 тысяч детей, пользуются муниципальными ночлежками...

Сегодня в России, по самым осторожным оценкам, - 4-6 млн. беспризорных детей. Но, поскольку четкого учета нет, их может быть больше. Некоторые эксперты утверждают: беспризорников в России уже 7 миллионов (если учесть миграционный поток в Россию из стран СНГ). Эти дети не учатся в школе, не проходят медицинские осмотры. Многие из них или не умеют читать или читают по слогам. Почти 60% беспризорников со временем пополняют ряды уголовников. По оценкам экспертов, российские беспризорники в основной своей массе не сироты, лишившиеся родителей, а дети, которые по каким-либо причинам ушли из семей по своей воле. До 90% из них - социальные сироты, то есть при живых родителях. Ежегодно выявляется более 100 тыс. детей-бродяг. Они не нужны родителям, но востребованы преступными сообществами.

Task 5. Translate the texts into English in writing.

Task 6. Find the antonyms to the following words:

Proper, lack, legally, majority, typical, dry, deep, to make money, to rise, to tidy up.

Task 7. Fill in the correct word from the list below. Use the words only once.

Survival, job, divorce, understanding, trouble, charity, to go, the streets

1. There's usually a lack of…

2. These young people often run into…

3. It's useless for them to look for a proper…

4. On the street, there are four main means of …

5. There are a lot of…… organizations.

6. Many come from homes broken by…

7. Sometimes, inevitably, it……………. to suicide.

8. About 100 million young people around the world call ..... their home.

Task 8. Give the meaning of the italicized words. Note the effect of the prefixes:

a) 1. The remark provoked an uproar. 2. The book evoked memories. 3. His pass has been revoked. 4. Parliament was convoked. 5. He threatened to invoke the law on them.

b) 1. You can induce magnetism in a piece of iron by placing near a magnet. 2. Seeing no one at the station, he deduced that the telegram had not reached his family. 3. The factory produces office furniture. 4. Approaching the intersection, the driver reduced speed.

Task 9. Topics for round table discussions:

1. Street children: what are they?

2. Why do children run away home?

3. Horrific statistics of runaway children.

4. Propose some ways to improve the situation with street children and to reduce their quantity?

5. The organizations in Russia and in other countries which try to protect street child from addict.

Task 10. Memorize the following words and word-combinations:

beg provoke

charity quicksand

concern (n, v) rape (n,v)

drug addict round up (v)

famine runaway

grab (n,v) suicide (n,v)

hesitate survival

imprison trace

lack threaten

orphan (n,v) victim

UNIT V. UNDERAGE DRINKING

My friend Sara and I went to that huge New Year party. I had a glass of wine with ice and left it at that but Sara just kept drinking more and more. She told me that she felt more relaxed and that she could be the real Sara after a few drinks.

It's all rubbish because ended up sitting on the toilet floor. She was sick all over her beautiful red dress. It was a terrible sight.

I made her drink lots of water, washed her (which was extremely difficult), wrapped her in a clean towel and lay her on the sofa, with a bucket on the floor…

We returned home only in the morning. I'd rather not tell you what my dad said…

Mary, 16

I woke up because something was digging in my face. As soon as I opened my eyes my head started hurting, everything was really bright. When my eyes got used to the daylight I found that I had been lying face down in a car park.

I have no idea for how long or how the hell I got there. I remember going to a party with friends the night before but I really cannot remember anything else at all.

I picked myself up and wiped off bits of gravel that had stuck to my face. I had to wander round in the freezing cold for a while to get my bearings. I was in a car park on the other side of town. I wanted to get a taxi back home but I couldn't find my wallet or keys anywhere.

I eventually made home by walking and phoned my friends who told me that they had said goodbye to me at 11 the night before and that I was pretty well plastered. What happened to me between then and waking up in the car park is a mystery.

Jim, 18

I know this might sound dumb but I'll never touch alcohol again.

The party was over and on the way home I was showing off to some of the girls with us by walking along a wall.

I don't think they were very impressed so I decided to knock their socks off by doing a handstand on the wall. I think they were even less impressed when I slipped off the wall breaking my arm in two places.

The booze that had made me act like a prat did nothing to hide the pain, or worse the shame.

Ben, 17

Task 1. Look very quickly through the letters.

Task 2. In two minutes decide what these letters are going to be about.

Task 3. Choose the heading, which suits the letters best:

- I'll never touch it again.

- No New Year party.

- Blackout.

Task 4. Find in the letters the sentences with the following words and word combinations:

keep drinking - продолжать пить rubbish - чепуха, ерунда

to be sick - тошнить, рвать sight - вид

extremely - крайне, чрезвычайно to wrap - завернуть, укутать

blackout - провал памяти to dig (dug) - вонзаться, врезаться

to get used to - привыкать face down - лицом вниз

car park - стоянка автомобилей how the hell - как, чёрт возьми

to pick oneself up - подняться to wipe off - стирать, вытирать

gravel - гравий to stick - прилипнуть

to wander - бродить, блуждать freezing cold - леденящий холод

wallet - бумажник eventually - в конце концов

plastered - пьяный mystery - тайна, загадка

dumb - глупый to show off - красоваться,

выпендриваться

wall - барьер, ограда prat - идиот

handstand - стойка на руках to slip off - соскользнуть, упасть

booze - выпивка, спиртное

shame - стыд

to knock smb's socks off - решиnm кого-то сразить

to make home by walking - добраться до дома пешком

to get one's bearings - сориентироваться, понять

to be impressed - быть под впечатлением

Task 5. Make your own sentences with each of them.

Task 6. Prove the English proverb: When wine is in wit is out (Дали вина, так и стал без ума или Вино с разумом вместе не ходят)

Task 7. Render the following article in English.

Народная мудрость давно подметила, что «вино вину творит». Пьянство и его крайнее проявление алкоголизм постепенно приобретает в России характер национального бедствия, которое самым тесным образом и по многим направлениям связано с преступностью. Пьянство способствует совершению самых различных преступлений: умышленных и неосторожных, первичных и рецидивных, насильственных и корыстных и т.д.

Алкоголь влияет на психику, интеллект, эмоции, волю, мотивацию поведения людей. Нередко случается так, что один и тот же человек в пьяном и трезвом виде по своим поведенческим характеристикам как бы раздваивается, ведет себя диаметрально противоположно. Под воздействием алкоголя нарушается нормальная деятельность мозга, всей нервной системы, расстраивается сознание. Пьяный теряет способность к адекватному восприятию внешней среды, людей, их поступков, утрачивает самоконтроль, становится невыдержанным, развязным и грубым. Систематическое пьянство способствует неблагоприятному нравственному формированию личности, существенно деформирует процесс социализации личности, ослабляет или подрывает социально полезные связи в различных типах микросреды, а также способствует созданию конкретных жизненных ситуаций криминогенного характера.

Пьянство способствует усилению циничности, дерзости, жестокости, злостности и других наиболее негативных характеристик противоправных действий, совокупно повышающих их общественную опасность, обусловливающих наступление особо вредных последствий. Под воздействием алкоголя часто совершаются самые бессмысленные преступления, при которых, например, величайшее благо - человеческая жизнь - оценивается в стоимость бутылки водки или того меньше.

Task 8. Find the words in two texts that are similar to the following definitions:

-taking a lot of booze;

- dancing, eating, drinking;

- smth not serious;

- to pick oneself up;

- to go around slowly in order to find smth;

- a bag for money;

- to clean;

- the expressing of feelings;

- mind;

- what happened after some acts;

- acts without control leading to the crime.

Task 9. Look through the fresh newspapers and find there some information on the latest statistics of underage teenagers. Be ready to comment on it.

Task 10. Memorize the following words and word-combinations:


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