Journalistic text translation from English into Russian
Translation in the view of international communication. Methods for transferring the realities of the translation of journalistic texts. Characteristic features of journalistic English. The practice of the translation of newspaper and informational text.
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An essential attribute of a full translation is its stylistic fidelity to the original and therefore qualitatively comparable with the original can be considered only as a translation that correctly reflects the basic substantive and stylistic features of the original text.
The stylistic equivalence of the original text and the translation is created by juxtaposing a plurality of separate statements, stylistically equivalent to each other. In this case, the adequacy of the translation is by no means limited to the accurate transmission of the content of the artwork. There is a question of form and recreate the style of the source text that is associated with the transfer of the entire paradigm of meanings and interpretations, the transfer of stylistic categories of expressiveness, judgmental and emotivity finding expression in a speech to the child.
The difficulty and sometimes impossibility of finding tools that can equally reflect both semantic and stylistic features of the original, leading some interpreters to favor one of these aspects, which greatly reduces the adequacy of the translation.
The subject of this work is the study of journalistic text translation from English into Russian.
The object of the study is the stylistic features of the language of journalistic texts.
The relevance of research is due to the high socio-cultural significance of newspaper and informational materials. At constant changes in English culture is very sensitive language and speech, and above all - in the media. Of particular interest is the translation of titles in the English-speaking press materials.
The relevance of identified research objectives:
1) identify the linguistic features of journalism;
2) to determine the expressive means of the English language press;
3) systematic methods of transmission and means of language translation of journalistic texts.
In accordance with the intended purpose in the following tasks:
1) Consider the functional styles of English;
2) definition of the role and place of journalistic style in functional and stylistic differentiation of language;
3) the study of the linguistic nature of journalism;
4) analysis of some features of journalistic style of speech;
5) The ordering of the individual tools used in the translation of journalistic texts.
On the basis of the objectives of this paper are selected following methods: analytical description of the texts, the comparison method, the method of synthesis, linguistic analysis of the text.
The material used for research articles of British and American newspapers and magazines.
1. Translation in the view of international communication
Speaking or communication - is one of the sides of the interaction of people in their activities. Communication is a specific condition of human life in society. Communication in the psychological sense is always a process of solving communication problems. In the framework of the theory of speaking Communication is the process of circulation of information in society. Communication is the realization of the social character of consciousness. We can recall the words of L. Bloomfield that the "speech act, and the entire course of practical events before and after the speech depends on the entire life history of the speaker and the listener". So, human communication - is a process of interaction between two or more persons for the purpose of language transmission / receiving / exchange of information, i.e. of an impact on the interlocutor necessary for the implementation of joint activities with.
Communication can be successful and unsuccessful. Successful communication - "is adequate communication, which achieves a more or less complete, but not necessarily sufficient, in terms of the communicants, mutual understanding" [1. 173]. In the case of unsuccessful communication there is possible communicative failure (not enough adequate communication, lack of understanding of participants communication) or communicative failure (inadequate communication, a complete misunderstanding of the communicants at each others).
For adequate communication requires a "common knowledge of communicants' certain community social experience and a common fund of knowledge. Psycholinguistics suggests the need to cross zones of individual cognitive spaces of communicants sufficient for adequate communication.
For successful communication partners need to know about the cultural peculiarities of each other, to operate with images of language awareness. In this common linguistic identities are a prerequisite of speech communication. It is the consciousness of language differences or lack of knowledge about the features of linguistic consciousness of other people is the main cause of conflict communication, but is a direct proof of belonging communicating to different national cultures.
In the domestic science ICC had initially linguistic orientation, resulting in a few areas of its reflection and development. So, lingo - country-studying and area studies exploring the issues of interaction of language and culture. Ethno-linguistics focuses on the interaction of language with various aspects of life of the ethnic group, the role of language in the formation and functioning of national culture (folklore), examines the role of language in the formation of national psychology and art. It also investigates the problem of different forms of communication (kommunicavistics, genre-studying): problems of speech communication, the relationship of consciousness and communication (V.V. Krasnyh), communicative behavior (T.G.Vinokur, I.P. Susov), works on the description of communication strategies, non-verbal communication (within psycholinguistics) (I.N. Gorelov, V.I. Karasik) investigated the relationship between translation and intercultural communication. In the field of ICC outlined new areas of research: Communication in the context of globalization of culture, mass ICC, as well as direct and indirect forms of ICC (communication by electronic means and the Internet). However, to highlight the ICC as an independent science is needed systematization of theoretical positions and methodological tools and techniques of research.
Linguistic influence on contact, as inevitable in the translation, and in cross-cultural communication, received the name of linguistic interference [2. 26]. Interference is interference elements of one language system to another by direct contact language, and the result of such intervention can be either negative or put it in a deviation from the rules of the language, as well as a positive, contributing to the quality of the translation and the acquisition of intercultural competence under the influence of another language. Sometimes this effect is known as destructive (negative) interference, significantly reduces the quality of cross-cultural communication and translation. Interest in the phenomenon of interference is growing. There are papers on phonological, phonetic, semantic and lexical interference. Such studies are potentially important for the development of the theory and practice of translation. They will be valuable in cross-cultural communication, against the background of the fact that Russia is growing interest in the acquisition of language skills and tolerance education, changing attitudes to the need to study the cultures and traditions of other nations. Adequate and full translation implies correct, accurate and complete transmission of the content and features of the text, the original source, and that function is maintained in the correct language form the language in which the translation.
Translated into the framework of cross-cultural communication is necessary not only to convey the content is accurate and correct, but also to achieve an adequate cross-cultural contact, which is possible only with the understanding of cultural traditions and cultural color, national characteristics, reflected in form, style, idiom and cultural realities that emerged in the text, the original source (as in the oral and the written translation). Depending on how to understand each other's carriers of different languages and cultures of different areas of life, the future of entire nations. In cross-cultural communication translation has, on the one hand, the main role (if communicants are speaking different languages and use a foreign language and an interpreter as intermediaries), on the other hand, the translation performs a subordinate role, being only a means and a way to achieve exposure and transmission. The underestimation of the interference phenomenon at the level of career-oriented cross-cultural communication and translation found in a variety of errors, accents, translation inaccuracies and distortions of meaning statements, which may even lead to a breakdown of communication. In the framework of intercultural communication translator must know not only the language in which the translation, but also cultural characteristics, traditions, social and personal behaviors, customs of peoples to properly interpret and verbal communication, non-verbal and its support (gestures, facial expressions). The most pressing is the concept of a limit transferability, we're talking about the limits of translatability, when you can not complete the transaction, or in the case untranslatability when "it is impossible to build a functionally relevant characteristics of the situation in contextual meaning of the text to the target language" [3 183]. One can speak of two types of situations, the situation with the complexities of linguistic plan and the situation with the complexities of the cultural plan (untranslatability cultural studies), while translating both written and oral communications. The first related to the transfer of puns, wordplay, caused by homophones or homographs, meaningful words. The latter occurs when a situational feature, functionally relevant for source-language text, is completely absent in the culture, part of which is the language in which the translation.
1.1 Contextual of intercultural communication
Comparison with other nations helps each of them to feel their own identity. For example, the British often accused of greed and selfishness, the Germans cause fear for their discipline, organization, diligence and aggressiveness [4; 86].
In the process of communication between different cultures stereotypical occupy a significant place. Meeting with the representatives of other nations and cultures, a person usually has a natural tendency to perceive their behavior in terms of their culture, "to measure them to your yard." In this case, without the ability to quickly and correctly assessed on the interviewee's difficult to navigate the different social and cultural circles.
In the process of cross-cultural communication, one partner perceives the other, together with his actions and through the actions. The adequacy of the understanding of the actions and their causes depends on building a relationship with another person .
In terms of interconnection and interdependence of the modern world of different cultures are not isolated from each other and are in constant contact and interact [6;18] . Representatives of one culture collide with the features of other cultures through direct contact with carriers of these molecules s tour at home and abroad, or receive relevant information orally or in writing with the screen, in the newspapers, from literary works and other sources. One of these sources is widespread in the world today are translations.
According to H.G. Gadamer, any interpretation is contextual, depending on criteria related to the context of where and when it is carried out and no one will know and understand the text for what he is in himself [7;43] . When the text of a historical and cultural context falls into another, new intentions linked with it, by a new historical and cultural context. Talented translation must fit into the worldview of the target language, thus reflecting the peculiarities of perception of the world of the original language, serve as a bridge between different cultures. We know that many local languages and culture were influenced by the translations.
The socio-cultural impact on the strategy of the translator, according to V.N.Komissarov, often reflected in the fullness of play in the translation of the content of the original, forcing the translator to reduce or completely omit anything in the host culture is considered unacceptable by the ideologue and the ethical, moral or aesthetic reasons [8;18]
Various forms of cultural determinism translation activities are a kind of conventional norm of translation - a set of requirements for the company to translation at a certain stage of history.
1.2 Role of the media in international communication. Mentality and speech etiquette of nation
Information communication is the main source of social and cultural progress. Increase various international cultural and information links occurs at an increasing pace. During the discussion of ideas and points of view of different countries on the same subject, even when close enough translation problems associated with the use of a variety of different nations of the tongue.
Natural and understandable is the fight against having a place and now the imbalance in the international exchange of news, information against imperialism (and, as a consequence, cultural colonialism). Less clear is the lack of attention to the formation of the media and to the ethnic honors in national languages.
Media because of the homogeneity of their genres of texts in different regions of the world are the most reliable means of a public consent (of course, subject to other conditions, smoothing the social contradictions in international conflicts).
The media in the national languages are formed transnational quality. Naturally, we do not have in mind the export of information monopoly in any region of the world, but insist on the fact that in a globalized market information and the formation of true ethnic qualities to consider a system of external rules of literature: ethical, legal, and administrative. It is defined by the rules of external orientation modeling the content of speech in international communication; at the same time have to take into account the peculiarity of the implementation of these rules in different states.
The formation of inter-ethnic qualities can not only contribute to the homogeneity of media genres. Mass information in different parts of the world characterized by the division on its type: mass media, film (newsreel), radio, television, in the presence of each of the forms due to the non-linguistic semiotic systems, static and dynamic images, collages of text, i.e. this combination of messages that a logical connection between them can not be set, but in general, any issue of media representatives it possible to complete a meaningful way.
All media outlets share the author's work between the information agencies, journalists and editors in the name of creating meaning of the texts, not only in relation to the publication as a whole, but also in relation to a particular message in the release. The common property of the media is symbolic meanings of verbal constructions that are regularly played. The recipient of information develops a set of characters (American content analysts called it a "symbolic umbrella"). The set of characters constitutes an ideological construct, which is sensed through the toil and the different types of content.
Mass information in any region of the world is based on a certain (given) program. Texts media everywhere are secondary, as are derived from other texts with the necessary transformation of their form and meaning. Communications media "without ordering": they are a recipient outside the dialog mode, without a request or permission of the wasps by n emitter. These texts are intended to be regularly and promptly inform the recipient information on current events, the situation in some areas. In an effort to interest the recipient information, involve him in the event spiritually prepared if necessary to incorporate into mass action, the media picked up and commented on so material as to be attractive, and attracted attention and curiosity.
Objectively, there is a unique species, forms and media devices, the emergence of more and more common sources of information favors the interdependence between countries, and, if in a given country there is a "niche" status in any kind of media, it will be filled optimally processed information from sources other regions.
Formation of the media ethnic qualities of the national languages, we believe the case is relatively near future, but for now you need to find the most effective possibilities of inter-ethnic contacts. In each country, we face with the manifestation of different cultures and traditions and it is necessary - albeit to a first approximation - to get acquainted with the roots of a culture and worldview and communication of definite nation.
The inhabitants of different countries in different ways use their language. Language is a means of communication for the nomination and naming objects for speech and messaging; thanks to this feature of language reflects the national character. Speaking skills usually coincide with the skills of listening, that the media is almost more important factor of communication.
In different nations, depending on the mentality of the nation and the cultural traditions of the different uses and perceived speech and expression in accordance with the situations and purposes of communication. Equally extraordinary are understood communicative appropriateness and correctness of the speech itself. Is also a necessary consideration of the specific audiences depending on the geographic region and the country, particularly for evidence and belief in dialogue with the representatives of different nations will be different: in the Nordic region appropriate to appeal to the mind, the logical impact on the communicant to convince, and in the Mediterranean region - on the contrary, to the feeling, the emotion of a communicant.
Getting in a foreign country, people quickly grasp and absorb new experiences and at the same time seeks to catch as much as possible in a familiar-sounding speech around - in other words, trying to immerse themselves in the lives of others, hoping to find her own support for something familiar, his own. Foreigners in the first place are similar to their habitual behavior and way of life, but then begin to wonder strange or foreign to their ideas, standards, urges. Why do they say (or act) like this? Talk and talk so long since become a tradition. Here's how to adjust to this manner of speech, and not losing you in a whole without changing any of his usual speech, no way to hold, to win in the communication process - is another matter.
One can love or hate foreign culture, it can be despised, or afraid of praise, but neither a professional in the field of media can not be one - ignore this culture. Each culture has a greater or lesser, but mostly its just share the experience of mankind. Behavior and perception caused by cultural skills of the nation. The study of foreign languages, travel to other countries, and even more so for a long stay in them expand cultural horizons. This is helped by reading books on philosophy, psychology, and other aspects of other cultures. When dealing with the media of other cultures is important to consider well established in this nation philosophical, religious and political beliefs. Can not be rude to sneer about these beliefs or try to change them - beliefs or views may change within the very cultural systems, but not by external events. Creative life in the media will be informative, interesting, and successful, if the authors of the media will be rational to include in their texts elements of other cultures, especially when dealing with the residents of these other cultures.
Is an objective description of the national style of communication is not possible, however, still be considered the most common, the most likely features of thinking, perception and behavior. Speech etiquette - it's functional and semantic universal, but the practical implementation of the media speech etiquette should be made taking into account the peculiarities of verbal behavior, communication rules, customs and rituals of a particular region or society.
French characterizes aesthetic intellectualism; they habitually cultivate the mind and were able to find its proper shape for reasonable judgments. French characterized by an innate politeness (often overlooked by foreigners), contempt for mediocrity, the scale of thinking and ideas preference facts. They estimate the incoming information from the point of view of common sense; it does not react to an event, but judiciously. The French are well aware and feel that it is the word can quickly penetrate the consciousness than any other semiotic sign. French language - the exact language in the world, analytical dictionary French adapted to the rapid movements of thought. Frenchman's lack of judgment uncertain words and impersonal revolutions, they are resolute and straight, relentlessly follow the logic - it awaits a Frenchman and of his companion. The Frenchman is important when dealing with certain formalities are important style, appearance, and even the "sex appeal" interlocutor. The consistency of the material must necessarily be combined with imagery and color in the presence of a personal account of events, particularly valuable relevant links to France. The Frenchman is always ready to actively cooperate. The same position was occupied by the Italians and Spaniards.
Italians, Spaniards and other residents of the Mediterranean region are paying attention to the eloquence and vitality of the interlocutor, his rhetorical devices, particularly its focus on personal contact with the audience. They are essential for rate, pitch, loudness of speech and play these properties during intercourse, usually they want to post new information could talk and "off topic". Italian consumer is accustomed to the catchy, original advertising, which is associated with a long tradition of fine art masters. When communicating with the Italians (and the Spanish), it makes sense to focus on the emotions experienced by you in this moment, for it is these nations tend to empathy. Meaning of the expression should be covered emotionally-specific, otherwise it can not be perceived.
The British use their language differently: they use the nuances and reservations are able to be uncertain to maintain civility and avoid confrontation. An Englishman fixed characteristics such as the preservation of distance, unsociable, coolness, conservative, self-restraint. British - geniuses tradition and ritual of polite behavior and respectful is breaking the traditional respect to the structure of the whole. It is considered bad form to exercise excessively own erudition and generally categorically assert that whatsoever, for others this may be due to a different view. This attitude toward speech and the Englishman expects from his companion, with him it is important to know the sources from which emerged the stated information, it recognizes only reliable information contained in traditional forms, but it is possible with the inclusion of humor.
Humor, but also jokes will appreciate and American, but for him the most important modern form of the material, the inclusion in the text of stereotypical advertising formulas, along with the new copyright, catchy phrases. American will also evaluate the tricks of the dialogue in order to impose their attitude to the listener to set forth the events. When dealing with the Americans should keep in mind that the universal ideals of this nation too often obscured by the ethics of business relations, however, when dealing with a young American audience, it should be borne in mind that young people rebelling against over practicality, thrift, resulting in a final end to the blind greed.
British and American English - a great tool because of the richness of brainstorming vocabulary and different meanings of one word, which makes it possible to use the abundant ambiguities, and come up with the words on the go.
German is characterized by well-known heavy and pedantic, strictly disciplined and logical structure of long compound words to express complex concepts. To German is peculiar to focus on important issues and a thoughtful selection of keywords for tangible expression of the corresponding concepts. German excludes any jokes, he appreciates the quality of the information a reputable company or firm, he draws attention to the context in which supplied fresh information, habitually divides the text at the beginning, middle, end. German is usually not willing to accept and appreciate the author's position: on the facts of the information he forms his own attitude to it.
Scandinavians, especially Swedes are used to reduce the fines to a minimum, get to the merits of the case, and as briefly as possible to formulate it. We are in communication with the Scandinavians should be laconic, consist of a short and simple, keyword rich content of utterances. Finnish language is more eloquent and flamboyant than the Swedish, Danish or Norwegian; Finn can be used with all types of verbal humor. But the Finn as the rest of the Scandinavians would expect that the essence statements are strictly focused on the facts, concise and well thought out.
In dealing with the Arabs beneficial relations, devoid of formality, known intimization, ease of friendly ties. It is particularly useful for non-standard use of stylistic figures (the figurative, the better), introductory words and sentences. In the name of greater imagery is not afraid of complex syntactic structure.
To the Japanese it is important in the first place courtesy of a friend and a focus on agreement with the listener, he appreciates the respect for the author to transfer to the spectator. Particularly like it takes a calm presentation of information, draws attention to the fact, well suited to his companion, whether it complies with the formalities of communication, whether the image of the body on whose behalf the broadcasts. While watching the reaction of your listeners / viewers or discussions with them your creative output should keep in mind that the Japanese have their own words and sentences do not convey the full meaning of what was said. The fact that the Japanese want to say and what they feel is indicated besides the manner of speech, referring to the interlocutor: smiles, pauses, sighs, muffled grunt, nod his head and eye movements.
None of the eastern country cannot stand the self-centered speech. No bragging, no self-promotion in these regions are not acceptable, so speak out about the merits of their information, and even more about myself definitely not recommended. The central aspects of Eastern psychology are courtesy, patience, harmony and pragmatism. Well-known Japanese politeness, but the principles of respect, reverence, location, and proximity to such principles and feelings formula speech etiquette is quite common in other countries of the East (for example, the guide on speech etiquette Thai language description developed for use in different circumstances of pronouns is 64 pages).
Asians tend to so-called "circular" thinking - understanding of information and its evaluation for them long enough process: they must relate the information known to the new context and for some elusive to Western man factors to decide the truth or falsity of the advantages and disadvantages of entering new information.
Features of the practical implementation of speech etiquette media in connection with the originality of verbal behavior, rules of communication, customs and rituals of a particular region or society provide serious attention to expressions and turns of speech treatment, attention, greetings, love, farewell, sympathy, consents, approvals, failure in the different countries of the world. The origins of the formulas phraseological speech etiquette are in the works of the people and thus reflect the cultural foundations of the nation. However, when using the media proverbs, winged words and phrases in the name of speech and imagery excitation of interest to inter-ethnic contacts should be constantly aware of the equivalence and non-equivalent phraseology to unwittingly provide a comical situation.
The search for optimal speech means in the native language for the sake of successful contacts with foreigners and avoid semantic and cultural failures in communication is also achieved by the rational use of synonymous series of different roots antonyms, specific values of polysemy (allowing rotation of themes or her shift at the time of presentation), the rational use of phraseological formulas of speech etiquette.
Naturally, the easier it will be accepted, perceived emotional, deeply understood the text that is already their first phrases to evoke sympathy. It is in the first sentence should appear most compelling key words that define the meaning of a paragraph, structuring the paragraph in which, as is known, disclosed one of micro-themes entire text. It is among the first words to be employed and the dominant, generalized statements expressing the idea of a paragraph or at the level of a single, high word synonymous row.
Dominant as it is known, are the most regular words in speech have maximum compatibility with other words, they are most stylistically neutral with respect to the other members of the series of synonymous. These properties are dominant members of synonymous and some allow you to use the vocabulary of Russian stocks in different ways to communicate with people of different nationalities. Let us illustrate this with an example.
After long negotiations, discussions of the options treaty text between the two sides finally came the final, satisfying both sides of the text. Russian says with his Russian counterpart as: "Договор подписан, теперь будем заботиться о его выполнении." Literally translated, this phrase is an American would say there is really nothing to it, it should sound differently: "We signed a contract, now we will carefully fulfill his every point." In relation to the act of signing the Frenchman would sound something like this: "We have finally signed a contract, now we will think about it." Their respect for the Japanese, diligent and hard work is performed, it is advisable to put into words, "Our contract is diligently fulfill all that is written in it." For punctual Germans, this phrase will sound: "We are seriously worked on the conclusion of the contract, will now frugal in the spending of funds allocated for it." The Spaniards believe that life is created for pleasure, but in order to get them as much as possible, you need a lot and work well. But seriously talk about the work of the Spanish had made: to be negotiated as if sketching comic flair. Therefore, the most natural for the Spaniard is the phrase: "Everything in the contract agreed, and now we love it." As can be seen from the above examples, the dominant Russian заботливый caring for each of the statements presented by a member of its synonymous row: attentive, diligent, thrifty, love (внимательный, старательный, бережливый, любовный).
In relation to the antonym it is of a lot better not to use their structural pairs (with prefixes un-, un-, a-, out-, etc.), and antonyms with different roots, each of which, in addition to the logical concept, is also an emotional image: polite - coarse (rather impolite), circumspect - a rash and the like.
One of the properties of the media (not always clearly perceived) is the creation of texts on stereotypes - they help in faster design thinking in learning or using a particular genre or type of information, and through them in understanding the business, news, situation. However, too much commitment stereotypes harm the understanding of another culture. Therefore, we must learn to manage stereotypes in making your mind focused on the values in a culture that we think positive, and whenever possible with a gentle humor to perceive and react to what is felt by us as negative.
Multicultural media professional must develop the ability to put him/herself in other cultures, and thus to share and understand its relationship to the world. A specialist in the field of media cannot afford the communicative gap in dealing with different cultures; it is obliged to suppress the failure to adopt the point of view of another culture. This requires a lot of preparation - in-depth comparative analysis of life views, basic beliefs, and major cultural attitudes of different nationalities.
1.2.1 Concepts of language and culture in the context of media
The objective of this part is to review the concept of "self-consciousness, national consciousness" in comparative terms, a comparison of Russian and English-language stereotypes that exist to date for a long time and get a vivid embodiment of the language.
Self-assessment and assessment of other cultures occur both consciously and at 'naive picture of the world "as a result of information obtained from a variety of sources. For us, the source of information is the various forms of verbal (and very often non-verbal) expression: poetry, prose, drama, scientific or journalistic pointed text, letters, diaries, etc. Such information is carefully selected and falls to us as well as encyclopedias, reference books, dictionaries and other products for the philological study, revision, extension, verification, etc. It is clear that for the purposes of this section, in the context of philological understanding of the media, we need to rely on existing judgments as prominent figures of science and culture, and the materials that bring us to their own conclusions and serve as a stimulus to further reflection on such a complex subject, as identity, personal and national.
In the following we will assume that identity can be understood as a complex structured concept, including such components of our experience as the land to which we assign a special name - Motherland. In this particular way perceived involvement in the country in which we live is a community of people, which we are part, is understood by us as a people (nation, a nation), and we received the order, the social structure of our meaningful life, which act as a state, require that we comply with certain rules of conduct.
One such rule is the speech etiquette, it will be considered in this section in its expanded meaning, not in the narrow sense, when we have in mind the formula of politeness at the meetings and partings, means keeping the conversation at the table or doing business talk on the phone . Speech etiquette has repeatedly drawn the attention of both the problem and the personal, individual to become aware of behavior, and as a socially significant, nationally specific verbal behavior. While acknowledging the importance of the whole arsenal of non-verbal communication, discuss some of the features of verbal behavior, as reflected in the written text, as artistic and journalistic.
In the work of R.O. Jacobson "Speech Communication", published in English in 1972, discusses the experience of linguistics during the XIX century and highlights the growing importance of research and the variability of invariance, made friends with math linguistics in search of invariant entities at the turn of the century. RO Jacobson calls our attention to two types of changes that affect the appearance of the options: changing stylistic and contextual. Moreover, the contextual variations point to the joint occurrence of features, a stylistic provides emotional or poetic addition to neutral, purely cognitive information. The above types belong to a single language code, which provides an understanding of each other interlocutors.
In the case when it comes to considering the features of the speech behavior in the family, at work, among peers or people who are on the same level in terms of education, standard of living and social conditions in general, the situation of communication of this type should identify a common, recurring feature as a recognized rule or canon. Cross-cultural communication will bring variety of cultural («stylistically»), significant variations of such hypothetical existing norm. Let us illustrate this with some examples.
Communication is impossible without knowledge of the interlocutor, direct or indirect knowledge of his name and the rules that govern the use of personal names, complete and concise. There is a trend that had started in the media, among politicians, business people, presenters and speakers news programs, as intimitise communication, favoring short and full names, no middle name interlocutors, correspondents in the field, visiting the studio, etc. All this has a major impact on the overall perception of personal names as iconic units in relation to such a parameter of communication as social status or social distance. Names of Vladimir Pozner, Savik Shuster - are vivid examples, while in the Russian tradition and age, and the positions they hold require respectful treatment by name and patronymic. It is no accident or violation of the canon of deviation from it leads to the fact that the program participants, who were invited to the studio free to interrupt the host, said dispute, without waiting until the speaker's argument. Personal names in Russian and English act as a dynamic category. It may indicate a convergence of communication roles in the process of communication, or to preserve the vertical roles and distancing them by age, education, etc.
Consider the context of the story by V. Panova "Сережа" Stepfather Korostelyov (yes, by the name, address him close, and so it is perceived by the author) discusses with his foster son prospects out to the new place of residence:
«Коростелев, румяный от снега, вошел, сверху посмотрел на него и спросил виновато:
- Ну как, Сергей? - Сережа не расплакался и был награжден - Коростелев сказал:
- Ты у меня молодец, Сережка». Или позже:
- Сергей, отойди в сторонку. Как бы мы на тебя не наехали. И, наконец, объявленное и столь долгожданное решение:
- А ну, живо! Сергей! Собирайся! Поедешь!
Мать ребенка выбирает свои варианты в разговоре о сыне и с ним самим:
- Сереженька, скажи мне «до свиданья!»
- Сережу берегите.
In the story of A.P. Chekhov "Van'ka," the author introduces his character under this name, that is, as turning to the boy, and the owner and his family, and the other characters. It's not unusual for him in a similar appeal: its rustic the Contemporary he responds the same way - "али заместо Федьки в подпаски пойду." The memory of life in the village with the grandfather brings to his memory, and other treatments, "дед нюхает табак, посмеивается над озябшим Ванюшкой." The boy is well aware of all the intricacies of using the name and signs the letter grandfather with full awareness of the importance of the official message: "на деревню дедушке, Константину Макарычу," adding at the end: "остаюсь твой внук, Иван Жуков, милый дедушка, приезжай I".
In N.S. Leskov's "The Enchanted Wanderer" we know the history of "молитвенного сына" (as he told us about himself reports) Ivan Flyagin, however, is well-known among close as Golovan, in the world as Ivan Sever'yanovich, and in captivity, among the Tatars, as Ivan. Agashimola, Emgurchey, other owners or acquaintances accept his name as a landmark for all the Russian people. They offer him a wife or wives, their girls named Natasha, and all the children of Ivan Severyanovich "they call" Kolka and Natasha. Being in a different cultural setting, Ivan Saver'yanovich perceives all these substitutions as a manifestation of the total installation in captivity for depersonalization, the loss of a prisoner of his "I" to the same extent that he had to submit to the loss of their national unity of the motherland, "дела никакого, а тосковал очень, домой, в Россию хотелось".
- Так вы и в десять лет не привыкли к степям?
- Нет-с, домой хочется... тоска делалась.
Everyday metamorphosis with the names of the characters on the example of Robinson Crusoe, whose parents gave him two family names (the English on his mother and a German on father's side), make the problem of the perception of the name in foreign language and foreign cultural context, the subject of interest not only for anthroponimics, but also communication in general. We refer to the French sounding name of the hero M.E. Serge Saltykov-Shchedrin Serge Bystritsyn or in the name of Eugene Onegin, receiving the translation of the similar work of A. Pushkin in English, made by Charles Johnston in 1977, two representations in the form of tracing paper and Eugene in the form of foreign-language correspondence Eugene.
Another important aspect of the study of verbal behavior is the study of its proper lexical and grammatical features: compatibility words, the choice of grammatical structures, etc. In Oscar Wilde's novel "The Picture of Dorian Gray" by a young actress and her mother discuss their difficult financial situation:
- You must not think of anything but your acting. Mr. Isaacs has been very good to us, and we owe to him money. Fifty pounds is a very large sum.
- He is not a gentleman, mother, and I hate the way he talks to me, said the girl.
- I don't know how we could manage without him.
- We don't want him any more, mother. Prince Charming rules life for us now.
(Here is a summary of the dialogue between a mother and daughter:
Мать: Ты должна думать только о своей игре. Директор театра одолжил нам огромную сумму в 50 фунтов.
Дочь: Он не джентльмен, и я не выношу того, как он со мной разговаривает.)
As can be seen from this context, the verbal behavior can be associated with a certain stable representation of ideal, good manners generally speaking. Sometimes this idea is more concrete definition. We refer to the example given earlier in «History, Phililology and Culture». A young woman wrote in a newspaper that soon after the marriage was found appalling ignorance of the young spouse rules of English grammar and literary language in general, which in the tradition of the family of the woman is completely unacceptable: «I've been married for a year and a half to a man who is good-looking, hard working and has a nice personality. The problem is his use of the English language. He says, "I ain't got none" and "They don't got no time" ».
And further, a correspondent writes that in her family always encouraged knowledge of the language, and that it is too late to found deficiencies in the formation of the young man who courted her: «I never noticed how poor my husband's grammar was before we were married, but now it's driving me crazy! I am embarrassed before my friends and family.
Please don't blow this off and say, “Well, if you love him, you'll accept his faults”. I can't see myself spending the rest of my life being embarrassed this way».
(Here is a summary of the letter to the newspaper: «I have been married for a year and a half, and during that time found appalling ignorance of my husband basics of grammar. He uses, for example, two negatives in the proposal and to comply with agreement in the form of the auxiliary verb and the main verb. When he looked after me, I had not noticed. Because my family was always taken for granted a good knowledge of the language, I'm not going to be ashamed of a lifetime for it to friends. Just do not dismiss my writing, speaking, if you love a person, you accept its shortcomings and advise what to do».)
The writer is the editorial board: everything said in the letter to inform her husband and ask him to go on courses for learning the native language of English, because otherwise their marriage is in serious danger. Although the situation described in the English original is somewhat jocular tone, the problem itself, as delivered, is quite serious and important not only for the author, anonymous signer: IN LOVE.
The decline of the culture of speech, which openly saying the school's faculty and the university, is not exclusively a sign of the day. Such a decline is observed in the community whenever the spiritual interests and needs of a person subject to the need to find means of subsistence and survival. Let's recall that S. Yesenin wrote in September 1918 in the "Keys of Mary":
«Эта буква (Я) рисует человека, опустившего руки на пуп (Знак самопознания), шагающим по земле, линии, идущие от середины туловища буквы, есть не что иное, как занесенная для шага правая нога и подпирающая корпус левая.
Через этот мудро занесенный шаг, шаг, который оканчивает обретение знаков нашей грамоты, мы видим, что человек еще окончательно себя не нашел. Он мудро благословил себя, со скарбом открытых ему сущностей, на вечную дорогу, которая означает движение, движение и только движение вперед».
And further, the poet-philosopher, argues that for the Russian people is the word: "A strictly calculate the sum of the images," nightingale jumping the tree mentally", says our Bojan just like Homer, the whole saga of his relationship to the creative word. We see that inside him there is a whole science in relation to itself and in relation to the world. "What prevents a person to maintain the beauty of the native speech perception, the native language? S. Yesenin bitterly remarked that "animal screamers, absolutely ignorant criticism and Tertiary idiotic state of the urban masses that replaced the ovary (ovary nodal nature itself) brainless America and the clang of iron rice powder on the cheeks of the capital of prostitutes." But salvation is possible if you do not pass up the chance given to man the promise of a new realm of freedom, and seek their roots, their traditions. [9;48]
Thus, we see that the voice culture is a complex fusion of knowledge about the past of their culture, knowledge of modern speech culture, many of linguistic and extra-linguistic aspects. An important role in maintaining the continuity of culture plays a speech tradition, family, educational, public speaking tradition, the tradition of respect to the past of the people in general and to its brightest representatives in the field of politics, art and culture.
Any kind of turmoil and revolution, that is, violent, top the reforms and restructuring may lead to a decrease in the overall interest in the culture of verbal behavior to the negation of every authority. The negative consequences are of a complete rejection of all that has been achieved in the period between 1917 and 1990. in Russia and, more broadly, in the USSR, are still being felt. For example, the names of TV programs in July 2002, made a special emphasis on the words "Russian" and "Russian", thus creating a model of perception, working on certain patterns of consciousness: the public people, the people against criminal Russia, Russian lotto Russian roulette, Russian extreme. On the other hand, the past also turned out not to promise anything positive: the former Union, the Union of the former Ukraine, the Russian secret etc. Against this background neutral "All Russia", "Serve the Russian" found themselves in the minority and do not carry a positive charge. In general we can say that instead of bringing up and propagandizing slogans came entertaining popularizing unobtrusive rest and offering other models of behavior, non-verbal rather than verbal: Commissioner Rex, Inspector Derrick, Nash Bridges, Commissioner Moulin replaced the thinking and reasoning of Holmes and Hercule Poirot.
The main function of the media is still a replication of the behavior leading politicians, government officials and heads of state media as a particular national traditions, national values, at the same time offering something different, to remain in the memory of his generation in the history of the whole.
In the history of Britain, Winston Churchill left such a mark. He is now the opinion polls among the ten most outstanding people in the country's history. His talent politician, writer, and historian was awarded the Nobel Prize. In May 1940, in his speech to the nation, he formulated the tasks of the British Empire:
- You ask, what is our policy? I will say: it is to wage war, by sea, land, and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us: to wage war against a monstrous tyranny... You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: Victory - victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, however long and hard the road may be: for without victory there is no survival. Let that be realized: no survival for the British Empire; no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for... At this time I feel entitled to claim the aid of all, and say, «Come, then, let us go forward together with our united strength».
Let us pay attention to the words of this speech, which sounds kind of refrain:
- Вы спрашиваете, в чем заключается наша политика? Я отвечу: вести войну на море, на земле, в воздухе. Вы спрашиваете, в чем наша цель? Я могу ответить одним словом: победа - победа любой ценой, победа, невзирая на весь ужас войны, на весь долгий и тяжкий путь, ибо без победы нет спасения. Пусть это будет всем ясно: нет спасения для Британской Империи и всего того, что Британская Империя отстаивала...
According to the British Prime Minister has repeatedly been used in all the textbooks on rhetoric. In this speech are the discursive elements: questions and answers, the syntax is simple to construct phrases are preferred according to the Anglo-Saxon origin. Numerous repetitions and parallel structures allow you to pass the whole emotional speaking - his speech is sincere and convincing.
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