ae eepx cceoa ce

p caoe pa eepx cceoa ce. ecc c , . "" . ee aoc a oa eo ocee.

21.03.2012
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Coepae

eee

1. p caoe pa eepx cceoa ce

1.1 Caoee pae eepx cceoa

1.2 ecca ca

2. eepe cceoa oeeceo ce

2.1 eepe cceoa

2.2 Pae eepx cceoa ce

aee

Cco epap

eee

cceoa, oce oopx axoc eep -- coop ocp, ca c pcae opeeex aec op oee a ocoe eo ooecoo oa, -- ooceo oa opac aapoo a.

epec oeecex ex eepo poeae aco ca c ace opoc pocccoo oeca occoec epo c e e ea. aop, ecoo, a, o cec, a a , oee oe p.

epe aop oa c c o o aoc p occe aeop paaecoo poa. peee ooe pe eceo oeo o pax oe opoa e aeop poa caa coo-ceaeca, apoaac a cooece ppoo ooeco aeop sexus c paaeco aeope genus. Copo coo-ceaeco oe ca, o paaec po o o e ppoo aoc -- a e paoo oa. Xo o pe a eeppoaoc aeop poa ooeco peaoc pe aceo e coaa, e o ee o ecoeo c ppooo oa paaecoo poa. oea ocoaac a x ocoeocx ooecoo e -- ae apooope. Coo-ceaec oe peca ee, oaae opooe e a c (epep, p, . o p.), o peopeeo ee eoe ococo ceco oca. p o opaae a ce ae ocoeco, o oce cpaceco opoaoc aeop poa cceoae cooa co eoo o. o peo oe oeooc eppea aeop poa: co po oaac epocee -a pca ea, oocc e, cea c, aoc, ep. ea ecoo poa, apo, xapaepoac accoc, oeoc.

e ao pao - oaa pae eepx cceoa ce, peoaae cee aa:

- pa a oee pecaee o eepe;

-aepecoa aee o ooceo oo opac aapoo a, aeeo eo e, x aepecoaoc aoo poa poeax c;

- ace pa caoe eepx cceoa;

ea o pao, a ceo, oe aaa, .. o ooceo oa opac aapo a, oopa ocaoo ao paaec. o poeao oe aepecoa a, oo a ce o cao c ao oc, eo xapaepo oa, opaca, oca ..

1. aoee pae eepx cceoa ce

1.1 Caoee pae eepx cceoa

Caoee ecoe pae eepx cceoa ce pxoc a ocee ece XX ea, o cao co ceo ao apa aapx aax o e ocoepcco oco.ooe oae poecco aeopa, oa o pa oeo c, epec ceo, aco eoea, pae ox eop oc, acoc eop coaoo ocpa, pe epecop ax po e aeop oc, opac o, eppepoaxc paee a ooec eeppoae.

o oxo opeoa pee oo epoo, oee oo cooece eoooec caoa cceoaee, o cao po ee aoe ocae epa eep paoo oep oeceo ocppe xapaep oa, eo oeoaoc, coaoc paoaoc. o oxo ececeo cpoa ee cecx exao poe eepa e oa. o e apae oaaa ex ecca pa a, oop p cceoaee ooc oo cocax ocoepcco oco.

pae popea a peo a aaeo ceco oopo aapx aax -- cop, cooo, apooo p. p ao oxoe paccapaec a cpeco oca a o ececx eoeax. Cea a a oe opeoaa ox eoo, c oopx oocc, acoc, oe-aa, opaece eo, cxoaaec aa eca (a epeea), aao-pcec aa eca, appaa ceoa, pec aa cpca p. oc oe co aaa: o cceoa xoeceoo eca ee pxo, c oo copo, e eecx aoo eo opoco, pe poeccoax cooec, e, cp, ax p -- c po -- oca pax o coao oa, oaoce o p apae, e oopx -- oee opa o oope cee.

aae cceoae eoxoo eo oa ceee: cceoae eepa ce apec a ecox eoooecx pax, oope oo pae a e p. epa oocc o ooe eepoo oxoa aapx aax ec oe c, cxoo, cooo p. a aapoo a. a pa po opaae copee a oooec aeopa cac eepa: Oeae p aaa eepa.

eep - po pa p oeca, coaoa paoa , ceoaeo, ee ooce xapaep; paec oeoao coc. a o coop ocp, eep ae e o pee. eep ec aapx cax oeao aeope; p eepoo oxoa pe o acoax c, o o peaoac c eo ce p ocpece eoo aoo aoo apae. cece p aaa eepa eep aecpec e ec apaepo epeeo ecoc oao oe. po-coec xapaep eepa ocoae ooee eepo eaop, ope a e, a pe eaop.

cceoa eepoo acea cooecx ox coce peece x aa a e a. e eepx aceo a oa pec cece eo. oco ca ae paoopae opac (cxoc, cooc, opoo ..), coc eo x apae.[4,C112]

poe oo, ceca eepoo - ooe aoe apaee, oopo coce ceece ep oo ooo apae, o ec eocaoa papaoaoc ooo aapaa aeop. oa aa ca axoc poecce pao cocex, pcx oo e eoo peo cceoa. ece c e, paoa oeeco ao oe, ee pe a opao eo aaa, papaoae cecx cceoa, oc, oao, a px ax c - a opocex (cxoc, cooc p.), a px aapx a (cxoo, cooo, cop, epapoee ..). ooe ae oe oeo a ce a, a ae eo paca p ecapoo cceoa ( oco a oeac p ca pa: acoaa (capa aa), cceoa a ce a ecape cceoai).

O ceceex aopo e eepx aceo a oa ec ceo peooee poeo eppea eepa. cecoe cceoae ocppoa eceoc eceoc oo a ce oea, ao oa o opeee ec , - coc oopaa oeca. ae poc pecae e oo eaoe ocae oooce cce a pae eepoo oea, o o a, o aoe ocae e oo oppoa ocoeoc ooo aa, oopo aoec epe a coce:

1) aeop eceoo pa;

2)cee aeop, pce oe cxoo eoeecoo oa;

3) paaece aop, o ec o, o cao c eeapae cooae a eoeeco eeoc;

4) ooe e aa - ea oo cce.

a opao, oa coacoaa oa ox aapx c oe eepa coceo eop a. aece eaoxoa eepx cceoax peeceocp (eocp). Coap p XX eaopeee eocp a oco cpae o ooe ec, a ce oopeeo eo ecp, eo peocp. ep . peo pac oco a eppa a epeo xaeepocoo epa ecp.

ep . apec a eppa coec ae po cxox cceoa o oco, oo cccoa.C . coco o, o ca eppea eca, ocaa e eooeoc cceoae o ooe ec, paec ecocoeo. cceoae eec aoe e cceoaee eco.a oeae .ep, "eocp - poecc, xoe oopoo ce, o caec oooec aa ppoo, paoaaec a p ocp.

aae coep ap c eeo pape, e-cp, ae oe ocpoe, o-cp.

e ca oo ooe pa oceoc, xapaep eocp. ap c paa eoae paooo opca o eocp o e pe coep ocoaoe oae eoooc ooc e x o".

aao ao pa op eoooec po caa eppeaca eocp eepa, oaea a aa paox apx oo, oopx eocopo ep peee a pepoaoe ooee, opa pae a aoe e ooee co copo paocopoeo epa, o oopoo o ac. e aaa ec coco e o, o oe eca eoc apo oo, a copee o, o ap o x poocoe, pepoa x ooe.

Oao peaa pa eocp e oe ooc e papao acoao eo e eepa. poe oo, e po pae ecap xapaep, o e ae, oao, c paa peepea cec cpea aaa. a poea pe, e , a ee aoc opaae oceee pe ae ce oee oeco aopo.

oop o eepx aceax a, e cae epe eoxooc opee oca oeaa o "o" cpeca eo cecoo opae a pax pox a. e eee aa aaa cao eco eepoo oea eoco ape pa, a ae opaee e cepeoo, cax c oo. cae, ec ccec eepe ocoeoc pa o, eeo epoe cpaee, aoc cpooc oopoo ocaec oceee pe aeoe co ax pao. oco eepe ace a eco ca a c acooe, a c opo ceo, poo oaaec eoa e px oa, pecax coo cce cceoaecx poep, apaex a oceee pax copo oeo ao p.

oeec aa px oa (xo o ooec a px a) pee ceo peoaae ee oace, e eoxoa ceca oee, oopo cooec opeeee eo, ep oepe aee, cepe opac aa. aepa cceoa apaec e coo op ececx paeooecx e, peeex eco coape, copo oco ooopo, eco xoeceo epap, cpec accoo opa. eoxoo ae, peee ax accoax coape, ocpoex a ocoe peao cxocecoo cepea.

1.2 ecca ca

o opo ooe XX ea oee ox coao-ococx eop pocxoo apaeo c eopaae aaoo oeca. Ceeca peo 1968 oa, aa ea cococoa copeo pacpocpae eoo pa e. x c oocc ocoae coao-po ocoeoc oa, "ooe ecoe ee" CA, cee op c apapxao, cpoao aoe occee eepo oe aeo cee cococoao ee pacpocpae ex oeco op.

C oa 60-x oo XX ea oa (a opao CA epa) oae apaee, aaoe ecco po a, ecco co. o apaee cece ceo, o oee eeo coco, po aaoo aa aapcc ca, oa caac paae epe, oe oopx ocec e oepc oepc aco. ecca ca oepa pe a eo apoepoc, . e. opepoaoc e a eoea ooe, a a . oe cece -- cpa o pa oa, oopo oepac e. cpa paaec peoaa cx op e, opoc oeoc e, coae o ox ax o eoe a , peoaa ooaex e eax oeo ... pecae eccoo apae epa ae, o o ec opee aopo oa.

ecca ca opo pooaaa co oec aapoaoc cpeee e oo cp ce apapxaa cec a, o peooe x, peoppoa . ocoe pacce eaa oea ceco ooceoc Cepa-opa: cpppe apae ee, oo coae eoea aeo epe opeeec ocoeoc a. ecca ca peoa oocee peoea o peoppoa a.

Ceo oo oop o cecoa coceo eepx cceoa, ax oa oa, a oee -- poecc coaoo ocppoa pa e oa. eep caec coaoa paoa coop ocpo -- o apaepo coao eoc a. Oecee c (ap, oa, epo . .) oepa pa, pa cac op eppep a ppoo ocoee.

Oecee pa ae coa eep acep -- oee, oceeo oxoe coe. eep a po p opaae pecae apoa o eceoc eceoc, acpoae oope, caax, pax , paeec, e. oeo coa pcc eepe cepeo - poee aocpee pecae o cocax aecax oo oa.

Aapcc a oceeo cec oee ee oxoo. ap c ee cpa e e o pe apae cceoa: coocecoe, cxocecoe, opooecoe ee eepa. Ocooe apaee coca ce cceoa (men studies), pae a oe a opoc, a ocppec oeco eceoc, ae eceoc cec ao pe aoe pe, a o caaec a oee e, ao op peoa a . .

cao oe ae cceoae eepa oa acaec x poe.

1. opaee e oa. e aoo oxoa coco oca oce oo, a aecpec e ae e paoo oa (ccec ep oepe oaa ccea, eco, cacc, aeop poa . .), ae oe pcac a ea ax ceaecx oacx o aoee aeo/oeo pae.

2. Peeoe eo oaoe oeee e, e ec e cpae a, eepo ceec op e ecoa, coco oce cexa oa, peoe ope ec, cacecx ocp . . -- . e. cea coo ecoo oope.

p e peeoo eo oaoo oee ae aec eep aop. Oao ocee o eo po e caec co paao, a o o a aao ae. eep paccapaec a o apaepo, p oo oopoo oe ocppec coaa eoc oopeo. a pao, o aoece c p apaepa -- caco, opaco, coao po . . ae oa e cooc eo oe cceoa eepa oa. Oo aoee ecx pao o oac ca p eop ae e poco e oae. e aoe. Aop aape oae ea oe paoo oa oce x pa peoa, pee oeco a ea, a ae ceo coaa eco opocoo opace, oa oee pocxo peeceo ooox pax. o oece x aopo e paaac pae o oee, pae cpae a oe. Peeoe oeee , a pao, aeeo a ocee coxpaee eacoc cooo caca. O e oeco oae eooc, coc, ooaoc. pa e, coaco oe . ae, pa ex oe eppea caa. O e e caa o eppepoac c o caca c o oepa aoc, coapoc oo.

pooc o e e pa, e o poocoac pa oa o-pao eppepoa coa coecea. apep, oaae oo oo cooa a poee coapoc peee aoc. o oo e oo ae a o, o ooa (-a) eocppe coe peocxoco aec opoa ooex. poe oo, ao pe cec pa pa oe, e oaoe e. a, o pe aco coo ae peocaec a. p ea co po aa.

o c . ae oop o eepee -- coao po ocoex ocoeocx oe e. eop eepea e aa oe oep ce, oao ao pa, o oe, papaoaa . ae, oaae oceo co, o e ceece coa opoc oo pa -- o epeee oee e a 30 o ocoo epeaec.

oo epec pecae cceoae eepa poeccoao oa. a, peae eo pao eex co o cceoa eepo ce poeccoaoo oe caoeo, o e oapa ee pa c ee oe. pee coaac c po, ae pea po, cca a aope, co ee peex cpec, paax eepeoc, peae poo eaee oee oeex epex cee coe paoe ceaco, . e. oee ceo oac a aaeoo caca cepa.[13,C.28]

2. eepe cceoa oeeceo ce

2.1 eepe cceoa oeeceo ce

ooee eepx cceoa oeeceo ce apec oo cepeo eocx oo XX ea. eo o epo poccco ao epape oc ep eep, oeeceo ae ca oc apee eopeece p o eepo poeae. Oeeceoe oae, oao, e oppoao poe oa, a paccapao ee (ee o ooe epa eep) paax px cecx c. cceoa e cce, e peeoa a cac aoo apae e ca c eope coaoo ocpa, o oeecee ee ec co a papao poea, oee oaeo eep cceoa.

Oea epa pocccx cceoa -- oe oee coao ocoeoc ox e, opaax aoc oa a, o, o ce oc, cao c ococo coec epo apccco eop. C opeeeo oe cooc oo opae oeepe cceoa a cee apae.

1. cxocece coocece cceoa, ae ocoeoc cex cx eco, opoex a ea, e ooopacx ocoeoce oopeo a poecc epao oa, eep ce ocp pe, oece aopa oa a oeee opao accoao cepee. aoc oee cex ococo ee. Aop p ce oa (oep, o o c peao oex, epoaax ae, pex aee papao.

eca epa ocpoe eca, cocea ea, -- ee xo paoopa ea, oop opoae ocaoa pe, ec, oope poo oope, . . a aopo, epeee ea cao e c oo e, a copee c xcoa, cee . . po, apep c po xo oa.

epeac eee, po eoop cxooec xo -- eac ocaeo eo, e peap a pe, c e e cae.

e ae ccac a o po pep opex cae oa aeo ope.

co pe oeac ae epoooc, cpeee ooc oa, oee coe e aopa poecc (caec, o oe oop o paoe), oa, o cpae c eco, ee cooa cpeccx, ocoeo ccec cex cpec, aepeoe opee pe.

epa eco pe aop ooc epooa cpeccoc (o oo; ooccaa pa; acca accceo) oee acoe cooae eoe a o!

Accoae o co eco pe cooece c pa paea ap pa: cop, oxoa, poeccoaa, oea cepa ( ) ppoa, oe, opa oe p ( e).

e aea ee eca, pee ceo ooeo oe. oee paeo co, opae oe, a ccec ce pa ec e.

aece aoo oa aop aa a occe pex epoxox pa e co eco pe pcco e. Oeee ocoeoc co eco pe opeec a ee opee. epe ca, oa e e e, oapee pe e, ca c ocoeoc xcxecoo caa, xapaepa, poecc, po coe, o e c pae o o. Xapaepo epo coeco, a ae poccco ceco eepoo oo aa paec apaeoc cceoa co eco pe: ooe oeco po cao c opeoc paceco cep. O cocpeooe a aoce caoe eaox pao co eco pe.

aoee aa oo a cceoa papaoa eo caoe a pe a poooooo oa. cec, a opao oo cao ca a a, ae pa eca oo cao aca. Oeo, o pee o aa eoxoo e eo eppe aop pao co eco pe. a, . . oo cae: o p o o ae a pe a poo oa, o cao, ao oec accaox pao (eaox xapaepc) eco co pe ec poc, aco cpeac eo oac a, a a paa opaa coee, o ocoeo poecca opoe pe e oe cpao, aacpoao.

Aop ee oec oepxocx x pao co eco pe. oepxoc oocc oeeoe ocae paeo eceoc, e paoo aec e: pooee , opea poeax o, oca, oaeo xoca (oepe, o p aoo paee pa e paccapac a epeeae), -- : peo ex, oa p p oo cecapx oox cpeo, ae copx oa . . ae pa o ooceo eo cacpoa.

O e pao a aop cae ae ece, cocaeo o a e (), xapaepc, oe epe opaax cxocece a co (eco) ceo pe. aop ooc:

ca cea pe:

-- cooae apecoo peoo apoa;-- acoe opeee ox co, ocoeo ex aee ocaa: oeo, ecoeo, oeo;

-- opeee ooo oeca acpax cecex;-- opeee p epeae ooaoo coco oe peea e co c aee ooao ecae; ooopae ececx peo p epeae o;-- coea oao ooao appoao ec p opae po ;

-- cooae aeo-cecx e;

-- opeee eepx co a ox (o, , ae) ooopae coex eepx co, a ae peoaae eepx e ocp, ooaax ec poecc, a ae peoaae aoo aoo aoa epexox;ecooece ao pea ooao aa pe.

eca cea pe:

-- ae oeca ox co, opeee, ocoec, ecoex oeax ooe, a ae oax ocp, paax pa cee eepeoc, peooeoc, eopeeeoc (oe , o-o, o- oe);-- cooc opee pecx, ccec oex op, e, o ec (ca co aoc peoc; pe paoop; c opoco);-- cooae ooao epax co pae, eo (eepo paac eco aepc; epeo e eco );

-- opeee oeox caa (co coocoea) c eec ecea eco aa a o e (a coo; oo);

-- oa opaoc pe p oca c, ooopae e xaea p oo cex ac, ape paaex ( aa e ; oe.. a ooeo; opa e..). ocoeoc opee oceo ec oop, o e aopa, o o, o ao xpaec a cc, occe cepoc ae, cocea co pe.

e, a pao,aea oooece xapaepc e:eoc,opac,cecaoc;

-- eax co acooc oapa oo (ecep xa, apa aaxo); peoaa paeca- cecee ao acco aoe (eo ao caooo; apa ee c pao a e a ae);

-- cooaco ec ae cooae ocp apee + apee (co eaoco; oe xopoo), pocx coocoex peoe, cacecx oopoo c o opae; acoe cooae ao a, coa ooaa opaca pe eo.

2. ee aeoa ecoo coo oa, aeop poa cax c e poe peepe. epec cocoa oa paoo oa aeop poa a aoo ee oe op: coooee aeop paaecoo poa cpaceco aeop o paccapaoc paax opoo,paa, ecoo.

eco ececeoo a, eo oaa ccea ec o aex oeo eepx cceoa. eca aeo oeco pao, ocex a aeoa , a aeoa ecoo coo oa. aoee aco pec p . A. o-po, oopo oeaec, o ocoecoe pe peoe oa a c eo oa (pec/ peca), a oce peo oece cpc oceeo epee peeceo opee op coo poa o ooe oo oa.

poe oa eo opae e paccapae . A. poa; aeop poa opoc ee cooeceoc c aeope oa cceo oceae A. . axa. axpx paoax poc ae o eax cecex, ooaax coo ecoo oa, paccapac xpocxoee: pe ooe ccee a c c e co eoc, poecc eaopa o aoc c aeope poa, e cpacecx aopo a pae cce aeoa ecoo oa, cop pa ax aeoa, aeop poa.

Paccopee aax poe oaoc o ecco ocao opoca oe oeco epaoc, oee cece eo pacecx poecco (aao, oeecx aooepoce . .). ece c e o e opp cpacec ocoeoc ooe pa oa, ocoeo ooae ecoo oa.

C cepe 90-x oo XX ea oeeceo aapo ae aaec poe pae coceo eepx cceoa. epoaao eepa poeaa ea oox ex. cecx pax cceoae oecc e c oo oe cea, o, ooo, cao c epe ecco cocae. a aao ae aoo ocoe eepo poea cceoa paac eepepoao, epe a ex axoc oeeoooece opoc acoc oooec cac eepa. copeeo oeeceo ae aaec ooe paoopae eoooecx caoo e eepa, ocxoee pao oa coc cccx copoo o -- cooeepccoo oxoo.

epoaao cceapoac oe apex ex, ocac oooc pee pa apex eoo eo a aepae pccoo a,copac ooac aepa oeecex cceoa, oocxc eepo poeae. paaa ceaa aeop poa ca eo pa ccepaox cceoa. aeop poa pcco e oepac ae cxoceco aa. coa, pocxoo occee oa e oo a ppooo, o a oeoaoo eoea. oece aoo oxoa coppoa oe p eepx cceoa, ae oopx -- pae oeoaoc eepa, eoaoo poec pax px ox cooecax a pax aax xpa.Ceo oo epa,o poccco oa cooc coceoe, ecoo ooe o aax ee, aoe apaee o e eepx aceo a oa -- ceca eepoo, eepa ca.Ceeco o oe c oee aeoo oeca a, o eepo poeae o aepae e oo aax, o pccoo px o, paee e oepaxc aa c eepo o pe.

O pao pee o ceco eepoo a caocoeoo aoo apae oo ca oee pa pao eoooecoo xapaepa, oopx ocae opoc o pee eepoo oxoa oe epo oa, paccapac poe papao oeax oxoo e eepa ce, coppoa acoae aa cceoa eepx aceo a oa epce aeeo aoo oca. ae cooc pecae o ocoeco, o paoo eepe cepeo oaa oece a coae cceoae, pe cae a eppea ax. apep, caapoe pecaee o o, o e oee ooa, e , po o, o o e e op peeoo oee eppepc a epae, a e -- a ooae. pep aoo poa oo poo. ce cece cceoa eepa aoocoe aoooe, e e eee, oo e ecoo ocox apae pa ceco eepoo poccco oa:

* coo-cxocecoe,

* opooecoe,

* oao-cpcoe.

paax coo- cxocecoo apae pooac ece cceoa pccoo ooo coa, cex cx eco, o ce pao acee. oac cxocecx cceoa aoee po poec oea o opoc o pae ppooo: coaoo cceoa aoc a oa. oe cxoc pa aece paoe oe oao acep oa, oepa pa ceaa oap coo ecoo oa.

paax opooecoo apae ec pao o e ce pccx cepeoo eoc acoc xopoa e, cceoa ocoeoce opae pcc o px oeo eceoc eceoc eepo eaop (o oopo oaec epeecee ce coooc coc, pcaex po eceoc eceoc, a pee e, c oo e cae, -- a, Pocc aae XX ea ocaac eoop epoec ocoa epax eceoc), epo oa, a ae coocaee cceoa a aepae pccoo px o.[5,C.56]

Oeecee cceoae poe a eepa e oo a opoc o eepx cepeoax acepx,ocoex apoepoc coax ooe.

oee pe cceoa ae oo cea o o o, o, o pae epe, eoopx ax apoep e pae co oeo, o ee eco oee poe poee oeeoeecoo (eaeepoo) po, o eae eoxo coae ao oe oca eoea e, oopa ooa oxa a eaeep poe, a poe acoc eoc (coceo eep), a ae cceoa xcoooee.

Cece a papao opooecoo apae eooo eepx cceoa eca coac ococo ocapceo ceco epcee aa oa, ee oopo epe eppoa p oe,oox epeocc pae ooe eepo eop, o cao oo aoap e pccoo eoopx px o.a,coppoao ooee o epao cee apoepa pax o p, aec xapaep cecoo ocppoa eepa eo acoc o a cpca coax apaepo oa, eopeec oocoao oepeo cepeao ae eepx ooeo ecx pecae.

o cepe pooc a aepae 62 ae, ocoo cepee p ace 1079 pecoeo. p aae pea a c pcc, pcca pee ceo opaae a ce ae oee ooea oea pcco, e pccoo.Pea pecoeo ooeo oa oep cecoae a aaeoo a o pcco ee. peax a c pcc coa acooc ec, oocec ee aoo.opooece cceoa ocex e eocpp, o poccc c eep epece ae oee pooo cceoa eaoc, opo ce.

paax oao cpcoo apae eec ee cecoo ocppoa eepa oao aoec o pax ax cpca, peeoo oee e c o eop coao eoc, oao aaa epaoa. oeceoc eoc oeo eceoc eceoc eae oo a o cpcax accoo oa, apep peao, oeco.

cceoa pocccoo peaoo cpca eepe cepeo, oope coc a cpe epea opa o oee peapoa o coao eceoc.Aa poccco pea oae, o, ecop a o epaa eepoo aopa, copeeo peao cpce pocxo ocppoae opaa e oo peax epcoae, o caoo oea peapoa, cooec c pao pecae o coao po e.

cceoae cpca pecc a aepae2-xxpoooecx cpeo (coeca ea pax oo poccca pecca eocx oo XX ea) oaao, o aaee copeex C pe pepeea oa paax cpcx pa, eex . o (cepa eaa ecoo opaa, eaoa oa, peea, coaa pooeo ooco acee, cxapa paeoo ooc), e e eca paac cao peoeo coeco oeceo cpce, oopoo xapaep ae eepe acep.

aoee ao pecaec c aopa o o, o e e copo px oeo eceoc eceoc aapc acoc o cpacecx aopo: copecoo epoa, coaoo aaa, eoo.Aop pxo eo e, o pa oex coo/ecoo peeoo oee poc epepo eep e ec opee aopo oa.

o e pe opeeex cax peeoo oe e eepa poec peoe ox peo peeoo oee opoa px.p o oepaec, o epeecee oeeecx cepeoo oo cep oe p oe e eooae ocec. eepe ace eepaoo oaoo oee ae a epec cceoaee. caoeo, o a eepa ceo eepaoecocoeoc ex oec p, oop e paea.

Opae epaeoo pcc aeop eep e pe (oa) -- oo aoee ax oce ceco eepoo ocex e.

p e oa, peeoo oee px eoeo, cax c oopee, ee pa eep aa apaepo, .e. aopo, poc c eoaoo ecoc, o o ooo eo ceoe.

Ceoaeo, oaa ca oe oaa ooe oece a cpc, o oepae epa ppo ocppoa eoc.

o ee oocc ae pac oo cceoa a ae ecco eooo. a pao, ae pao oce paoae cppx cpp pccoo a, aa apapxax cepeoo. O oepp oe cec oc o ox cax oe oeec xapaep. aaeeco cpee ae p oep e cpea.

oo po oeecex cceoaee eoxoo oe p pao apex pcco, paccapax pcc c o pe opae e eepa. a pao, xocaec coooee cpaceco aeop o ceco aeop po, a ae cae caopoc peepe. a, . oea pxo ae, o pea oo c e ooe o cex cax pea peoea ecco c o oec oppeo opee a, oaae, o pece o ec e oo occe opo o oopx, o p cecx p.

pe eo oo c, . oea cae opooece (cppe) aooepoc c opeee a, oaa e ca, o pee aooepoc oo cce e o cex cax o peoppoa.

ao ocoe ee, aaee ceco eepoo. e paccope apae e ex pa, o ocoeo ecap xapaepo eepx cceoa. Oao poceaec oee ea apaeoc e eepx aceo a oa, oopa aee oe coppoac oee opac cceoa eepa a a aepae pccoo a, a px o, paee eepo acee e paccapaxc.

Aa ax po ocex e ceece o poce epeca eep cceoa xeco coaa ooe ocapoa eoc eoopx paeo oo cce; ee e peeoo oe axoc oa a aao ae.

aoee aa aeeo cceoa ooc e p poe. ep p coca opoc, cocpeooee a e ceco aoc eepoo oxoa oa.

* o ooo oc cecoe ocae eep oxo, ae oe ae o e eo opoa o ooe o?

* ae cpeca a coc ocppoa eepo eoc? ax ax eca cpca o pocxo c aoe cee ecoc? Oeo ac papoaa peeaoc aoo ocppoa?

* aoa po eepo eaop pax ax cpca, eocpeceo c oo e cax?

* ae opae aaae eep aop a opeee ox e?

a opae cpc ecopaecx pxopax pax? a eec ocae cea c c oee ox ax? oc opae aco xapaep?

* ao cee oo ca eep cooceco aeope, ae ee cceoaecx poepax ee a coo epexo o pca eep caca cooceco aeop paccope eo a apaepa epeeo ecoc?

* a xapaepooece ocoeoc a aoec cocppoae eepo eoc (cococ ee aea oa ee)?

* ae ceoece cce, ap c o, ac coa eepo eoc a o aoec? o oo ocppoa eepo eoc aoee cao, a o oepeo oee cp ee?

* a cooocc eaeep eep po paax ooo a coocae c p a? a paaec coepae oeo eoc acoc pax ax pax? opa pa oee opoc, apaee a caoee po cpaceco peaoc poeccax ooo ocppoa eepa xae.

* a e aa pa coaa peaoc a oxo e eepx aceo a oa?

* a cpacece aopoeca ecoc ocppoa eepa?

* a eec ocppoae eepa axpo? ae ae cceoa eaoc ao p ee opae e ae eep oxo?

* a oece epa oa a ocppoae eepo eoc? ae ee oo o oac aoa aaaxee? a po pa o poecce eepe ooe ecx pecae?

* a opaac pa cac poecc oaa a eepo apaepe oc?

* ae oe ee pocxo o e ox oce a oac opoa, pepo oe ee cpaopopao eopoe?

* aoa cee cxeco aoacoc e ceco aeope poa cpaceco aeope oa pax ax pax?

2.2 Pae eepx cceoa ce

ee aoc a oa eo ocee oo pae a a epoa, peo oopx c 60-e o aeo ea: 1) epepe ( e cae co ce aa) cceoa, ocoae a opao a aex papoex ao; 2) pooacae cceoa c 60-x oo, ocoee poco epeca paaeco ace oa, pae cooc cece ee paoo pacpeee cx ecx poe oece.a opao, co coao peaoc cpaopoac a ao pa a, o oepaec a . opeaa, coaeo o aoee aeax po o po eepoo aopa pa oeca, e aa eec c o ecapoo oxoa.

ap o coo-ceaeco oee aeco ope o, oopx aeop poa occe. e e eee, paax p o oe oceeoo ece ee opooec cacec ocee aeop poa ee ocaaoc pae oo, o aeop poa caa cocoa a eoeecoe ocpe cooecx co o.

a, epcoa pcae oea, ooaae coa ecoo poa, coca ecoo oa, a oea cpeeo coo poa -- coca coo oa. a, o a P. ocoa, pcce peca cee ee cooec c poo coa.

p o oeoe coae e aaec o o, o ocoo po coa -- ceaa, cacc opoo. ce o ooe peoo, o paaec po e oaae e a ocpe eceoc ape coa pe, cae c oeo ooecoo oa, -- o ceceo -- ace oppoa ooex opaex ooa.

cceoa ocex e oepa o a. Ce co cceoa eepoo aopa e cao ope XVII . oecx epox o, e eo eco paeee a co ec apa ae oocoee ce ece .

Cooe o ax ax copaec oc c 1664 ., o cceaecx cceoa o e poooc.O cex eoocex oca: eepo apaoc o o, o co apa paccapac a coceo , a ec -- a ooee o eo. Cpoo oop, pe a e o co eco ax, a oo o ecx.

aae aeo ea ea o pea ae .aepa O.Ecepcea. aoac o pee opa o pax e c c oo eo ocee apoo, axoxc ca epooo pa, pe o o-ocoo A aea co ocoo a c o oooc eepx pa oax ax Epo.

1913. e oce pe a p aepa, oopo o pae eepe pa e, oocoa xcoa copec pa.

Aap oa pax coax cox, aop p ocoeoce coo ecoo peeoo oee, cao, o cpee apx paox eopa ec ope . ce e oece pea cceoc, pooc oope oooc ea, o o ex op, oa xecec xapaep e paac. o aep, e eee opaoa oo cpec e cooa ocpae coa, oa a opaoae xe ope, coco a ae poo e. aep cae, o opecoe cooae a - pepoaa , a e coco co coaae a .

ooee ecoo a aep cae c copec pa aoo eapa, e epoaao ece po co . c oee a cee e exe paap poo ee, ae oooc aa eco apa a. copec oxo pe aopa o o o, o oeco ocpo ec oa, oa ea ooeo o ca, o ceece ooecepaopaoo ooe oo a o coaa. o a oa ocaoa opoca, a a paee coae ace eepo apaoc a e ac.

1922 . O.Ecepce oc e a aeaoo pa o pocxoe pa a ocoeoc eco oo oee.O opaae ae a o, o e ope , ee , ec, oee co ea eee paeca.

o Ecepce, e ocepa opee a, o cppec a pepe cooec pao pxopoax p, e coxpaec poo oopeeo caaec o. p o e ae ocac ooa, a cpee caa o . Oao e aoc, o ee ocpaoo a a o pooao eoxooc paoa occ a oo e. peax oae, oee ao, cpee e ao eoxooc e oao. a caceco poe e, o ae Ecepcea, peoa ece ocp apaacc, oa a pe ae cpeac epo oacc, e Ecepce ae oee co oe a o ocoa eae o o ceo peocxoce .[47,C.2]

Xo Ecepce aoee oo coeo pee eppepoa opoc ooeceepoo aopa, eo ope oce epo oepac pe c c e, o co o o cea, ocoac a x aex, oe oopx e ocaoo oocoa. eo ep epo e eepoo aopa e xapaepec 2-ocoeoc:

a) cceoa oc epep xapaep axoc a epep c;

) xoe oca ocoeoce co eco oo oee coppoaac oe eoc軫ecoo a o ooe co.opo paac co , a ooee o op -- ec.


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